Addressing 'problem behaviour' in the early years: an innovative film resource

Lead Research Organisation: Manchester Metropolitan University
Department Name: Faculty of Education

Abstract

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

Publications

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Holmes R (2013) Flesh, Wax, Horse Skin, and Hair The Many Intensities of Data in Cultural Studies ? Critical Methodologies

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Holmes R (2015) My tongue on your theory: the bittersweet reminder of every-thing unnameable in Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education

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Jones L (2011) Children and objects: affection and infection in Early Years

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MacLure M (2010) Animating classroom ethnography: overcoming video-fear in International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education

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MacLure M (2012) Becoming a problem: behaviour and reputation in the early years classroom in British Educational Research Journal

 
Title Becoming a Problem: young children and behaviour 
Description During a recent ESRC-supported project, Becoming a 'Problem': How Children Develop a Reputation as 'Naughty' in the Earliest Years at School, the project team developed a prototype film that presented the issues identified during the project in an innovative way. A final version of the film was developed with further funding from ESRC, with input from expert users including parents, early years practitioners, teacher educators, student teachers, policy makers and Local Authority Children's Services personnel. The film is accompanied by additional video and downloadable materials, to support discussion of the issues raised in the film. The film aims to help viewers examine and challenge their pre-conceptions about young children and behaviour. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact The film continues to be used across the UK and internationally. 
URL https://vimeo.com/53601049
 
Title Becoming a problem : young children and behaviour 
Description A film for professionals, practitioners and parents interested in understanding and tackling problem behaviour in the early years at school. The film is accompanied by video materials to support group work or training. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact This film and associated resources has been used by colleagues in the UK and internationally. 
URL http://vimeo.com/22233999
 
Description User responses

The film was successful in stimulating questions about children and behaviour, and helping viewers to examine their existing preconceptions. Many respondents described an affective engagement, in words such as 'haunting', 'sad', 'sombre', 'sinister', 'disturbing'. This did not necessarily mean that the film was felt to be unsuccessful - some respondents found it, for those very reasons, 'powerful', 'emotional', 'unsettling in a good way'. The film also had cognitive impact, in helping interviewees think about particular issues, or relate the film to their own experiences: eg 'It made me think about how children's creativity can be interpreted as naughty'; 'it makes you think differently - outside the box'. There was diversity of views on certain issues such as: the need for greater 'structure' or explication; whether the film was too directive, or by contrast unclear in its message; whether the artistic qualities of the video were a strength, or might diminish the seriousness of its message. Rather than attempting to arbitrate, diverse views were incorporated where possible into the accompanying multi-user resource, as a way of further opening up questions. The film was generally felt by respondents to hold strong potential for use in pre-and inservice training for professionals and policy makers involved with young children and behaviour, and also as a stimulus to cross-professional engagement.



Production of final version of the film

The prototype film was re-edited and developed using Final Cut Pro editing software. User group responses informed all aspects of its development. Amendments were made in order to address: accessibility/comprehensibility; style, balance and range of views and voices represented; ethical practices in representations of children; copyright, where permission could not be obtained or was too costly. Amendments included: changes to duration, placement and style of text and images; minor changes to soundtrack; removal/substitution of images and clips; blurring or cropping of images.



Multi-user support materials

The accompanying materials are intended to be scalable, for use in small groups through to larger, multi-professional training sessions. It was important to build in flexibility, as respondents varied in the extent to which they felt the need for framing or structure. Users may therefore access the materials according to their interests and individual contexts, in the form of downloadable files when the film is accessed via the Internet, and as additional 'chapters' in the DVD version. The materials are organised thematically around five key themes: 'What counts as problem behaviour? 'What is a normal child?', 'Difficult bodies', 'Parents' and 'Observing and Monitoring'. Each theme comprises of relevant clips and images from the main film, accompanied by orienting questions, and additional visual and textual content.



Additional downloadable materials include: worksheets for each theme; a short outline of the project and the aims of the film; a summary of user responses to the film; a summary of this report; a summary of the original 'Becoming a Problem' project; a list of publications.
Exploitation Route The film and materials have been commended by a Local Authority Director of Children's Services as a cross-professional resource, and we would anticipate their use in the provision of in-service training sessions. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services teams could use the film in a multi-professional training initiative with

teachers, particularly with a focus on children's social and emotional development. The film and resources could be incorporated into initial training and in-service programmes in HE and FE institutions, and could be included in Continued Professional Development Partnership offers. The film could also be used to raise awareness of issues concerning behavior and views of children amongst older school students. For instance as discussion material for teaching sessions. We anticipate that the film and resources can be adopted for use by an expanding range of professionals and groups who work with young children and/or behaviour and emotional development, and to be of particular value in cross- and multi-professional development. We expect to see it in use in training sessions by individual schools and consortia, Children's Services, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, and initial and in-service training modules on behaviour and classroom management.



The project and film can contribute to public information and education about children and childhood, and to be of documented interest to parent groups, policy makers and the wider public.
Sectors Education

URL http://www.esri.mmu.ac.uk/resprojects/project_outline.php?project_id=127
 
Description Project findings: (a) innovative materials can overcome stereotypes and received opinions about children and behaviour; (b) affective engagement (hearts as well as minds) can be a prompt for reflection and change; (c) well-constructed, creative materials are usable by diverse constituencies. Related outputs: The film 'Becoming a problem: young children and behaviour' and associated materials. DVD and Project Website The film and associated materials are available as a DVD and online on the project website as a downloadable resource: http://www.esri.mmu.ac.uk/resprojects/project_outline.php?project_id=133 Further research projects 'The Secret Life of Objects: an artist residency in an early years classroom' (AHRC 2009 - 2010). This project grew out of the growing commitment to art as provocation in theory and practice. Cross-professional, pre- and in-service training In January and February 2012, we are working with the Head of Behaviour for Learning and Inclusion Service, Children, Learning and Economic Services in Tameside and the Enterprise Director, Vauxhall Neighbourhood Council in Liverpool to generate cross- and inservice professional training opportunities with a range of their children's services teams, including Behaviour Leads in schools, Behaviour and Attendance Partnership and liaise with the Youth and Family Teams, CAMHS and Home School Support. Professional journal articles We are currently writing articles about the film and user support package for two national magazines that reach out to a range of early years professionals: Nursery World (submission January 2012) and Early Years Educator (submission May 2012). The significant societal impacts and demonstrable effects of this project beyond academia and into the practice arena relate to: a) generating new understandings of, and affective engagements with young children and behaviour A new way to reflect on cross-professional, practice-based issues The film offers an alternative way for professionals to think about their own practice(s) - 'It makes you think about how other children think about naughty children' (Social Worker), 'It makes you think - is it really that simple as the (policy) documents are suggesting?' (Teaching Assistant); 'It made me question if education is a way of controlling children' (Teacher). Promoting affective engagement in the issues of young children and behaviour The film provokes affective responses to young children and behaviour that unsettle preconceptions - 'The film would make teachers emotionally engage' (Social Worker); 'I imagine that everyone finds it an unexpected experience, so we're all wrong-footed at the same time' (former senior policy adviser, General Teaching Council for England). b) contribution to training of a diverse range of user groups and organisations The film promotes the creative use of materials to support the cross-professional training of a range of practitioners working with young children across education, health and social care, 'I think the film has huge potential across children's services, social workers, early years practitioners in children's centres, youth workers the lot I see it as being scalable, from being used in a small staff meeting through to larger, multiprofessional training sessions' (Local Authority Director of Children's Services).
First Year Of Impact 2010
Sector Creative Economy,Education
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description International Centre for Arts and Cultures of Childhood (ICACC) 
Organisation Manchester Metropolitan University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution ICACC has transdisciplinary membership across research institutes and academic departments at Manchester Metropolitan University UK, University of Salford, UK, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, Monash University, Australia, Appalachian State University, USA, Penn State University, USA, University of North Texas, USA and University of Capte Town, South Africa. The partnership includes academics and practitioners in art history, Maori cultural inquiry, post-colonial studies, social anthropology, cultural studies of children and childhood, public health, art and design, aesthetics and the humanities. The main objective of ICACC is to bring the study and practices of the arts and cultural inquiry into productive encounter with childhood studies, and thereby to open up new questions and possibilities for thinking, research and practice. The impetus for establishing the Centre came from the arts-based research of Rachel Holmes during the present project. ICACC organised an exhibition at the Summer Institute in Qualitative Research, MMU, 18-22 July 2011. See http://www.esri.mmu.ac.uk/siqr/exhibition11.php
Start Year 2011
 
Description Objects, Spaces and Learning 
Organisation Manchester Metropolitan University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution International Symposium, ESRI, MMU/Deakin University Australia
Start Year 2011
 
Description 'Ungrounded Theory and Unfounded Practice: Making a Nuisance of New Sense with Philosophies and Practices of Difference' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience
Results and Impact Workshop based on film developed during the project, held at the International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois, 2010
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity
 
Description Exploring the Construction of Childhood Distress Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This seminar day offered an opportunity to reflect on the idea and the images underpinning childhood distress. The aim throughout was the opening up of a critically minded space within which to consider how childhood distress may be considered, understood and engaged with. That is, the sessions throughout the day encouraged the suspension of existing knowledge to create the establishment of a critical mindset which fosters the maintenance of an unwavering sense of wonder and curiosity.

Network between academics and practitioners around young children and behaviour was established.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012
URL http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/polopoly_fs/1.247504!/file/22ndMarchprogramme.pdf
 
Description Naughty Children Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience
Results and Impact The aim of this workshop is to explore the ways in which the idea of 'naughty children' works as a social and cultural motif in particular settings and to consider the consequences that this has for children themselves.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity