Transforming knowledge for upland change

Lead Research Organisation: University of Aberdeen
Department Name: School of Geosciences

Abstract

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

Publications

10 25 50

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Clay G (2010) Carbon budgets of an upland blanket bog managed by prescribed fire in Journal of Geophysical Research

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Clay GD (2011) Charcoal production in a UK moorland wildfire--how important is it? in Journal of environmental management

 
Title Look again music video 
Description Music video and live performance 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact Played at numerous conferences and workshops, including international IUCN conference where it was credited with helping get peatlands onto their international work programme 
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMDgoQNIjZA
 
Title Look again song 
Description Song about research project 
Type Of Art Composition/Score 
Year Produced 2010 
Impact Live performances of the song have occurred at a number of events across the UK to raise awareness about peatlands and our research 
URL http://sustainableuplands.bandcamp.com/track/look-again-full-version
 
Title Making Good Ideas Infectious: a film about knowledge exchange 
Description A film about making good ideas catch on, to make the world a better place. Share your ideas with us at www.sustainable-learning.org 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact This film is the centre-piece of the international training programme run by the team, based on the findings of this research: http://sustainable-learning.org/training/ 
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2Hs37BctiA
 
Title Never Let Me Go 
Description Jazz composition by Huw Warren 
Type Of Art Composition/Score 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact Played live at ACES2011 Conservation Conflict international conference 
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QJNbbLPt18o
 
Title The King's Dream - children's picture story book 
Description Children's picture story book and performances by storyteller 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact 1000 copies of the book have been distributed, and there have been a number of live performances (by the storyteller who wrote it) and readings (by researchers) to children around the UK 
URL http://sustainableuplands.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/The-Kings-Dream-for-viewing-4.pdf
 
Description UK peatlands are an important place to explore the potential to pay for multiple benefits from nature, or "ecosystem services", given the range of services they provide to UK society and the high proportion of peatlands that are degraded.

During the first phase of funding (under the RCUK Rural Economy and Land Use programme, RELU) the research used case study research in the South Pennines, North Pennines and Galloway (Scotland) to explore how Payments for Ecosystem Service schemes may be designed to deliver a range of complementary ecosystem services in the same location (e.g. climate, water, biodiversity and recreational benefits from peatland restoration), whilst avoiding trade-offs between ecosystem services where possible (for example, sequestering carbon via exotic conifer plantations at the expense of native biodiversity). The research explored the potential to elicit payments for carbon, biodiversity, water quality and recreational benefits associated with peatland restoration, including a scenario-based assessment of possible trade-offs (up to 2030) and an assessment of market and governance needs.

It is vital to find ways to protect and pay for ecosystem services at a time when Governments around the world are operating under tighter economic constraints, and there is growing interest in Payment for Ecosystem Service schemes internationally. This research led the development of a UK Peatland Code that could facilitate private investment in peatland restoration, providing guidance ?????and quality standards for potential investors and for the landowners and managers who are paid to restore peatlands. The Code gives corporations the opportunity to sponsor UK-based projects linked to their brands as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility portfolio, with the potential to turn these investments into future assets if the Code becomes part of the Government's GHG Accounting Guidelines (as the Woodland Carbon Code did), making it possible to include GHG emission savings in corporate carbon accounting, or if it becomes financially viable to trade the carbon on the international voluntary carbon market. The Code also provides an opportunity for landowners and managers to generate financial rewards from restoration.

The Government's 2011 Natural Environment White Paper emphasised the creation of new markets to pay for nature's services. It announced the formation of Defra's Ecosystem Markets Taskforce, which was tasked with identifying business opportunities for nature. The Taskforce ranked a UK Peatland Code as their joint top opportunity out of 44 submitted opportunities (http://www.valuing-nature.net/taskforce). In October 2012, the PI was invited to join the Roster of Experts for the second phase of the Taskforce's work. In its final report in May 2013, the Taskforce recommended the development of a robust code for peatland restoration (http://www.defra.gov.uk/ecosystem-markets/files/Ecosystem-Markets-Task-Force-Final-Report- .pdf).

The Natural Environment White Paper committed to producing a Payment for Ecosystem Service Best Practice Guide, which Defra published in May 2013 co-authored by the PI, featuring the Peatland Code as a case study, based directly on this research project (https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/ payments-for-ecosystem-services-pes-best-practice- guide). The White Paper committed to producing a Payment for Ecosystem Service Action Plan, which Defra also published in May 2013, and which drew specifically on this research to highlight peatland restoration via the Peatland Code as one of five opportunity areas (reference 1, section 5). This committed Defra to a number of actions, including the launch of a pilot Peatland Code (reference 2, section 5), and publication of metrics to underpin the research developed in collaboration with Reed (reference 3, section 3). In July 2013, the Committee on Climate Change (an independent, statutory body established under the Climate Change Act 2008) highlighted the development of a Peatland Code as a "key priority", drawing on evidence from Defra's PES Action Plan (http://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/ASC-2013-Chap4_singles_2.pdf).
The PI became Research Manager for IUCN's UK Peatland Programme in 2011. The government's commitment to the Peatland Code is further illustrated by a letter to the IUCN UK Peatland Programme (5th February 2013), from the four country Ministers, which sets out a framework for action, including co-operation and co-ordinated action to support the development of the Peatland Code (http://www.iucn-uk- peatlandprogramme.org/sites/all/files/20130205 Joint DA letter to IUCN.pdf). This intention was re- iterated in the UK Government's National Adaptation Plan in July 2013 (https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/ 209866/pb13942- nap-20130701.pdf). Reed is now supporting Welsh Government to co-ordinate peatland restoration under the Peatland Code across the country and integrate payments with their Rural Development Programme.
Defra funded the research team to carry out the necessary underpinning research and develop the Peatland Code, and the PI was on Defra's commissioning team to fund continued research to support the next phase of Code development. A pilot Peatland Code was published online for public consultation in June 2013 (for responses see appendix 2, publication 4, section 3), and the pilot phase was launched by the Environment Minister, Richard Benyon, at an International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) conference on 10th September 2013 (http://iucn-uk- peatlandprogramme.org/news/230). After an 18 month pilot phase, the Code was formally launched at a the World Natural Capital Forum in Edinburgh in December 2015, which was opened by Scotland's First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon. The Code has the potential to become a template for similar initiatives internationally, and with this in mind in June 2013, the PI was invited to present progress on developing the Code to a conference organized by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) in co-operation with the European Network of Heads of Nature Conservation Agencies (ENCA) (http://www.bfn.de/0103_conferenzce-biodiversity0.html). The Living with Environmental Change partnership commissioned the team to write two Policy & Practice Notes integrating their research with findings from across the partnership: one on Payments for Ecosystem Services generally, and another translating this work for the professions, titled "Natural capital for land management professionals" (http://www.lwec.org.uk/resources/policy-and-practice-notes).
Defra's Deputy Director of Sustainable Land and Rural Evidence and Analysis stated, "[this research] has made a significant contribution to the Payment for Ecosystem Services agenda within Defra, with work he led on the UK Peatland Code featuring prominently in the Defra PES Action Plan. Moreover, the success of the research has been helped considerably by Professor Reed promoting a collaborative and a multi-disciplinary approach. Overall this research has made a considerable contribution and provided us with valuable lessons for the development of Payment for Ecosystem Service schemes in the UK."

In the final phase of the project, research was conducted into mechanisms of knowledge exchange, using upland and catchment management projects as an empirical case study, from which to derive generalisable principles. Policymakers and practitioners hoping to use research findings in their work can face a number of barriers. For instance, poor communication and dissemination of research by scientists, or a lack of technical expertise amongst policymakers and practitioners to interpret and apply the complex research findings, can limit the use of research in a decision-making context. In an effort to overcome such barriers, there has been a growing focus on understanding how knowledge is exchanged between interested parties. For this study, the researchers set out to identify the key principles of effective knowledge exchange.

Interviews were conducted with 32 individuals, who included academics, project managers and non-academic stakeholders from 13 different upland and catchment projects in the UK. The research identified over 50 different themes relating to knowledge exchange from the interviews. These were then reduced down to five broad principles for effective knowledge exchange:

1) Design
It is important to know what everyone involved hopes to achieve through knowledge exchange and that these aims are built into the environmental project from the beginning.

2) Representation
The distinction between those who carry out research and those who use its results should be made as early as possible. The input of the two groups should be used to help design both the research and knowledge exchange.

3) Engagement
Two-way communication and long-term trust should be encouraged between researchers and other stakeholders wherever possible, to facilitate knowledge exchange.

4) Generate impact
To keep potential users of research engaged with the research process, there should be a focus on creating tangible results as early as possible, and ensuring that the results that will be valued by as many stakeholders as possible.

5) Reflect and sustain
Effective knowledge exchange is based around long-term relationships and learning. Monitoring and reflecting to continually improve the process is key. Considering ways to sustain knowledge exchange, even after project funding ends, is also important.

These principles have been embedded in a range of manuals and guides, including the EU Biodiversa programme, IUCN and the Living With Environmental Change partnership. This part of the research has now led to the creation of a spin-out company, Fast Track Impact.

Fast Track Impact is an international training company working in the Higher Education and research and innovation sectors. Our mission is to change the way researchers generate knowledge, so that their ideas can change the world.

We developed and trialed the training programme over two years in collaboration with Project Maya Community Interest Company on a not-for-profit basis, to do market research, pilot the training, test the market, and develop the necessary business skills. Prof Reed was trained by Elevator UK and received business mentoring from Project Maya. In response to market research and feedback from pilot trainings, the course was significantly re-designed and additional products and services developed prior to launch.

The resulting business plan was underpinned by a detailed and nuanced understanding of the market opportunity, including detailed customer profiles, priority international and sub-sector markets, a detailed competition analysis, and an ambitious, credible marketing strategy. We launched as a Limited Company in November 2015, with the goal of scaling the business to reach a global audience.

The company is on target to meet its 6 month targets: i) an average of 2 trainings per month (10 trainings were done between November 2015 and March 2016 with a further 10 booked so far for 2016 in UK and northern Europe); ii) all planned new online materials were launched, including a 5 week free online course for researchers, a podcast (launching later in March), a book (two were planned but it was not possible to secure sufficient celebrity interviews so the two books were combined into a single 70,000 word (324 page) book) and other online resources including free guides, templates and a blog; iii) over 10,000 followers on Twitter (we have 13,500 followers, growing at an average of 80 followers per day).

Plans are already underway to franchise the business, first to Germany and then worldwide via a network of trainers who will pay royalties to Fast Track Impact. In addition to the original 6 month targets, the business has launched a number of additional services via one full-time employee and a small group of self-employed consultants, most of whom work exclusively for the company, with Fast Track Impact taking 10% of their earnings: i) graphic design for impact; ii) academic PA services; and iii) consultancy services.

To date, this has provided new employment for four people who now derive their income entirely from Fast Track Impact, and has supplemented the income of a three others who have additional business interests. The Director is in full-time employment as a University Professor with the support of his employer to run the business as part of his work as an academic.

Training remains the most profitable arm of the business, and this is being promoted directly through social media and direct sales and indirectly via the publication of free online resources and The Research Impact Handbook. Off the back of the book publication, the company plans to launch a new package of "train the trainer" products, including training for University impact officers, coaching and the development of in-house training packages generating royalities. The business is on track to achieve a Year 1 turnover of £97,000, with a projected Year 5 turnover of £140,000. Actual turnover between November 2015 and March 2016 has been £27,314. To date, researchers from over 50 institutions worldwide have been trained.
Exploitation Route As described in the impact narrative, the research findings are being taken forward via:
* The pilot UK Peatland Code, managed by IUCN's UK Peatland Programme: http://www.iucn-uk-peatlandprogramme.org/news-and-events/news/peatland-code
* The Natural Environment White Paper commitments on Payments for Ecosystem Services, and Defra's Payment for Ecosystem Service Action Plan. Scotland's National Peatland Plan and peatland restoration under the Rural Development Plans of each devolved administration
* A €16M EU LIFE bid, led by Defra is building on this work to use the Peatland Code as a key delivery mechanism for a new UK Peatland Strategy, currently being devised by Government
* VisitEngland fact sheet on using Payments for Ecosystem Services as part of Visitor Giving schemes, a free guide for app developers to add PES functionality to visitor apps, and the ongoing management and deployment of smart phone apps in the north of England
* The promotion and use of LWEC's Knowledge Exchange Guidelines and the EU Biodiversa programme's Stakeholder Engagement Manual
* An international research impact training company, Fast Track Impact Ltd. www.fasttrackimpact.com
* Ongoing knowledge exchange via the Sustainable Uplands Twitter stream, now re-branded to IUCN UK Peatland Programme (www.twitter.com/IUCNpeat) and website (http://sustainableuplands.org)
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.sustainable-learning.org
 
Description UK peatlands are an important place to explore the potential to pay for multiple benefits from nature, or "ecosystem services", given the range of services they provide to UK society and the high proportion of peatlands that are degraded.

During the first phase of funding (under the RCUK Rural Economy and Land Use programme, RELU) the research used case study research in the South Pennines, North Pennines and Galloway (Scotland) to explore how Payments for Ecosystem Service schemes may be designed to deliver a range of complementary ecosystem services in the same location (e.g. climate, water, biodiversity and recreational benefits from peatland restoration), whilst avoiding trade-offs between ecosystem services where possible (for example, sequestering carbon via exotic conifer plantations at the expense of native biodiversity). The research explored the potential to elicit payments for carbon, biodiversity, water quality and recreational benefits associated with peatland restoration, including a scenario-based assessment of possible trade-offs (up to 2030) and an assessment of market and governance needs.

It is vital to find ways to protect and pay for ecosystem services at a time when Governments around the world are operating under tighter economic constraints, and there is growing interest in Payment for Ecosystem Service schemes internationally. This research led the development of a UK Peatland Code that could facilitate private investment in peatland restoration, providing guidance ?????and quality standards for potential investors and for the landowners and managers who are paid to restore peatlands. The Code gives corporations the opportunity to sponsor UK-based projects linked to their brands as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility portfolio, with the potential to turn these investments into future assets if the Code becomes part of the Government's GHG Accounting Guidelines (as the Woodland Carbon Code did), making it possible to include GHG emission savings in corporate carbon accounting, or if it becomes financially viable to trade the carbon on the international voluntary carbon market. The Code also provides an opportunity for landowners and managers to generate financial rewards from restoration.

The Government's 2011 Natural Environment White Paper emphasised the creation of new markets to pay for nature's services. It announced the formation of Defra's Ecosystem Markets Taskforce, which was tasked with identifying business opportunities for nature. The Taskforce ranked a UK Peatland Code as their joint top opportunity out of 44 submitted opportunities (http://www.valuing-nature.net/taskforce). In October 2012, the PI was invited to join the Roster of Experts for the second phase of the Taskforce's work. In its final report in May 2013, the Taskforce recommended the development of a robust code for peatland restoration (http://www.defra.gov.uk/ecosystem-markets/files/Ecosystem-Markets-Task-Force-Final-Report- .pdf).

The Natural Environment White Paper committed to producing a Payment for Ecosystem Service Best Practice Guide, which Defra published in May 2013 co-authored by the PI, featuring the Peatland Code as a case study, based directly on this research project (https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/ payments-for-ecosystem-services-pes-best-practice- guide). The White Paper committed to producing a Payment for Ecosystem Service Action Plan, which Defra also published in May 2013, and which drew specifically on this research to highlight peatland restoration via the Peatland Code as one of five opportunity areas (reference 1, section 5). This committed Defra to a number of actions, including the launch of a pilot Peatland Code (reference 2, section 5), and publication of metrics to underpin the research developed in collaboration with Reed (reference 3, section 3). In July 2013, the Committee on Climate Change (an independent, statutory body established under the Climate Change Act 2008) highlighted the development of a Peatland Code as a "key priority", drawing on evidence from Defra's PES Action Plan (http://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/ASC-2013-Chap4_singles_2.pdf). The PI became Research Manager for IUCN's UK Peatland Programme in 2011. The government's commitment to the Peatland Code is further illustrated by a letter to the IUCN UK Peatland Programme (5th February 2013), from the four country Ministers, which sets out a framework for action, including co-operation and co-ordinated action to support the development of the Peatland Code (http://www.iucn-uk- peatlandprogramme.org/sites/all/files/20130205 Joint DA letter to IUCN.pdf). This intention was re- iterated in the UK Government's National Adaptation Plan in July 2013 (https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/ 209866/pb13942- nap-20130701.pdf). Reed is now supporting Welsh Government to co-ordinate peatland restoration under the Peatland Code across the country and integrate payments with their Rural Development Programme. Defra funded the research team to carry out the necessary underpinning research and develop the Peatland Code, and the PI was on Defra's commissioning team to fund continued research to support the next phase of Code development. A pilot Peatland Code was published online for public consultation in June 2013 (for responses see appendix 2, publication 4, section 3), and the pilot phase was launched by the Environment Minister, Richard Benyon, at an International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) conference on 10th September 2013 (http://iucn-uk- peatlandprogramme.org/news/230). After an 18 month pilot phase, the Code was formally launched at a the World Natural Capital Forum in Edinburgh in December 2015, which was opened by Scotland's First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon. The Code has the potential to become a template for similar initiatives internationally, and with this in mind in June 2013, the PI was invited to present progress on developing the Code to a conference organized by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) in co-operation with the European Network of Heads of Nature Conservation Agencies (ENCA) (http://www.bfn.de/0103_conferenzce-biodiversity0.html). The Living with Environmental Change partnership commissioned the team to write two Policy & Practice Notes integrating their research with findings from across the partnership: one on Payments for Ecosystem Services generally, and another translating this work for the professions, titled "Natural capital for land management professionals" (http://www.lwec.org.uk/resources/policy-and-practice-notes). Defra's Deputy Director of Sustainable Land and Rural Evidence and Analysis stated, "[this research] has made a significant contribution to the Payment for Ecosystem Services agenda within Defra, with work he led on the UK Peatland Code featuring prominently in the Defra PES Action Plan. Moreover, the success of the research has been helped considerably by Professor Reed promoting a collaborative and a multi-disciplinary approach. Overall this research has made a considerable contribution and provided us with valuable lessons for the development of Payment for Ecosystem Service schemes in the UK."

For more information about impacts arising from subsequent peatland research, see the ResearchFish entry for the NERC Valuing Nature Programme funded Peatland Tipping Points project.

In the final phase of the project, research was conducted into mechanisms of knowledge exchange, using upland and catchment management projects as an empirical case study, from which to derive generalisable principles. Policymakers and practitioners hoping to use research findings in their work can face a number of barriers. For instance, poor communication and dissemination of research by scientists, or a lack of technical expertise amongst policymakers and practitioners to interpret and apply the complex research findings, can limit the use of research in a decision-making context. In an effort to overcome such barriers, there has been a growing focus on understanding how knowledge is exchanged between interested parties. For this study, the researchers set out to identify the key principles of effective knowledge exchange.

Interviews were conducted with 32 individuals, who included academics, project managers and non-academic stakeholders from 13 different upland and catchment projects in the UK. The research identified over 50 different themes relating to knowledge exchange from the interviews. These were then reduced down to five broad principles for effective knowledge exchange. These principles have been embedded in a range of manuals and guides, including the EU Biodiversa programme, IUCN and the Living With Environmental Change partnership. This part of the research has now led to the creation of a spin-out company, Fast Track Impact.

Fast Track Impact is an international training company working in the Higher Education and research and innovation sectors. Our mission is to change the way researchers generate knowledge, so that their ideas can change the world. We developed and trialed the training programme over two years in collaboration with Project Maya Community Interest Company on a not-for-profit basis, to do market research, pilot the training, test the market, and develop the necessary business skills. Prof Reed was trained by Elevator UK and received business mentoring from Project Maya. In response to market research and feedback from pilot trainings, the course was significantly re-designed and additional products and services developed prior to launch.

The resulting business plan was underpinned by a detailed and nuanced understanding of the market opportunity, including detailed customer profiles, priority international and sub-sector markets, a detailed competition analysis, and an ambitious, credible marketing strategy. We launched as a Limited Company in November 2015, with the goal of scaling the business to reach a global audience. The company turned over >£100K in its first year, and doubled this in its second year, and employs one member of staff and a Director. Since it launched, the company has trained >4000 researchers in >200 organisations in 55 countries.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Paying for Nature's Services: Developing the UK Peatland Code
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact The research led to the submission of two impact case studies to REF2014 by: * Birmingham City University: http://impact.ref.ac.uk/CaseStudies/CaseStudy.aspx?Id=14222 * University of Leeds: http://impact.ref.ac.uk/CaseStudies/CaseStudy.aspx?Id=6352 • Since REF2014 was published, the IUCN UK National Committee has implemented the Peatland Code (launched November 2015), a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme supported by Defra and the devolved administrations, which sets out best practice requirements for peatland restoration projects wishing to attract private funding on the basis of their ecosystem service benefit (IUCN UK Peatland Programme, In Draft). • To date, two projects have registered with the Peatland Code, namely Langholm Moor and North Sanquhar Moor in Scotland. Each is currently working towards validation to provide assurance that implementation of their restoration plan will result in the proposed greenhouse gas emission reductions. • Further funding is being leveraged to apply the Peatland Code in other areas of the UK, including €7M EU LIFE funding to trial the Code in the North Pennines and Yorkshire, using Kelda Group (parent company of Yorkshire Water) as the corporate carbon benefactor (subject to successful bid). • The Peatland Code facilitates a new avenue of funding for peatland restoration. In doing so it impacts biodiversity in the following ways: o Conserves and reverses the decline of Sphagnum-dominated bog habitat - a priority habitat under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (blanket bogs and lowland raised bogs); o Encourages the re-establishment of Sphagnum growth - the main peat-forming species in UK peatlands, contributing to carbon sequestration and storage. There are 34 UK species of Sphagnum bog moss associated with raised bog and blanket mire landscapes, several of which are uncommon or rare e.g. S. austinii (Bain, et al., 2011); o Provides habitat for highly specialised species, that are often rare, threatened and/or declining e.g. bog hoverfly (Eristalis cryptarum), golden plover (Pluvialis apricaria), red-throated diver (Gavia stellata) and greenshank (Tringa nebularia) - peatlands including the Flow Country in Scotland, hold the highest breeding density of greenshank in Europe (Bain, et al., 2011). For birds, peatland habitat provides important breeding and feeding grounds (see information on craneflies below) and stop-over sites (Minayeva, et al., 2016); o Increases ecosystem resilience to climate change - peatland species are highly adapted to waterlogged and nutrient-poor conditions and are therefore sensitive to environmental change and habitat loss caused by factors including development, atmospheric deposition and climate change (Bain, et al., 2011); o Supports species from other habitats: once restored, peatlands in their semi-natural state can provide temporary refuges for species at the edge of their ranges, particularly when displaced by human activity or environmental change (Minayeva, et al., 2016); o Establishes connectivity within a landscape, strengthening ecological networks (again linking to ecosystem resilience to climate change); o Maintains (or restores) unique bog microtopography, which includes small 'bog zones' (10 - 20 cm) characterised by a wide variety of different species including plants, birds, invertebrates and mammals (Lindsay, 2010) (Lindsay, et al., 2014); o Recovers the microbial communities of fungi, bacteria and algae that are associated with microhabitats around peatland plants and within the surface layers of peat soil (Andersen, et al., 2010); o Prevents establishment of (or restoration intervention removes) competing non-peat forming species that are better adapted to drier conditions that can often cause further degradation, therefore safeguarding the habitat; o Ditch blocking, a restoration method used to rewet peatlands (and supported by the Peatland Code), promotes species associated with wetter and more pristine conditions, suggesting that it benefits wider ecological function (Bellamy, et al., 2012).
URL http://www.iucn-uk-peatlandprogramme.org/peatland-code/
 
Description Biodiversa Stakeholder Engagement Manual 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Co-authored manual based on the findings of this research project

This manual is now used to inform stakeholder engagement activities across all Biodiversa programme investments
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.biodiversa.org/577
 
Description Engaging with people affected by desertification - a guide for decision-makers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact As a contribution to the UNCCP COP10 (Changwon, October 2011) side event "Knowledge brokering models for UNCCD: approaches towards bridging policy science and practice" DESIRE prepared this briefing document on "Engaging with people affected by desertification: a guide for decision-makers". Available online here: http://www.desire-his.eu/en/global-level/616-engaging-with-people-affected-by-desertification

Available online here: http://www.desire-his.eu/en/global-level/616-engaging-with-people-affected-by-desertification
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.desire-his.eu/en/global-level/616-engaging-with-people-affected-by-desertification
 
Description Guardian newspaper blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A blog was published in the Guardian newspaper's Sustainable Business section about "Why businesses should pay to protect eco-systems"

None known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/businesses-pay-protect-ecosystems
 
Description How to be an effective knowledge manager 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Info brief. To harness the latest research and make sense of conflicting evidence about how to manage environmental change, we need to learn how to manage our knowledge more effectively...

Defra
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description LWEC Knowledge Exchange Guidelines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact LWEC Knowledge Exchange Guidelines, based on findings from our research, and co-authored by members of the research team with members of RCUK

These guidelines, based on our research, now guide researchers and programmes under the LWEC programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.lwec.org.uk/ke-guidelines
 
Description Schools resources 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Schools resources integrated into UK National Parks schools portal and actively promoted by upland/peatland National Parks to local schools across the UK

Used in schools
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nationalparks.gov.uk/learningabout/teachersarea/activity-search/more-than-just-a-bog
 
Description Sustainable Learning 5 principles blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact A blog summarising the key paper arising from the project

The principles described in the blog have been incorporated into LWEC's Knowledge Exchange Guidelines and the EU Biodiversa programme's Stakeholder Engagement Manual
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://sustainable-learning.org/2014/09/why-is-your-research-not-having-the-impact-you-want/
 
Description Top Twitter Tips for Academics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact More and more academics are turning to Twitter to connect with their peers and promote their work, but how can academics get the most out of Twitter?

Info brief, available online here: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60642119/Top-Twitter-Tips-for-Academics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.scribd.com/doc/60642119/Top-Twitter-Tips-for-Academics
 
Description Visit England Case Study 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A case study based on our research was published by Visit England, titled "Can Payment for Ecosystem Services enhance Visitor Giving Schemes?".

Being used by visitor destination managers to integrate Payments for Ecosystem Services into visitor giving schemes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.slideshare.net/VisitEngland/payment-for-ecosystem-service-pes-schemes-case-study