Teaching the visual system to segment and interpret images of overlapping transparent objects

Lead Research Organisation: University of Southampton
Department Name: School of Psychology

Abstract

Abstracts are not currently available in GtR for all funded research. This is normally because the abstract was not required at the time of proposal submission, but may be because it included sensitive information such as personal details.

Publications

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Angele B (2014) The effect of high- and low-frequency previews and sentential fit on word skipping during reading. in Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition

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Cui L (2014) Parafoveal preview benefit in unspaced and spaced Chinese reading. in Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006)

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Godwin H J (2016) Adding Depth to Overlapping Displays can Improve Visual Search Performance. in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.

 
Description 1) Stereoscopic depth improves visual search through displays of transparent objects.

When participants search displays of overlapping, transparent objects (transparent polygons and X-ray objects from airport baggage screening), the addition of stereoscopic depth profoundly improves visual search performance. In contrast, there is no effect of adding stereoscopic depth when searching displays of opaque objects (opaque polygons and household objects). Adding stereoscopic depth to displays of transparent object slows response times but improves search accuracy relative to when search is conducted on flat images. The increased accuracy and slowed response times are especially marked when objects overlap. The performance differences are underpinned by increased eye movement fixations on overlapping regions when displays are presented in stereoscopic depth as well as resulting in increased time to identify targets.


2) The benefit of stereoscopic depth to visual search performance in displays of transparent objects increases with training.

The longevity of the benefit of stereoscopic depth to search in displays of overlapping, transparent objects was tested over multiple experimental sessions. To maximize ecological validity, participants searched for targets in images taken from airport baggage screening. Training increased the beneficial effect for search of adding stereoscopic depth (reported above). The addition of stereoscopic depth to displays of x-ray objects significantly enhances visual learning for cues relative to that for flat displays and this learning continues over extended training. Additionally, in a final session, participants searched flat displays to assess transfer effects from training with depth to search in 2D (current real-world practice). The critical finding is that the enhanced visual learning of those trained with stereoscopic displays transferred to 2D search resulting in improved search performance in flat displays.


3) Adding stereoscopic depth does not change the cost of searching for multiple targets.

In all the experiments, search for single targets was compared with search for multiple targets. The cost of searching for more than one target relative to searching for single targets is pervasive and reflected in reduced accuracy and increased time to fixate and identify targets. These effects reflect the fact that multiple-target search occurs through increased load in the attention system. The increased times to fixate and identify targets found in multiple-target search are not moderated by stereoscopic depth. The important conclusion is that the beneficial effect of stereoscopic depth on search in displays of transparent objects does not happen by reducing load on the attention system.


4) Methodological advances.

The requirement to record the eye movement behaviour of participants as they searched stereoscopic images containing overlapping/transparent objects created very significant challenges (but ensured we obtained data reflecting moment-to-moment visual and cognitive processing). In order to expedite the processing and analysis of data, we developed a new open source software package (eyeTrackR) that facilitates the processing of eye movement data in the R statistical programming language. The code is freely available to all and we believe it will be beneficial to numerous researchers using eye movement methodology in visual search, serving to increase the efficiency and make more transparent data analyses.
Exploitation Route Understanding Real-world Search Performance.

We have identified several key factors that impede searching X-ray images of baggage, including searching displays containing overlapping objects, searching displays for multiple targets, searching through displays containing transparent overlapping objects, and searching for rare targets.


Changes to Current Display Methods.

We have assessed the role of stereoscopic depth as a tool for enhancing search performance in tasks such as airport baggage screening and found stereoscopic depth does benefit search. This benefit very probably holds in day-to-day practice. The conclusions also hold promise for improving understanding of urban data visualization, augmented medical visualization, visualization of complex datasets, etc.


Changes to Training Methods.

Experience of searching 3D displays enhanced performance during training and during subsequent search with flat displays. This suggests that the use of stereoscopic depth during training could enhance performance of airport screening personnel even when their job is conducted on flat displays.

Throughout we communicated our findings directly to stakeholders (e.g., IATA, Dstl, Egremont). These include Head of Threat, Risk and Innovation Policy at the Department for Transport. He is exploring introduction of 3D screening at UK airports. We are applying for an ESRC impact acceleration award to maximize the impact of our work.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Security and Diplomacy,Transport

 
Description Narrative Impact: Teaching the Visual System to Segment and Interpret Images of Overlapping Transparent Objects The project directly assessed the benefits to visual search performance that arise from presenting overlapping transparent objects on multiple depth planes (i.e., in 3D). Our main focus in terms of impact was in relation to airport X-ray baggage screening, since X-ray screening involves the presentation of overlapping transparent images that are highly cluttered. Indeed, the fact that the images in X-ray screening overlap one another presents a substantial problem to screeners: they must rapidly examine and identify multiple complex objects in order to determine whether a bag is safe to be allowed onto an aircraft. We found that presenting overlapping transparent images in 3D to searchers improved their search performance, particularly when there was a high level of overlap and clutter in the images. Although potential benefits from searching in 3D have been studied in various domains, our work is the first to study 3D search of overlapping transparent images in this manner. It therefore stands as an important foundational step in providing an evidence base to support the value of 3D imaging technologies in a range of real-world tasks. Strand A: Maximising and Extending Impact with Government/Industry Groups The main findings of the project have been communicated to both industry groups (International Air Transport Association [IATA: primarily via Guido Peetermans, Project Manager of Smart Security], Egremont Group) and government (UK Department for Transport [DfT: primarily via James McDonald, Head of Threat, Risk & Innovation Policy, Aviation Security] Defence Sciences Technology Laboratory [dstl, primarily via Dr Katherine Cornes, Capability Advisor and Principal Cognitive Psychologist]). Through presenting work at a meeting organised by IATA/DfT/Manchester Airport, we were also able to present our findings to 60+ airports from across Europe and beyond. We had originally envisaged that our work might influence training regimes for screeners and this may still be the case as we have shown it could work in principle. As we have only just reported this data, we have not yet explored potential impacts for this instantiation of our work. It remains a possible future impact for this work, though we have been informed and have confirmed with contacts at DfT that using 3D in this manner would be a viable route for the future. Reporting our current findings in relation to 3D search has had one major impact. During the course of this project, 3D visualisation technology has moved forward at a rapid pace. As a result we became aware that there is a drive towards using 3D visualisation that allow screeners to manipulate images. This is an advance from the technology in place when we began our studies. At present there is no behavioural data available to assess the impact of this technology on threat detection. We have been encouraged by contacts within DfT to submit a funding application to generate empirical evidence regarding the efficacy of such systems for enhancing threat detection. The bid takes as its starting point our demonstration of the conditions under which 3D can aid search before developing new lines of enquiry, and is currently under submission (as part of cross-governmental Future Aviation Security Solutions programme, funded by DfT, Centre for Defence Enterprise, dstl, and the Home Office). In sum, the process of reporting and communicating our finding to stakeholders has shown new ways of evaluating search in the context of 3D screening. We are now considered by DfT as a key partner to evaluate this emerging 3D technology and consider it very likely that this work will form an impact case study in REF2020. Strand B: Applying Fundamental Cognitive Psychology Research to Airport X-ray Baggage Screening At the core of the project was the question of whether presenting transparent overlapping objects in 3D could benefit search performance. As noted above, this is a key component of why airport baggage screening is a difficult task to complete. But there are other, related issues that likely also reduce screening performance that we have examined during the course of this project. These additional experiments and published papers were directly inspired and conducted in parallel to the research conducted as part of this project. As such, they form a related and important body of work involving searching for multiple targets (as is the case in airport screening, where screeners search for guns, knives, and explosives), searching for targets that appear rarely (as is the case in airport screening: since rarely-appearing targets are often missed), as well as modelling the fundamental aspects of eye movement control during visual search. Put simply, understanding the 'bigger picture', we believe, is important in maximising performance gains in airport screening, and in order to understand that 'bigger picture', we must first construct an empirically-grounded understanding of human behaviour when searching in real-world tasks such as airport baggage screening. It is our perspective that any impact or recommendations made to government/industry groups must be based on a solid foundation of fundamental cognitive psychology research. For that reason, we have taken the opportunity to publish these findings, and present them at international conferences, and then distilled the key information that would be of value to government/industry groups when meeting with them. By building and maintaining links with these government and industry groups, and in light of our acknowledged expertise on behavioural issues in screening, we have been able to extend our work and explore 'big data' approaches to analysing screening datasets that are routinely collected from millions of screening episodes at multiple airports. From data collected in situ and analysed with respect to issues we have shown to be important from our experimental work, we were able to obtain this data and analyse it to provide recommendations for changing current procedures and improving performance. This impact is ongoing we have now been awarded two projects funded by DfT (one funded by DfT and IATA) to develop these cognitive psychologically informed data analyses further, and we regularly update our funders, the regulators, and airport management with regards to the insights that our new approach in this manner has had. The issues explored in this body of work have informed our analyses of the 'big data' sets garnered from multiple airports when conducting the studies outlined in Section A for IATA and DfT. With the help of an ESRC IAA award we have explored developing these principled analyses of 'big data' from airport screening into an analytical toolkit for monitoring and evaluating threat detection by screeners in the real world. With the advent of the new generation of 3D screening technologies noted in Section A, this toolkit will provide invaluable insights. Specifically, and in addition to other factors, these insights will include the ability to record the performance improvements that the new generation of imaging technologies may bring to threat detection by recording performance in situ. The impact case study for REF2020 noted in Section A will be strengthened by being able to conduct these analyses from data gathered from real screeners working in situ.. Strand C: Connecting with the 3D Visualisation Community The use of stereoscopic 3D displays (as well as other technologies that present images in 3D) is not only developing rapidly, but also becoming more and more commonplace. We recognised when developing this project that any use of 3D, or recommendations to government/industry groups, would need to be grounded in the question of whether or not those recommendations could be put into practice. In other words, we not only wanted to make sure that 3D was of benefit to search performance, but also that those recommendations could be achieved with current hardware/software. Throughout the project we have ensured this was the case, while also directly engaging with the 3D visualisation community. This activity has primarily taken place via our expert in 3D visualisation and related technologies (Holliman). Indeed, at a recent international conference focusing on 3D visualisations and applications, the work conducted as part of this project was presented, thereby not only demonstrating the benefits of 3D to searching overlapping transparent displays, but also raising awareness in the visualisation community of the importance of connecting with cognitive psychology researchers in order to directly assess the benefits of any technology developments that they produce. We have maintained active links with the visualizations community in this regard, and indeed, as noted above, have recently applied for funding to further examine the benefits of examining modern, newly-developed forms of 3D visualisation that are likely to be used in airports in the next 5-10 years.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description DHCSTC Contract
Amount £103,813 (GBP)
Funding ID STLX1000062076 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2011 
End 03/2012
 
Description DHCSTC Contract
Amount £56,529 (GBP)
Funding ID DSTLX-1000051523 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2011 
End 03/2012
 
Description DHCSTC Contract
Amount £78,525 (GBP)
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2014 
End 03/2015
 
Description DHCSTC Contract
Amount £109,749 (GBP)
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 03/2014
 
Description DHCSTC contract
Amount £35,000 (GBP)
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 06/2016
 
Description DSTL National PhD Scheme
Amount £101,517 (GBP)
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 07/2016
 
Description DSTL National PhD Scheme
Amount £85,502 (GBP)
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 07/2016
 
Description FASS Checkpoint Big Data Analysis
Amount £36,033 (GBP)
Organisation Department of Transport 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 01/2017
 
Description Interdisciplinary Bursary
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2013 
End 08/2013
 
Description Interdisciplinary Bursary
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2014 
End 08/2014
 
Description Interdisciplinary Bursary
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 08/2015
 
Description Studying How Individuals Search Text for Information
Amount £9,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Southampton 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Description Visual Search and Fatigue in Maritime Environments
Amount £141,000 (GBP)
Organisation Teekay Foundation 
Sector Private
Country Bahamas
Start 03/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description Visual search for threats in real-world scenes
Amount £8,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Southampton 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 10/2016
 
Description We're in this together: Using evidence-based visual perception research to enhance the crowd's ability to detect threats in the environment
Amount £79,000 (GBP)
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 06/2018
 
Title EVS 
Description Model developed to predict eye-movement behavior during visual search. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Article relating to the model is currently in press. 
URL http://www.cognitivesciencesociety.org/
 
Title Experiment 5 Dataset 
Description Dataset - behavioural and eye-movement - from the final experiment conducted as part of this project. Will be made available once a manuscript based upon this dataset is in press. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None as yet. 
 
Title Experiments 1-4 Dataset 
Description Datasets - behavioural and eye-movement for the first four experiments conducted as part of this project. Will be made openly available once manuscripts have been published. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None as yet. 
 
Title R Scripts for Processing Eye Movement Data 
Description R scripts will be made available that enable researchers to re-process their eye-movement datasets. We developed these R scripts because the standard software that we use (SR Research DataViewer) produces incorrect output when using displays containing overlapping objects, as we did in the current project. To facilitate further research along these lines, we will make these scripts readily available to other researchers once manuscripts have been accepted for publication. 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None as yet. 
 
Description MARTHA Project 
Organisation Centre for Maritime Society and Health
Country Denmark 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The core of the project is about monitoring seafarer fatigue, well-being, and subjective performance during long sea-faring journeys (up to 14 weeks). Our group has contributed to design and analysis decisions for that research. Our larger contribution, however, is in conducting laboratory research about the effects of sleep loss on visual search and distraction. We, together with two postgraduate students recruited through the project, have been collecting data about that.
Collaborator Contribution The project is led by Southampton Solent University. Dalian University and the Centre for Maritime Society and Health ran the on-board study. The Stress Research Institute analysed weekly diary and survey results of the on-board study. Southampton Solent analysed actigraphy results of physiological measures of sleep. SMMI analysed the relationship of this to sea state.
Impact The project is influencing meetings at IMO to develop standards for Fatigue Risk Management Systems. IMO - the International Maritime Organization - is the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping. Some shipping companies are involved in the project - providing access to crews for the study - and others are paying attention to the results. Fatigue contributes to accidents. Accidents have an economic cost. The project is multidisciplinary, with researchers working from Psychology, Ship Science, Engineering, as well as the Maritime sector. Publication: Jepsen, J. R., Zhao, Z., & van Leeuwen, W. M. (2015). Seafarer fatigue: a review of risk factors, consequences for seafarers' health and safety and options for mitigation. International maritime health, 66(2), 106-117.
Start Year 2013
 
Description MARTHA Project 
Organisation Dalian Maritime University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The core of the project is about monitoring seafarer fatigue, well-being, and subjective performance during long sea-faring journeys (up to 14 weeks). Our group has contributed to design and analysis decisions for that research. Our larger contribution, however, is in conducting laboratory research about the effects of sleep loss on visual search and distraction. We, together with two postgraduate students recruited through the project, have been collecting data about that.
Collaborator Contribution The project is led by Southampton Solent University. Dalian University and the Centre for Maritime Society and Health ran the on-board study. The Stress Research Institute analysed weekly diary and survey results of the on-board study. Southampton Solent analysed actigraphy results of physiological measures of sleep. SMMI analysed the relationship of this to sea state.
Impact The project is influencing meetings at IMO to develop standards for Fatigue Risk Management Systems. IMO - the International Maritime Organization - is the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping. Some shipping companies are involved in the project - providing access to crews for the study - and others are paying attention to the results. Fatigue contributes to accidents. Accidents have an economic cost. The project is multidisciplinary, with researchers working from Psychology, Ship Science, Engineering, as well as the Maritime sector. Publication: Jepsen, J. R., Zhao, Z., & van Leeuwen, W. M. (2015). Seafarer fatigue: a review of risk factors, consequences for seafarers' health and safety and options for mitigation. International maritime health, 66(2), 106-117.
Start Year 2013
 
Description MARTHA Project 
Organisation Southampton Solent University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The core of the project is about monitoring seafarer fatigue, well-being, and subjective performance during long sea-faring journeys (up to 14 weeks). Our group has contributed to design and analysis decisions for that research. Our larger contribution, however, is in conducting laboratory research about the effects of sleep loss on visual search and distraction. We, together with two postgraduate students recruited through the project, have been collecting data about that.
Collaborator Contribution The project is led by Southampton Solent University. Dalian University and the Centre for Maritime Society and Health ran the on-board study. The Stress Research Institute analysed weekly diary and survey results of the on-board study. Southampton Solent analysed actigraphy results of physiological measures of sleep. SMMI analysed the relationship of this to sea state.
Impact The project is influencing meetings at IMO to develop standards for Fatigue Risk Management Systems. IMO - the International Maritime Organization - is the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping. Some shipping companies are involved in the project - providing access to crews for the study - and others are paying attention to the results. Fatigue contributes to accidents. Accidents have an economic cost. The project is multidisciplinary, with researchers working from Psychology, Ship Science, Engineering, as well as the Maritime sector. Publication: Jepsen, J. R., Zhao, Z., & van Leeuwen, W. M. (2015). Seafarer fatigue: a review of risk factors, consequences for seafarers' health and safety and options for mitigation. International maritime health, 66(2), 106-117.
Start Year 2013
 
Description MARTHA Project 
Organisation Stockholm University
Department Stress Research Institute
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The core of the project is about monitoring seafarer fatigue, well-being, and subjective performance during long sea-faring journeys (up to 14 weeks). Our group has contributed to design and analysis decisions for that research. Our larger contribution, however, is in conducting laboratory research about the effects of sleep loss on visual search and distraction. We, together with two postgraduate students recruited through the project, have been collecting data about that.
Collaborator Contribution The project is led by Southampton Solent University. Dalian University and the Centre for Maritime Society and Health ran the on-board study. The Stress Research Institute analysed weekly diary and survey results of the on-board study. Southampton Solent analysed actigraphy results of physiological measures of sleep. SMMI analysed the relationship of this to sea state.
Impact The project is influencing meetings at IMO to develop standards for Fatigue Risk Management Systems. IMO - the International Maritime Organization - is the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping. Some shipping companies are involved in the project - providing access to crews for the study - and others are paying attention to the results. Fatigue contributes to accidents. Accidents have an economic cost. The project is multidisciplinary, with researchers working from Psychology, Ship Science, Engineering, as well as the Maritime sector. Publication: Jepsen, J. R., Zhao, Z., & van Leeuwen, W. M. (2015). Seafarer fatigue: a review of risk factors, consequences for seafarers' health and safety and options for mitigation. International maritime health, 66(2), 106-117.
Start Year 2013
 
Title Search Commander 
Description Software developed for the creation of stimuli for use in 3d visual search experiments. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Used to create stimuli for all experiments as part of this project. 
 
Title eyeTrackR 
Description EyeTrackR consists of a set of R functions, bundled into a package, all geared towards analysing eye-tracking datasets. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2012 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Used by a growing number of researchers to process and analyse their eye-tracking datasets 
URL https://github.com/hjgodwin/eyeTrackR
 
Description Enhanced Cognition Doctoral Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presented the work that arose from this project as part of a keynote speech given by Professor Donnelly. This took place at a conference organised for postgraduate students funded by Dstl. The symposium was attended by a broad range of students funded by Dstl, their academic supervisors, government officials, and industry representatives. This resulted in enhanced awareness and engagement with the current project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Ground Handling Engagement Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Reached out to industry stakeholders, practicioners and members of regulatory bodies, informing them of how our previous and ongoing work can help to make their working practices safer in the future. This was an invited presentation.

Engaged in a number of follow-up discussions with members of the audience, and are seeking to further engage with them in the near future, with a view to starting new projects and seeking further funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.groundhandling.com/reducinggrounddamage/
 
Description Improving crowd resilience and H2020 Secure Societies Collaboration day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact SMEs and academics attended a collaboration day for this activity. The activity was organised by the Defence and Security Accelerator to prompt collaborations and funding applications for the next phase of a project that we are already funded by. We presented work from this (and other) projects, making industry and government officials more aware and more engaged with the research conducted as part of this project. Looking to the future, this event has opened up a number of avenues of collaboration for us, with a view to applying to further funding, as well as future engagement activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Meeting with industry/government officials regarding the use of 3D in airport baggage screening 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact While engaged in an ongoing project in a major UK airport, we took the opportunity to have a detailed discussion with representatives from a number of government and industry groups from the travel and transport security sector relating to the potential benefits from using 3D imaging in modern displays systems. Representatives were from the UK Department for Transport, the International Air Transport Association, and Transec. The emerging results from the studies resulted in a a detailed discussion regarding implementing the use of 3D display systems in both a training context as well as across UK airports.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at Stereoscopic Display conference. Note that this was primarily aimed at computer scientists and industry, therefore broadening the engagement and reach beyond the main target audience of experimental psychology researchers. See also: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IOjBc6TTXbQ
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.stereoscopic.org/2015/program.html
 
Description University of Southampton Open Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The stimuli and basic experimental design of the experiments conducted as part of this project were presented as part of eye-tracking laboratory demonstrations to prospective students and their parents. They were given information regarding the nature of the experiments, the results, and were also encouraged to 'try it for themselves', wearing 3D glasses and viewing the stimuli that we used. Many were very keen to hear about the project, with a large number of interested and enthusiastic questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
 
Description Workshop about Introducing Centralised Image Processing into Airports 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Approximately 100 security managers at airports considering adopting a new practice are being invited to attend this workshop. The workshop will include presentations about experiences of airports that have adopted it, and will also include presentations by us about our evaluation of the effect of the new practice on security effectiveness, business efficiency, and satisfaction of employees and airport passengers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016