Broadly engaging with tranquility: a high resolution pilot study for modelling public perceptions

Lead Research Organisation: University of Winchester
Department Name: Humanities and Social Sciences

Abstract

'Tranquillity' has been defined in various ways, but is generally taken to mean the state of being calm and free from disturbance. Increasingly the concept of tranquillity has become a concern for those managing the countryside and at least partly in consequence, an area of academic research. Indeed, the quest for tranquillity and 'peace and quiet' has been reported as a key motive of members of the public visiting rural areas and has frequently been asserted as a means of enhancing an individual's psychological wellbeing. Moreover the economic benefits of tranquillity have been recognised as a means of addressing economic problems in rural areas, while also having the potential to affect adversely the very condition that is the attraction, tranquillity. In other words increased visits bring an injection of money, but at the same time higher numbers of visitors can reduce tranquillity. A key rural destination for tourists and day visitors tends to be that of protected areas, of which an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) is one of the most identifiable forms of the range of UK protected sites. Organisations managing such locations have clear objectives for conservation as well as the social and economic wellbeing of its residents. Therefore they have to ensure that any development is sensitive to the balance required of ecological, social and economic interests while also fulfilling their statutory duty for providing quiet enjoyment of the countryside. Tranquillity is key to these often competing factors while the need to plan for tranquillity requires credible enquiry that not only captures objective features (e.g. road noise, visibility of infrastructure) but which also harnesses more subjective elements that are highly individualistic, affected not least by experience, the landscape itself and perceptions. One indepth tranquillity study carried out at a coarser resolution to that proposed here, and emphasising objective interpretation, was undertaken in the North-east and in the Chiltern AONB. This provided the foundations of a research framework which has been argued might be transferable to alternative locations. Subsequently further research on a national (i.e. low resolution) basis was conducted by the Universities of Northumbria and Newcastle and was developed by CPRE, resulting in a map of tranquillity in England. While both enquiries have merit, the relevance of their findings to any given locality has been questioned. Moreover the methodologies developed in these studies result in a coarse model of tranquillity of limited use by management authorities interested in small scale developments. Furthermore, given perceptions of tranquillity are highly subjective, and frequently affected by past experiences and landscape features, a locally driven enquiry is required based on interaction with those living in and using the area. The proposed enquiry seeks to produce a high resolution model informed by public consultation for tranquillity in the Dorset AONB by: a) Extensive consultation and reflection on what factors adversely and positively impact on tranquillity. Participants in this exercise will comprise of institutions, user groups, local residents and members of the local business community. A key element of this approach which will add further value to previous studies, is that the views of those classed as the 'hard-to-reach' will equally be targeted. b) Modelling tranquillity using map algebra routines in a geographic information system. Tranquillity ratings in the model will be determined by participants' views acquired through participatory action. c) Results of the tranquillity modelling exercise will be compared to those generated for the same area by the CPRE's national project. d) Beyond the scope of this proposal, but as a direct result of the project, the approach/methodology developed to model tranquillity will be made available to other organisations managing rural areas.

Planned Impact

The key overall impacts of this research concern the unique breadth of community engagement, addressing international and national protected area governance statutes and best practice policies. These impacts are enhanced by the focus that is taken of practical implementation. Other key impact is the use of research findings in the planning and management of a designated and protected area, notably so given the increasing attention (e.g. in the Rio Earth Summit 2012) on enhancing sustainable green economies. Impact will also be in addressing the tension between the the contribution that increased rural tourism can make to local economies while at the same time addressing conservation responsibilities. The project will therefore have a methodological impact that will extend beyond the British Isles. The practical outcome of the project is a GIS model showing community and users' views on tranquillity, which in turn can inform the location of tourism and recreational developments and conservation enhancements. Further, a key objective of the research is the incorporatation of the model in the forthcoming Dorset AONB management plan (2014-2018). The management plan is a statutory document that influences planning policy and programmes across county, district and numerous parish councils as well as informing Village Design Statements. The research will therefore impact policy at a number of levels within the local government hierarchy. Equally under planning policy, sound evidence is required to support the creation of development planning documents. With the extensive and intensive two-way consultation that will take place, and equal attention paid to those classed as the hard-to reach, the results of the research will constitute 'sound evidence' that is required in the creation of community driven policies in the case study area selected. The project will thus have an impact that transforms public views to policy. Lastly, the project will have an impact beyond the local level. A technical paper on its methodology will be written for Natural England, while this, the journal publication and the project website will make the project findings available to international organisations that manage rural areas. In this last respect it is noteworthy that US, Canadian and Spanish natural park authorities have expressed interest in the project team's approach to modelling tranquillity.
 
Title BETER showcased to public. 
Description As with the original project BETP, BETER is being showcased to the public through a month-long exhibition of images at University of Winchester. Subsequently over the summer this exhibition is touring Hampshire. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Too soon to state. 
 
Title BETP - Research Exhibition at University of Winchester 
Description BETP was showcased at the Research Exhibition through a representative image plus narrative. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact This was an opportunity to show BETP to the public through a month-long exhibition of pictorial narratives on research conducted. It resulted in public enquiries on the work, its uses and its future applications. 
 
Description Tranquillity is generally considered a highly subjective and ambiguous concept but nevertheless there is a need to establish a practical definition. This imperative is due to the fact that in many protected areas and indeed in the wider planning contexts there are statutory requirements for the creation, enhancement and protection of tranquil zones. It is also the case that extensive local community engagement in helping to define tranquillity is further legislated and emphasised in best practice. We created the BETP to address these challenges and ultimately produced GIS models of tranquillity of the Purbecks, Dorset.

An extensive range of stakeholder views were collated from representatives of local authorities, managing agencies and of visitors: three stakeholder groups that had informed previous studies. Unlike previous studies local residents and specifically, those classed as the 'hard-to-reach' members of the local community were also involved. The range of participants were categorised in one of four groups involved in the study through four methods of engagement: two series of participatory action consultation(PAC) events, one comprising representatives of governing agencies, one of residents, a householder survey and a series of visitor onsite surveys. By creating these groups, we introduced an additional dimension to tranquillity studies, namely the refinement of local definitions of tranquillity according to each of the views conveyed by these groups. Subsequently, new insights into the subject have been created, by identifying distinctions on views amongst participants, including for example, differences identified according to gender. These findings raise further research questions and in practical terms have implications for how tranquillity is defined, modelled and managed in any given area.

All views, across each of the four participant groups, were counted and informed interpretations of each of the four GIS models constructed. However, limitations in the ability to construct models from qualitative participant feedback meant that only 65% of the views that were originally obtained were used in the construction of the models. With 817 participants conveying more than 9,600 views the study is the largest and most comprehensive consultation of its type in Dorset to-date.
GIS models were produced at a resolution of 5 metres, i.e. each pixel in the model represents an area of 5 x 5 metres, a considerably higher resolution than previous models created at 250mx250m and subsequently of 500mx500m. These models show that in the cases of householders and of visitors, perceptions on non-tranquillity are greater than that reported by representatives of institutions and of governing agencies.
Overall, participants tended to convey more views on tranquillity than non-tranquillity and the extent and intensity of non-tranquillity appears to have increased in comparison with previous GIS models created in 2006. A broad similarity of views was apparent amongst all groups involved in the study with features of the natural environment being primarily associated with tranquillity and 'sheer numbers of people' and anything of 'manmade origin', especially related to 'traffic' along the key arterial routes, with non-tranquillity. These negative factors were particularly true of householders and visitors. It was notable that frequent reference was made amongst the four participant groups to 'coastal environments' as particularly non-tranquil. For the residents, the 'coast' was the only environment identified with non-tranquillity.


Fifty-five percent of the respondents to the householder survey were those ordinarily classed in public consultations as the elusive and 'hard-to reach' members of a community. This result needs further investigation but could be related to the survey method and/or topic presented to them, while it may also be the case that there was a perception of objectivity with a university led consultation not enjoyed by planning authorities.

There were notable distinctions amongst householders between the views of those considered to be active citizens and those classed as the 'hard-to-reach'. The latter tend to report more tranquillity in the area than those engaged actively in decision taking forums. This finding also needs further investigation but could suggest that for those classed as 'hard to reach' the reason for their lack of engagement in decision taking activities, may simply be related to their perception that there is little need for them to be more actively engaged perhaps due to a higher level of tolerance of factors considered by others, to be not tranquil.

The holiday season, and 'feelings of being overcrowded' were cited as contributing to non-tranquillity: a finding perhaps unsurprising given this area is a key tourist destination.

Meeting the Grant objectives: the project aimed to test an approach to tranquillity modelling that could capture then use the breadth and depth of views collated in order to assist our Project Partners in the planning and management of their protected area. A key principle underlying the partnership was that the project could easily be replicated by practitioners in other locations. BETP had six main objectives as set out below with a commentary on each.

1. To investigate the context of tranquillity: four key sources contributing to context were examined. Firstly, academic journals, previous studies on tranquillity and the factors it is considered to comprise informed the theoretical context and the mixed method research framework created. Secondly, literature in the planning discipline and practice of planning. These included internationally recognised best practice in protected area management, local and national planning policies especially in relation to planning reforms in the UK since 2000, with their emphases on community engagement and as identified in the National Planning Policy (2012) and through the EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002), their references to tranquillity. The third source were the working documents and relevant public consultations provided by our partners. The fourth and final source derived from the views of the full range of stakeholders involved in the project. This latter information provided further currency to factors considered to represent tranquillity, informed the creation of the GIS models, and wholly supported the interpretations made of these models.


2. To identify which factors detract/complement tranquillity in the eyes of the public and institutions and by how much; More than 800 participants, representative of local and national institutions, managing agencies, local community groups, local residents and of visitors were involved in conveying more than 9,500 views on tranquillity/non tranquillity. Following analyses of these views, 19 overarching themes were identified to which each view was allocated to one or more theme. The degree to which these factors affected tranquillity was decided according to participants ranking their views and/or by counting the most popular views conveyed on tranquillity and non-tranquillity.


3. To agree by means of consensus a locally defined perspective of tranquillity; this research objective was progressed during the series of PAC events organised at which representatives of each stakeholder group was invited. The principle of consensus was explained and agreed amongst all attendees early on in activities and resulted in each group's agreement on what they considered did or not represent their notions of tranquillity .

Two series of road shows were organised during and at the end of the project to present the total listing of views and the final GIS models. These events were designed specifically to verify the models created with participants, thus creating additional opportunities for them to convey further views and/or agree/disagree with final interpretations made.

4. To quantify views on tranquillity thereby providing measurable factors that can be modelled via map algebra in a geographic information system.
Topographic and other geographical/economic data were obtained from the project partners, Edina Digimap and from government agencies. These data were manipulated within the ArcGIS 10.1 package to produce 70 models representing survey participants' views of factors contributing to tranquillity (both those that contribute and those that detract from tranquillity). For each survey type (i.e. PAC, questionnaire or interview) normalised versions of the models were combined in proportion to votes cast (during consultations) or frequency of responses (collated from questionnaires and interviews) to produce overall tranquillity models.


5. To evaluate by means of extensive consultation with institutions and the public the success of the project in terms of the breadth of engagement secured and the implications of the findings in supporting the design of protected area programmes and planning policies.
On completion of data analyses and production of GIS models, the results were presented to local and national institutions and to the public at our partner's Annual Forum. This event was attended by more than 100 representatives of local bodies, managing agencies, community groups and local residents. The models were also presented during a series of roadshows at all key tourist destinations and at a number of public venues in the case study area. These presentations had two objectives: firstly in presenting what was done and how and secondly, inviting further comments on the methods used, interpretations made, models and maps of tranquillity created.

To-date the project has been presented at fourteen academic conferences in the UK and overseas, inviting ongoing peer review of the research.

This consultation process is ongoing. The study is being presented to government departments, to protected area agencies of national and international authority and to local councils. This is resulting in the research framework being currently considered for adoption in other areas. We are producing papers for dissemination in internationally peer-refereed journals, through collaboration with the British Academy, through collaborating with a number of HEIs in South England and in Spain, as a coauthor on a publication related to place-based policy making, additionally working with national governing agencies in the design of technical reports thus, attracting further scrutiny.


The true measure of the practical use of this study in relation to its impact or influence on the creation of or contribution to the development of planning policies as well as serving to implement objectives of protected area programmes will take time. As such, over the next twelve months, a tracking process will continue as previous years, to be progressed, in order to determine where and how the findings and/or research framework are being used. The results of this 12 month enquiry will be reported in the Narrative Report.

6. To make the approach/methodology available to those managing other rural areas via publication (journal, technical report and website).
The research framework and methodology is being made available to academics, practitioners and members of the public via conferences, webpages, publications and as policy briefing reports. In addition, following meetings with a number of national governing agencies we are currently collaborating with them to adapt the BETP methodology for use in other geographic areas.

The results of the BETP are being taken forward by the BETP PI through the design of an automated tranquillity survey and mapping system - BETER - this product is currently being progressed in collaboration with Keene State College, and will be completed in April 2018 from which time the BETER will be promoted for use nationwide with Local Planning authorities. This progression addresses practitioners requests to be able to conduct their own BETP quickly and enable longitudinal studies to be conducted by their own staff to monitor changes in tranquillity especially in rural spaces.
Exploitation Route Our research outcomes have been and will be taken forward through both academic and non-academic routes.


As previously noted, the findings and the methods used have already been presented at 14 conferences and practitioner annual forums in both the UK and overseas. These activities have resulted in the PI engaging in three international networks of academics and practitioners focused on citizen engagement, landscape management and enhancing governance of rural and/or protected areas. Following the adoption of the BET by a Fulbright Commission Researcher in the north of England and in the United States, collaboration resulted in the development of a 4th international network , the aims of which are to progress research into the practice of public participation in GIS modelling and to develop a template of a Tranquillity GIS model that can be used quickly and effectively in any urban and/or rural location. We are continuing to progress the project with academic journals.

Attending practitioner forums has created opportunities to work with a number of governing bodies in adapting the approach and methodology to their areas. One such forum has resulted in discussions with two other AONBs, both of whom are working with us to adopt BETP in their location, one as part of a Heritage Lottery Funding programme.

Moreover, as the key findings and outputs of the project have implications for how and who defines, evaluates and measures tranquillity in a given area, other managing agencies and national governing bodies have shown interest in the work. Interests are particularly demonstrated in relation to implementing management plans (evidence provided against additional criteria in this report) and to authorities' duties in implementing the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) and the Environmental Noise Directive (END). Adopting the BETP to contribute to implementing END would mean adapting the framework to include urban areas for which our high resolution of 5mx5m models would serve studies in these intensively developed areas.

At the local level, our partners, the team of the Dorset AONB, have continued to use the findings to implement their management plan objectives for enhancing tranquillity in the AONB and to inform subsequent plans and policies (see previously reported and evidenced updates). The results are timely and are currently assisting the AONB team in using the findings in their discussions with their partner local authorities on their implementation of directives under the National Planning Policy Framework, (NPPF) esp. Para: 123 that identifies a need to protect tranquil environments and in constructing their Strategic Environmental Assessment. One of these Authorities has consulted the findings in making decisions they need to take to complete their Preferred Options Document (part of the suite of planning documents required to create Local Plans that determine how the planning system will contribute to shaping the local community). All authorities have adopted management plans, in which our research is cited as being of influence taken on relevant aspects of this statutory document

The collaborations and partnerships developed through the BET have further been progressed in the creation of another research project that will be concerned with health and wellbeing of the public and of a range of green spaces. In addition as noted above a further project to automate BET is being taken forward with the BETER GIS product, which once completed will be progressed by Local Planning Authorities and Management Teams in AONBs.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Other

URL http://www.winchester.ac.uk/tranquillity
 
Description The framework created as a result of the BETP has had wide ranging impact on community oriented projects and particularly those driven by public sector activities. This popularity has been due to BETP's extensive use in the identification of tranquil/non tranquil spaces according to local residents, visitors and institutions views on rural, semi-rural and urban locations in Purbecks, Dorset. Consequently this work has encouraged substantial engagement with managing agencies, Local Planning Authorities and with national governing bodies. At the local level BETP's framework and its findings have provided the team of the Dorset AONB with a unique benchmark of tranquillity specific to the Purbecks, Dorset. This result marks a key milestone in the management, evaluation and monitoring of Tranquillity, as a statutorily designated Special Quality of the AONB, for which the potential to conduct a longitudinal study is being considered. Subsequently, BETP's framework and its findings are being used to inform decisions taken on the implementation of the AONB's current management plan, will consequently inform the formulation of the subsequent management plan 2019-2024 and ultimately, will be used to inform the AONB's responses to consultations from and more than 100 planning appeals, with local planning authorities on strategic planning issues. Consequently, to date the BETP has informed decisions taken on the implementation of policies concerning Minerals and Waste Strategies, the Local Plan, Strategic Environmental Assessments, and the creation of a monitoring system that adopts Natural Capital Accounting standards to monitor changes in the environment. Our research continues to inform decisions especially taken in relation to housing and infrastructure developments and the progression of UK and EU strategic frameworks concerning conservation and development objectives inclusive of those concerned with 'Dark Skies'. Whilst conservation is a key priority for local managing agencies, the area also serves as a major tourism destination. As such, managing agencies have to balance the direction of both tourism developments with conservation priorities. This dual management role is being informed by the consolidation of the BETP GIS models into an interactive tranquillity map of the area subsequently, decisions taken on tourism development and visitor management strategies will be enhanced. Additionally, the 'Tranquillity Explorer' that will result has been available for public access. Use of this service is envisaged by tourism operators in promoting local tranquil spaces and by visitors as a guide to accessing many of the tranquil areas identified in the Purbecks. Through engagement with local charities and the Jurassic World Heritage Education team, the Tranquillity Explorer has also expected to result as an educational resource for use in schools, colleges and universities particularly in relation to studies concerning heritage management, geography and the development of rural and coastal tourism economies. Additional practitioner interest is demonstrated in a number of BET projects being created in alternative locations. One such example is planned for 2017 in South of England. A programme of projects, funded through Heritage Lottery Funding, is supporting the design of a tranquillity project that is wholly founded on the BETP yet extends community consultation further by targeting specifically the views of the young and the elderly. This project emphasises the inclusionary nature of BETP's principles for public consultation through a variety of processes that include not only the spoken word but also the articulation of community views through the use of art media. National interest in the BETP is increasing through numerous meetings held with planning officer networks and with representatives from a number of governing bodies including, DEFRA, Natural England, NAAONB, DCLG, National Parks UK and National Trust. Discussions currently concern the use of the BETP framework in the formulation and implementation of local and particularly national planning policies and EU directives: all of which concern the identification of spaces that are prized by local communities for key aspects including their recreational, tranquil and/or wildlife values. This focus on the public as beneficiaries of tranquil spaces and experiences is being very recently extended through increasing government, NHS and public attention on political and economic agendas concerning quality of life and health and wellbeing. Activities are culminating in the creation of a working party that is comprised the BET Principal Investigator, protected area managers, public health officers and planning policy officers. The key objective of discussions concerns the transference of the BETP method to other areas and especially those regarded as natural green spaces. A further output of BETP has been the design of the BETER project reported in outcomes. This computer coding system in GIS will see tranquillity studies automated: making the use of BETER increasingly attractive for the practical use of local authorities in their implementation of their statutory duties under National Planning Policy (2012) and the forthcoming revision of the same in 2018. The BETER is completed following testing in April 2018. It is freely available to all 146 Local Planning Authorities .
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Environment,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Transport,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description BET contributes to national policy
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Facilitating the implementation of national planning policy.
 
Description Contributing to content of Technical Briefing Note on Tranquillity - Landscape Institute
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://www.landscapeinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Tranquillity-An-Overview-1-DH.pdf
 
Description Dorset AONB Management Plan 2019-2024
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact The Management Plan is a statutory document revised every 5 years. In the current compilation of this Plan, we have been advised by our partners Dorset AONB (Tom Munro Manager in email communication , 14 March 2019) that 'Tranquillity and our research was a significant point in the preparation of the Dorset AONB Management Plan 2019-2024 which has now been adopted by all local authority partners. The preparation of this plan took over a year, and our understanding of what tranquillity is and how it can be conserved has been deeply enhanced by our understanding developed through BETP. Maintaining (and enhancing) tranquillity is an important aspect of AONB Management generally; our understanding of what it actually is has been greatly enhanced by out BETP experience.' 'Impacts on tranquillity', (thus insight informed by our tranquillity research), 'are always considered in the Dorset AONB Partnership's work in development control and forward planning. In the last 12 months we have provided advice to the local planning authorities in over 100 development proposal cases. BETP output has been used during assessment of options for a new off-road cycling route from Norden (Corfe Castle) to Studland. This potential route is still being planned'
URL https://www.dorsetaonb.org.uk/assets/DAONB-MANAGEMENT-PLAN-InterimDesignedVersion.pdf
 
Description Dorset AONB Strategic Assessment (Draft) Report 2018
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact This document, and our Tranquillity research, have already informed the development of the DAONB Management Plan, (evidenced in documentation received from DAONB) thus Tranquillity is equally referred to in the Management Plan - https://www.dorsetaonb.org.uk/assets/DAONB-MANAGEMENT-PLAN-InterimDesignedVersion.pdf . Tranquility and our research was a significant point in the preparation of the Dorset AONB Management Plan 2019-2024 which has now been adopted by all local authority partners. The preparation of this plan took over a year, and our understanding of what tranquillity is and how it can be conserved has been deeply enhanced by our understanding developed through BETP. Thus our work has further influenced and informed the design of the Landscape Characteristics related to the AONB and the design of a suite of monitorables that are based on Natural Capital accounting standards. These standards will be used up to 2024 to determine if policy is having an impact on the AONB and if so how this impact is being played out during these 5 years.
URL https://www.dorsetaonb.org.uk/assets/2018-DRAFT-Environmental-Report.pdf
 
Description Enhancing Working Practice - Dorset AONB Protected Area Management Team
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Until this point, understanding for tranquillity and specifically in the case study area, was a wholly unknown quantity for the team of the Dorset AONB. Through the collation of more than 9,000 views across four distinct groups consulted, the team's knowledge base on their public's views has been vastly extended enhancing their decisions taken on environmental and development issues. Our partners and the BETP team will be monitoring evidence of how this increase in knowledge will contribute to their decisions taken over the coming year.
 
Description Enhancing research method training for postgraduate students
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Influence on practice: the Case of Kent, Darent Valley
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact BET has informed the design of a programme of projects due to commence in Autumn of 2017 that focuses on improving conservation of the Kent AONB, improving public accessibility to tranquil spaces, engaging with the young and elderly , and improving delivery of public services as part of a Heritage Lottery Funded project. Tranquillity studies are one part of this programme for which the BET framework is being used. The BET team are providing advice and training to existing workforce on GIS and research skills required. A number of additional impacts and influences on policy and practice will be additionally recorded in 2018.
URL http://www.kentdowns.org.uk/visiting/darent-valley-landscape-partnership-scheme
 
Description Landscape Institute - Position Statement and Reccommendations on Tranquillity
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://www.landscapeinstitute.org/technical-resource/tranquillity/
 
Description National Association of AONBs - support in the revision of AONB Management Plans in England
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact In theory the above impacts are argued for by the compilation and purpose of the document referred to above. In practice a number of AONB teams around England have been either progressing their own tranquillity studies as a result of our tranqullity research, and using our methods and tools created through our project; or at the least have discussed with us how they might progress their Tranquillity studies. Examples in Kent, Dorset, South Devon, and Yorkshire.
URL https://naaonb.basecamphq.com/projects/9528559-aonb-family-forum/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&scope=all&ter...
 
Description Using the BET in decisions on Development Management and in Strategic Planning
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Tranquillity was a wholly unknown, if not assumed, quantity in the case study area albeit identified as a 'Special Quality' of this AONB. The results from the BETP through the extensive research undertaken, has greatly enhanced the AONB team's understanding for tranquillity from distinct perspectives comprising institutions, local residents in and visitors to the case study area. It further serves to provide a benchmark of data upon which additional studies anticipated for the future, might be built. This increased and extensive understanding for tranquillity is considered to improve the efficacy of decisions taken by the AONB team on balancing their environmental and social responsibilities with development matters. Thus, it is ultimately anticipated that such knowledge will additionally lead to the enhanced delivery of their services to the public and in the management of this protected area.
 
Description Higher Education Innovation Funding (HEIF) - Industrial Strategy Implementation
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation Higher Education Innovation Funding (HEIF) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 01/2019
 
Description RKE Funding - Increasing investigation of research, collaborative activities and impacts - participatory workshops and conference.
Amount £8,800 (GBP)
Organisation University of Winchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 06/2017
 
Description Research and Knowledge Exchange Award
Amount £7,386 (GBP)
Organisation University of Winchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description Research and Knowledge Exchange Award
Amount £5,422 (GBP)
Organisation University of Winchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2015 
End 07/2016
 
Description University of Winchester Leadership scheme for Research
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Winchester 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 05/2019
 
Title TRANQUILLITY PYTHON 
Description Building on the BET research design and framework for capturing, analysing and processing data through GIS, the PI and a co-researcher, designed a GIS python modelling system (BETER) that facilitates an electronic and virtual production of tranquillity according to the characteristics of other areas of either urban or rural design . 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact BETER has and is continuing to be used in Dorset AONB to increase insight of how Tranquillity as a Special quality of AONBs is continuously being managed. Thus its data has influenced the compilation of the Dorset AONB and Dorset County Council State of Environment report 2018. BETER has also been progressed in Kent, where is it informing decisions taken on progressing a tranquillity study across the Kent AONB; 
 
Title BETER core database for use with ArcGIS 
Description BETER uses python codes to automate Tranquillity studies the guidance of which is derived from BETP. 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It will be made available on 16th April 2018. 
 
Title GIS tranquillity indicators 
Description All intermediate and fully completed GIS models of tranquillity 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact See impacts recorded throughout this portfolio. In addition, the extension of BET to Kent, York, Devon and new models currently being developed in Maine, New Hampshire United States though Keene University and via a Fullbright Commission. In this latter case a Python GIS model is currently being created to progress tranquil studies further in other areas. 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/851934/
 
Title Qualitative and Quantitative Datasets and databases. 
Description All qualitative and quantitative raw and refined datasets and data analyses relevant to BET 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Use of BET in Kent, York, Devon, Dorset and in United States, Maine, New Hampshire via Keene University in the use of BET overseas. 
URL http://reshare.ukdataservice.ac.uk/851934/
 
Description Broadly Engaging with Tranquillity - Easy & Refined (BETER) 
Organisation Keene State College
PI Contribution The original study (BETP) has been of interest to a number of Local Authorities throughout England and overseas. However, a key request from practitioners has concerned the automation of tranquillity research so that more studies may be conducted quicker, at a reduced cost and that might allow easily and effectively the ability to conduct their own longitudinal studies to evaluate changes to tranquillity in urban or rural spaces. Additionally, consideration has to ensure that the outputs of the studies are legitimate that is acceptable to the public in designs taken as to the use and management of urban and rural areas. Since 2015, we have been considering this automation process and following a successful collaboration with Keene, funded through the Fulbright Commission in 2016, a Tranquillity Study was conducted in York. From this the PI for BETP and the Fulbright researcher at York commenced a design framework for automating tranquillity studies that could be applicable in any area. Through funding generated through HEIF to implement the UK Industrial Strategy 2017, we designed BETER which uses python scripting and the original BETP data to support ultimately the design of a user-friendly framework that could be used by any of the 146 Local Planning Authorities in the UK or overseas in America. The PI for this work is myself, on behalf of University of Winchester . Our contribution is supplying the original BETP data, contributing to the design of the BETER, advice on UK planning technical aspects, brokering engagement with the Local Authorities and capturing further data required and writing up reports on the same. The original county of Dorset is selected for the first case study to test the BETER, a second county Kent has been engaged. Discussions are currently being held with HEIs in Spain to progress BETER es and provide comparative studies/insight into how the concept of tranquillity might be influenced according to cultural aspects. An academic paper is being compiled.
Collaborator Contribution Keene's team led on the use of python coding .
Impact 2016 A tranquillity study has been conducted in the Howardian Hills, York enabled through funds supplied via the Fulbright Commission. A paper is pending submission for publication on this study. Whilst we are still testing for completion the automation work necessary, we are receiving invitations to use BETER in other areas on behalf of other authorities.The collaboration is multi-disciplinary: social sciences, natural sciences, professions - planning policy; GIS. Presence on the Web is pending for completion in Summer 2019: this will enable the promotion of BETER and launch a BETER user forum, engaging with public sector and academic audiences.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Public Health, wellbeing and green spaces 
Organisation Bournemouth University
Department Business School
PI Contribution Developing from the partnership encouraged to progress the BET, the team developed through the partnership arrangements mentioned above are currently developing a new research project.
Collaborator Contribution Providing expertise according to topics required to be covered and in accessing secondary data.
Impact Typology of landscape types constructed. Multi-disciplinary project engaging with environmental science, social sciences, public health, geography, economics.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Public Health, wellbeing and green spaces 
Organisation Dorset County Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Developing from the partnership encouraged to progress the BET, the team developed through the partnership arrangements mentioned above are currently developing a new research project.
Collaborator Contribution Providing expertise according to topics required to be covered and in accessing secondary data.
Impact Typology of landscape types constructed. Multi-disciplinary project engaging with environmental science, social sciences, public health, geography, economics.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Public Health, wellbeing and green spaces 
Organisation Public Health England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Developing from the partnership encouraged to progress the BET, the team developed through the partnership arrangements mentioned above are currently developing a new research project.
Collaborator Contribution Providing expertise according to topics required to be covered and in accessing secondary data.
Impact Typology of landscape types constructed. Multi-disciplinary project engaging with environmental science, social sciences, public health, geography, economics.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Public Health, wellbeing and green spaces 
Organisation University of Plymouth
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developing from the partnership encouraged to progress the BET, the team developed through the partnership arrangements mentioned above are currently developing a new research project.
Collaborator Contribution Providing expertise according to topics required to be covered and in accessing secondary data.
Impact Typology of landscape types constructed. Multi-disciplinary project engaging with environmental science, social sciences, public health, geography, economics.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Where We Live Now - making sense of place 
Organisation The British Academy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The compilation of a chapter to a publication produced by the British Academy on place based policy making. This chapter took the BET and translated the research and its findings of relevance to discussions on communities making sense of place.
Collaborator Contribution The British Academy, policy unit, led on the collation of multiple chapters that presented funded and non funded research related to place-based policy decisions. The publication is being used to encourage Secretary of State and DCLG to create and emphasise place-based policies.
Impact Publication and Policy Briefing on place based policy making in the UK. Publication launch and press meeting - March 2017, London BA HQ.
Start Year 2016
 
Title BETER 
Description BETER is the result of taking the original BETP data framework and creating Python codes to automate the data initially across the county of Dorset, subsequently in Kent. Once completed, the entire product and a user manual will be provided free of charge to all 146 Local Planning Authorities in the UK. This innovative product will then afford each of the authorities the opportunity to conduct their own Tranquillity survey, cost effectively, easily and legitimately in political terms - a situation which has been challenged in recent times due to budget cuts, staff skills in GIS, and particularly an inability to agree nationally amongst Authorities, on a quantitatively designed process that all can defend in planning appeals. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Whilst this product is only just nearing completion, we have already been approached to conduct the BETER in other areas and consider its ability to applied to other evaluations of abstract land qualities such as 'beauty'. Its outputs have been used to inform design of AONB Management Plans i.e. in Dorset, on Strategic documents such as Strategic Environmental Assessment, Dorset (2017-2024) 
 
Description Collaborative discussions on implementing National Policy (London/Winchester) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussion held with a DEFRA research team to consider collaborative working with the Broadly Engaging with Tranquillity Research team in the implementation of END, Environmental Noise Directive.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Development of Applied Research and Knowledge Exchange Network ARKEN 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Research networks are an essential element of academic life. As represented by the RCUK (2017) they act as vital mechanisms for: sharing best practice amongst peers across institutions and their research centres in the UK and overseas; discussing distinct methodologies to specific subject enquiries; sharing insights on research, on complexities in evidencing impacts as practical outcomes, on progressing proposals for external funds and/or consultancy commissions to more practical challenges in managing knowledge exchange and dissemination activities amongst academics and institutions, practitioners from the public and/or private sectors and directly with the public. At the heart of this network is a collaborative thus supportive environment conducive to the range of research experience found in an academic institution . ARKEN was launched in 2017 derived as a direct output of the work conducted through the BETP and its network of academics and practitioners that was cultivated between 2013 and 2016.Since this time ARKEN has attracted seasoned academics and early career researchers, representatives from our postgraduate communities from each of the Faculties at Winchester, and engaged with representatives from other institutions inclusive of the Fulbright Commission, the British Academy and from public and private sector practices.To-date the combined outputs of ARKEN members has resulted in:
• the compilation of ARKEN's first Symposium on applied research and knowledge exchange at UoW's RKE week 2017 and the forthcoming 2018 Symposium;
• the development of a Memorandum of Understanding with a National Heritage Association and amongst its partners across the UK to pave the way for reciprocal activities in progressing knowledge of our students, of our colleague practitioners through their participation in our research and ultimately, in practically utilising, where relevant, our research outputs - thus strengthening our impacts on practice (ESRC 2017) ;
• collaborative activities with Keene State College, U.S on a research project that is funded through HEIF;
• the mentoring of early career researchers in i) producing papers for publication ii) evaluating external funding opportunities for progressing their research iii) the completion of internal funding bids to RKE;
• discussions with Winchester University Press(WUP) to progress potential publishing options, including Open Access e-publishing specifically related to ARKEN's outputs and those of its members, collaborative activities - challenges and opportunities - on applied research and its impacts.
o The efforts required to provide a publishing platform to ARKEN members, will additionally serve to provide network members with opportunities to gain experience on editorial boards, as committee members, as reviewers, and for the seasoned academics amongst us, as mentors to early career researchers seeking publishing experience. In so doing, opportunities for personal career progression are additionally being created;
• Ultimately, through increasing the profile of Knowledge Exchange and Applied Research at Winchester, ARKEN is contributing to address HEFCE's claims in 2017 that academia across the UK, needs to not only increase but emphasise their activities, competencies and emphases on their Knowledge Exchange remit (HEFCE 2017) - for which clearly the upcoming Knowledge Exchange Framework (KEF) will undoubtedly highlight.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Dorset AONB website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact inclusion of BET in website has been identified by a community group campaigning for National Park status in the Dorset AONB and led to their inclusion of the BET in their consultation response documents to Natural England and DEFRA. Discussions continue.

Request by Devon County Council to present as key note speaker at planners convention in 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.dorsetaonb.org.uk/our-work/tranquillity-dark-skies
 
Description Encouraging use of BET findings and/or its framework (Dorset) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our partners are working to promote the use of the research framework and the findings with their Local Planning Authorities. One such meeting has been held to date. This resulted in the BET findings being consulted by a local planning authority in how they might implement their duties on identifying tranquil spaces according to the National Planning Policy Framework.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Extending principles of Knowledge Exchange to Bridge the Gap between practice and university education 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The principle of Knowledge Exchange amongst the Project Partners , was extended to also engage with colleagues, as early career researchers, and a group of 15 postgraduate and undergraduate students. Following a 12 week training course provided to colleagues and students, they were engaged to support the progression of the BETP as either facilitators, observers or note takers at a series of participatory action research groups held during the first stage of data collection. In so doing, other than showcasing the extension of the BETP's Knowledge Exchange principles , this opportunity additionally provided colleagues and students' with experience of research partnership projects that required use of a number of transferable skills, not least in facilitating practical workshops but also demonstrated the importance of social skills in networking amongst professional practitioners and local politicians, representatives of the public and private sectors. Following this activity, one colleague embarked on a PhD comprised Mixed Methods, 5 of the undergraduate students embarked on postgraduate study and/or progressed into facilitator's roles working in the field of community development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.winchester.ac.uk/tranquillity
 
Description Planners Network Meeting (Swindon) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of the Broadly Engaging with Tranquillity project to a network of planning officers representing the 'SW, SE and Eastern AONB locations and the National Trust'. . Their objective was to consider the utility of the BET framework to assist in their identification of tranquil spaces in their own jurisdictions. This activity created much discussion afterwards and requests for further meetings on a 1:1 basis. It also resulted in the National Association of AONBs, inviting the PI as a keynote speaker at their Annual Forum 2016. We expect more activity to follow on these relations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Practitioner Workshop organised at the Royal Geographical Society, International Annual Conference, London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Creation and lead on Practitioner - Academic Workshop at the Royal Geographical Society International Annual Conference 2016. Using BETP I drew together, co-working with Dorset AONB and the NAAONBs, more than 50 public sector executives from fields of public health, urban and landscape planners/architects. From this a collaborative arrangement has been agreed amongst landscape and urban planners, academics from three universities, (led by University of Winchester and the BET PI), and with public health executives, to progress an additional research project that not only seeks to extend the BET's power of capturing and quantifying perceptions further but divert its attention to ultimately contribute to progressing public health and wellbeing from accessing an exemplar range of quality, green spaces.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.rgs.org/NR/rdonlyres/9E2A0BF0-2363-4B96-9A62-E9D26F853C27/0/AC2016programmebookforweblowr...
 
Description Significant Spaces - research project (Health Wellbeing and Green Spaces) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This project in itself, is drawing on the multidisciplinary skills and knowledge of a group of academics and practitioners who are working up a bid to submit this year for a Research Grant from RCUK/ESRC/NERC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Tranquillity Policy Seminar (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Following an invitation to join this working group, led by the CPRE, the PI of the Broadly Engaging with Tranquillity Project engaged in discussion on how tranquillity research might be progressed to update information currently held on the subject and subsequently inform how national planning policy could be implemented. The panel comprised representatives of DEFRA Policy team, of South Downs National Park Authority and QC Planning Specialist. Members of the group, included landscape planners from a number of AONBs in England.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Where we live now 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to a blog managed by the British Academy and supporting the British Academy initiative: promoting place based policy making 'where we live now' - aim of which is to present via policy briefings the notion of place based policy making to Whitehall.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://wherewelivenow.com/category/tranquility/