Large development investment and local peacebuilding in rural Africa: building and sustaining peace at the margins.

Lead Research Organisation: Institute of Development Studies
Department Name: Research Department

Abstract

Across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), many of the largest development projects currently underway are in remote rural areas. These include the £15 billion Lamu-South Sudan-Ethiopian Transport Corridor Project, which will connect a new port facility at Lamu on the Kenyan coast with northern Kenya, Ethiopia and South Sudan through rail and road links as well as an oil pipeline and related refinery capacity. In the interior of Sierra Leone, a UK-Chinese consortium has launched a multi-billion pound operation in the Tonkolili mining complex, one of the world's largest defined reserves of iron ore. These projects are part of a modern scramble for Africa's land and resources and entail unprecedented levels of new investment. They are often in marginal rural areas that were long neglected by states and have a legacy of conflict and violence. The vast majority living at the rural margins have been only minimally captured by market and state institutions and instead rely on informal relations and institutions to promote peace and regulate land and resource access. While it is widely assumed that big development will transform the lives and livelihoods of rural populations, there are many examples that large development investment can be deeply destabilising and actually lead to new violence while doing little to create new jobs, spur local entrepreneurship or promote peace.

This project relates to the third theme of the call that is concerned with how to minimise the risk of violence and its impacts on the poor. It examines how and why local peacebuilding efforts succeed in minimising violence in contexts where there are large new investments, focusing on the remote rural areas of Kenya and Sierra Leone.

Through rigorous fieldwork in different settings of local politics and governance in northern Kenya and northern Sierra Leone, it tests the assumption that efforts to reduce the threat of violence and its impacts on the poor are more likely to succeed where they support local nstitutions and relations to build and sustain peace. A combination of methods will be used including a survey of households in the study sites, semi-structured interviews as well as informal discussions and interactions to develop a nuanced understanding of the institutions and relations that communities use to solve their problems and negotiate for better outcomes. In both Kenya and Sierra Leone a senior scholar will work closely with an early career researcher through the life of the project to transfer skills in generating and analysing data as well as making knowledge accessible to non-academic stakeholders. In Kenya we will work closely with Dr. Roba Duba Sharamo, a senior academic affiliated with the Future Agricultures Consortium who previously headed the Institute for Security Studies in Addis Ababa. In Sierra Leone, the team will be led by Professor Paul Richards from Njala University. The teams will partner with Saferworld in Kenya and Conciliation Resources in Sierra Leone to develop plans to translate the research findings into usable resources for a variety of development stakeholders, including states, national and local civil society, foreign investors, and donor and aid agencies. These will be discussed at knowledge sharing events in Nairobi and Freetown with senior officials. Events in the UK will be organised with targeted stakeholders including British-based overseas private investors in Kenya and Sierra Leone, the British Overseas NGOs for Development association, EU and OECD representatives, the DFID Fragile States and Conflict Team, and the All Party Parliamentary Groups on Conflict Issues and on Africa.

Planned Impact

The primary beneficiaries are government, investor, aid & civil society actors who have a stake in peacebuilding in marginal rural areas of Kenya and Sierra Leone. More broadly, the research will benefit aid agencies supporting peacebuilding in remote rural areas as well as researchers in the fields of development studies, political science, IR/conflict/peace studies. Governments, investors & aid actors will benefit from practical insights and workable ideas on the types of hybrid governance arrangements that effectively build peace and promote better outcomes for the poor. Civil society will benefit from empirical knowledge & policy evidence to strengthen their own advocacy efforts to promote accountability and mechanisms for redress for local communities affected by large development projects in marginal rural areas. Thus, it is hoped that the poor would ultimately benefit through greater opportunities to voice their interests and needs, make appeals and complaints and settle disputes. Broader lessons will be derived from the research that will benefit other sub- Saharan African countries facing similar challenges of poverty reduction and peacebuilding in marginal rural areas. Academics will benefit from new conceptual insights & empirical knowledge on rural violence as well as the relationship between large development investments and local conflicts. The team will complete a stakeholder mapping exercise during the inception phase through informal discussions and structured interviews with key informants and stakeholders in the UK, Kenya & Sierra Leone. The stakeholder maps will be presented and discussed at workshops in both countries. Given the complexity of the research themes as well as the multiple actors who are involved, the seminars will help the research team to prioritise beneficiaries as well as to generate their buy-in for the research objectives. Further, annual reflection meetings will be organised to assess the research objectives and capture key findings as they emerge. These will involve the teams for each country as well as someone external who can help the teams to critically reflect. The project will provide opportunities at local and national levels for sharing knowledge and network building. In research sites, relationships with community decision-makers, civil society interlocutors, the private sector and local authorities will be fostered during the research to reflect on the research questions in an iterative process and build momentum around the implementation of eventual policy recommendations. At the national level, the research team will draw on existing relationships with peacebuilding institutions. In Kenya, the team will draw on Saferworld's ties to the National Steering Committee on Peacebuilding, the National Cohesion & Integration Commission, the Kenya Partnership for Peace and Security, and grassroots peacebuilding organisations. In Sierra Leone, CR has relationships with the Office of National Security, the Mano River Union Secretariat, various Government Ministries, civil society groups and conflict affected communities. We will build links with government ministries, particularly for agriculture, land, finance and trade, drawing on relationships through the Future Agricultures Consortium in Kenya and Njala University in Sierra Leone; the focus will be to identify interlocutors and 'change agents' able to champion research findings within their respective institutions.
For wider international audiences, a policy event will be organised in London with Saferworld & CR . Representatives from DFID, the EC, OECD, and industry representatives will be invited. Saferworld will assist in planning a seminar to the BOND Conflict Policy Group, which it co-chairs. Four policy briefings will be produced with Saferworld & CR, one each on Kenya and Sierra Leone and two on broader policy aspects of the research. Three academic journal articles are planned, and presentations at ECAS, BISA & DSA.
 
Description Large resource development projects in marginal rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are being pursued by a host of global investors. These projects are encouraged by central governments and promoted as part of national economic development. They increase the strategic presence of both global capital and the state in areas that are distant from political and economic power, and that sometimes have legacies of conflict. Critically, resource developments have the potential to transform local governance arrangements and institutions, including those that support peace-building.

Over three years, this project examined how conflict, local governance and peace-building arrangements in the rural margins of Ivory Coast and Kenya are affected by new, large-scale investments in resource exploitation. Governance and peacebuilding in remote rural areas of both countries have typically been the preserve of hybrid structures in which the state partners with a diverse range of local intermediaries and alternative sources of authority to enforce commitments and facilitate compromise between competing groups at the local level. In Ivory Coast, political trends have emphasised a continuing centralisation of powers, against a backdrop of persistent regional divisions and national political violence. Kenya is in the early years of a devolved system that locates significant powers and public funds in recently established county governments. The creation of devolved political administrative structures has raised the stakes for sub-national political competition, with evidence of increased conflict in some places.

The research has supported efforts to broaden debate by generating critical insights and evidence on if, how and why local peacebuilding succeeds in areas of new resource exploitation and, thus, help to reduce conflict risks and strengthen governance.

Research questions
We hypothesised that an intensification of outside investments and greater state presence at the margins will transform relations and institutions, and thus influence abilities to successfully manage the risks, causes and impacts of both historic and emerging conflict. In light of this, the project asked:

1. What are the consequences of new large scale investments on local institutions, relations, conflict dynamics and violence?

2. What new hybrid orders emerge, and how successfully do these address local understandings of peace-building and both historic and emerging conflict?

3. What measures can be taken, at policy and practical levels, to promote conflict sensitive approaches to large investments in marginal rural areas?

Key insights from Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast is rich in minerals, including gold, iron ore, diamond, manganese and other minerals, but growth in mining activities in Ivory Coast has been relatively limited until recently due to high extraction costs and a policy focus on developing the agricultural sector. A boom in extractive industry investment, particularly around gold, is currently underway. The mining sector is quickly becoming an important source of national income, and could help to finance part of the government's development agenda in the coming years.

The government adopted a new mining code in 2014 that defines key policy objectives linked to transparency, accountability and participation. Prior to the Mining Code and the implementation of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), the governance system involved the central government and the companies operating the mines. Relationships between mining companies and residents of mining communities were informal. The Mining Code 2014 seeks to formalise relationships between mining companies and the local people, through the creation of the Mining Local Development Committee (Comité de Développement Local Minier - CDLM).

The project focused on the largest mining sites in Ity, near Zouan Hounien in the Liberian/Guinean borders. Two conflict issues are at play:

The first is that the mining company has been negotiating development projects just with the traditional chiefs but have bypassed the 'big men' which have an important influence in the region. These big men, which occupy important positions in the capital city, still have an important influence in the region development and have therefore created political and social conflicts for their demands to be heard, especially around the creation of the CDML. The second is the relationship between the mining company and gold pawning. Gold pawning is an important livelihood for many local inhabitants. There are however many incidents on the boundary of the mining site between the private security guards and the artisanal diggers. The issue is further complicated by the fact that local inhabitants are not aware of the legal procedures for obtaining permits around artisanal mining. But gold pawning is not limited to local inhabitants. Transnational organized crime networks are developing with semi-industrial methods, creating much environmental distress. These networks are well organized and corruption is widespread along these practices.
Like the issue of land tenure, these issues may be instrumentalised and bounce back at the national level. Indeed, Ivory Coast still faces political and security challenges, such as the mutinies that occurred in 2017.

Key insights from Kenya
Research in Kenya examined the impacts and influences of recent oil development in Turkana County, one of the country's poorest inhabited predominantly by livestock-keeping groups. Oil exploration and appraisal activity is the largest inflow of global capital in the history of Turkana. Exploration operations by Tullow and Africa Oil began in 2010, the same year that Kenyans voted for a new constitution paving the way for devolution and the establishment of county government structures in 2013.

While oil extraction is thought to extend the reach of national government and to heighten securitisation, oil operations and plans have been extensively challenged by county government officials as well as local networks. These are keen to benefit from oil development, minimise harm to local lives and livelihoods and assert local rights and claims. While certain state and investor actors might seek to shore up security around project sites, there is no way to circumvent continuous engagement with a wide assortment of community stakeholder groups.

Furthermore, oil development is associated with new conflict risks. Changing governance as well as the new value attached to oil in the region is changing the calculus of peacebuilding. The efficacy of cut and paste peacebuilding approaches that valorise traditional leadership is limited, as new actors have emerged in dialogues and protests around large resource and infrastructure developments. Many efforts have failed to gain traction and are not sustainable beyond the cycle of a project and outside funding.

Security governance around large-scale developments is likely to be more effective where it constructively engages with and reinforces emergent local structures that insist on benefits, rights and accountability. Further, supporting vital local peace work often involves close observation and efforts to understand what are often hidden 'internal' conversations, rather than funding public shows of dialogue and negotiation.
Exploitation Route The project has generated practical resources and policy guidance on how to strengthen peacebuilding effectiveness in the study areas. These include policy briefings, a digital story and a photo exhibition that detail key findings and lessons from the study. These have already been shared through seminars/events in the UK, at the national and sub-national levels in Ivory Coast and Kenya. Importantly, the findings highlight the complexities of peacebuilding in situations of new largescale extractive development, and the pitfalls of approaches that valorise localised peace work. They will be of interest to communities of peacebuilding practice in both countries, but also more widely in other contexts where new extraction is unfolding. The findings open up new research questions to take forward by others, but also signal the need to link local efforts with wider political economy efforts. These are usually highly contextual and difficult. Our work shows how this is approached in two case studies. The digital resources can also be used by policy makers, practitioners and investors to open up new thinking on the challenge of large investment, and how to negotiate local political economy spaces where endogenous capital plays an important role.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy

URL http://www.ids.ac.uk/project/large-development-investment-and-local-peacebuilding-in-rural-africa-building-and-sustaining-peace-at-the-margins
 
Description While our academic contribution aims to engage with broader debates around large-scale investment and peacebuilding, our engagement with stakeholders has largely followed a country policy uptake approach. How Can Mining in Côte d'Ivoire Better Serve Local Communities Without Exacerbating Conflict? In Cote d'Ivoire, the 2014 Mining Law created a policy space to discuss the practical impact of the Law in the Ity god mine, the research site we were studying. Right from the start, the project benefited from this space with the organisation of a stakeholder workshop that was followed by an additional follow-up meeting by the Prefect (local government) and the representative of the Ministry of Mining to discuss the establishment of new representative committees to discuss the impacts of mining operations. The same happened towards the end of the project. Our final workshop presenting findings from the local level created added to momentum to establish routine dialogue involving representatives of the mining company, the local government and civil society representatives to meet more regularly to discuss these issues. However, it is unclear whether our project in the long term facilitated collaboration between these different stakeholder groups. Our stakeholder engagement was broader than that. We organised a series of events at the local, sub-national and national levels. Despite the fact that ministries had regional offices, we observed how disconnected the local and regional levels were and that there was clearly no articulation or even dialogue across these. Our findings were welcomed at the national level. We encouraged stronger collaboration between the different ministries, in particular the Ministries of Mining and Agriculture as mining had an important impact on local food security. Conciliation Resources in their other activities in Cote d'Ivoire continue to maintain these engagements with the various ministries and civil society representatives but with no immediate results. With the new mining boom in Cote d'Ivoire, donors including the EU, USAID and GIZ took notice of our research. GIZ funded a follow-up programme to examine the relationships between large-scale mining and peacebuilding at sites across the country. This other project had many interesting results, that were taken forward by the mining association representing all the mining company and the local prefect. Yet, it is clear that donors are disappointed with central government's seeming unwillingness to take on further responsibilities, both in terms of informing the population about these projects and acting as a mediator between the mining company and civil society. Instead, mining companies seek to navigate the tensions around mines on a case by case basis with local authorities and other community leaders. Building Peace in the New Oil Frontiers of Northern Kenya Since the discovery of oil five years ago in Northern Kenya, explorations have spread to more than 30 drilling and testing sites. This has brought foreign investment, and in turn, new work opportunities, corporate social investment in schools and health clinics, and options for personal enrichment through contracts and tenders. In an area long inhabited by pastoralists, this rapid development has created tensions, resistance, and conflict around both access to new opportunities and also the impacts on lives and livelihoods. The Institute of Development Studies (IDS) and the Nairobi-based Centre for Human Rights and Policy Studies (CHRIPS), as well as a team of researchers from Turkana County in Kenya worked closely with big businesses, advocacy organisations, and communities to understand and balance out the interests at play. Together, IDS, CHRIPS and researchers from Turkana sought to identify different local opinions and views on oil development and empower those involved to work peacefully with each other. They worked with a range of actors including local businesses, traditional leaders, young people, civil society, and county government to understand the impact of oil development and identify what the future holds in the area. The researchers carried out interviews, a household survey, and focus groups using a range of participatory exercises with communities. They ran a number of group exercises which helped to map stakeholders, and enabled different groups and individuals to visualise and discuss situations and identify different interests. This approach was particularly useful in this setting as it created a clear picture of the region, the connections between the different actors, and relative levels of influence within the local political economy. The findings showed that engaging the large and diverse network of local stakeholders opened up and allowed a very important dialogue to take place - contributing to a more meaningful and peaceful process than one where decisions are imposed by external oil companies or by national or local leaders. This research contributed to the understanding of both the different groups at play and their specific interests. Business leaders, advocacy groups, and local communities have used the findings to plan and work with each other for future oil development. Communities are now engaged with from the beginning of the process. The project enabled the different parties to navigate a peaceful and sensitive process and this will be key to informing future plans for oil development. Sean McMurtry, Asset Protection Manager with Tullow Oil in Kenya, explained how the research helped the company consider and plan how to engage in a sensitive way with the community: As with every complex environment, once you can achieve some clarity on the context, the real challenge comes with designing a robust and reactive strategy that can help navigate: the 'what' is achievable, it's the 'how' that tends to be the more difficult part. This research and associated maps/images can be particularly useful for leaders charged with designing and delivering an engagement strategy. And, with articulating that context and strategy to business leaders who may be more removed from the sharp end and have less insight. Local and international advocacy groups in Kenya such as Saferworld and Friends of Lake Turkana have also used the findings to inform their advocacy and decision-making processes. In parallel, the research team brought the findings back to communities. This enabled them to clearly see how their voices could make a difference and demonstrated where the influence lies in the future of oil development.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Created a space to discuss the mining law
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Setting up of a new local committee on mining
 
Description Written and oral evidence to the International Development Select Committee inquiry on Recovery and Development in Sierra Leone and Liberia
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmselect/cmintdev/247/24702.htm
 
Description PaCCS Large Grant on 'Seeing' conflicts at the margins: understanding community experiences through social research and digital narrative in Kenya and Madagascar
Amount £790,000 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/P005330/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 02/2020
 
Description Regional resource governance in fragile states of West Africa
Amount £108,000 (GBP)
Organisation German Federal Enterprise for International Cooperation (GIZ) 
Sector Public
Country Germany
Start 02/2014 
End 02/2016
 
Description Collaboration with Oxford University 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department African Studies Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Jeremy Lind has worked with Jason Mosley to plan a panel at the June 2017 European Conference on African Studies
Collaborator Contribution Jason Mosley has co-organised the panel with Jeremy Lind
Impact Plans for a journal special issue
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Rift Valley Institute on holding public events 
Organisation Rift Valley Institute
Country Global 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution IDS sub-contracted RVI to host a public event in Nairobi on extractive development and violence. IDS identified panellists as well as a moderator for the public debate.
Collaborator Contribution RVI advertised the event in its networks as well as hosted the event at its offices and arranged catering.
Impact Public debate hosted by Rift Valley Forum in Nairobi, attended by 80 researchers, diplomats, government officials (Kenya), and representatives of relief, human rights, and private sector agencies
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with birmingham University 
Organisation Government of the UK
Department Department for International Development (DfID)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Paul Jackson and Jeremy Allouche are working on an article comparing the dynmaics of peace and violence between Cote d'ivoire and Sierra Leone.
Collaborator Contribution Co-writing th article
Impact to be submitted to African Affairs
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with the Centre for Human Rights and Policy Studies (CHRIPS), Nairobi Kenya 
Organisation Centre for Human Rights and Policy Studies
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution CHRIPS is a research centre that carries out policy and scholarly research on security and governance in eastern Africa
Collaborator Contribution Jeremy Lind (co-I), who leads the Kenya case study, has worked closely with CHRIPS in planning and carrying out fieldwork in Turkana County in northern Kenya, in organising a workshop in Nairobi, in planning community feedback meetings, and in co-authoring papers with CHRIPS researchers.
Impact CHRIPS researchers have been involved in planning and carrying out fieldwork in Turkana County in northern Kenya. The collaboration has helped build the capacities of CHRIPS researchers as well as raised the profile of CHRIPS and individual researchers as experts in this area.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with the Sussex African Centre 
Organisation University of Sussex
Department Sussex Africa Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution IDS propose to the Sussex African centre to host a workshop in Brighton on gold mining across Africa. IDS identified four panellists as well as a moderator for the public debate.
Collaborator Contribution Sussex Africa Centre advertised the event in its networks as well as hosted the event at its offices and arranged catering.
Impact Public debate hosted by Sussex African Centre in Brighton, attended by 20 researchers
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with the Sussex African Centre 
Organisation University of Sussex
Department Sussex Africa Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution IDS propose to the Sussex African centre to host a workshop in Brighton on gold mining across Africa. IDS identified four panellists as well as a moderator for the public debate.
Collaborator Contribution RVI advertised the event in its networks as well as hosted the event at its offices and arranged catering.
Impact Public debate hosted by Sussex African Centre in Brighton, attended by 20 researchers
Start Year 2016
 
Description Partnership with Saferworld 
Organisation Kenya National Malaria Control Programme
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Jeremy Lind is working with Chris Wakube and Victoria Brereton at Saferworld to plan a series of community meetings in Turkana as well as an event in Nairobi in 2017 to share and discuss findings of research completed in Turkana County
Collaborator Contribution Saferworld is leading the planning of the events in Nairobi and Turkana, liaising closely with Jeremy Lind
Impact .
Start Year 2014
 
Description Partnership with conciliation Resources 
Organisation Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa
Country South Africa 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Jeremy Allouche is working with Conciliation Resources to plan a series of community meetings in Cote d'Ivoire to share and discuss findings of research completed in Zouan Houien.
Collaborator Contribution CR is planning and organising the events with the support of Jeremy Allouche
Impact .
Start Year 2014
 
Description A Year After Westgate What Has Kenya Learned? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Blog read by many people

It it too early to assess the impact at this stage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.governanceanddevelopment.com/2014/09/a-year-after-westgate-what-has-kenya.html
 
Description Anyone But Al-Shabaab - Kenya's political divisions laid bare by spiraling attacks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Blog viewed online

It is too early to assess the direct impact
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://vulnerabilityandpoverty.blogspot.co.uk/2014/07/anyone-but-al-shabaab-kenyas-political.html
 
Description Attendance at IASC Regional Conference 2016, University of Bern. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Will attend conference and give paper, which will create a a lot of interest and debate amongst participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.anthro.unibe.ch/about_us/iasc_regional_conference_europe_2016_bern_switzerland/commons_in...
 
Description Blog/interview with Celeste Hicks 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jeremy Lind (co-PI) interviewed Celeste Hicks, author of 'Africa's New Oil', for a blog on the Conversation, which was also reproduced on the IDS website and allafrica.com. The blog was retweeted 68 times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/interview-have-oil-companies-learnt-anything-from-the-niger-delta-crisis...
 
Description Business for Peace? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Blog was widely read.

It is too early to assess the impact at this stage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://steps-centre.org/2014/blog/business-peace/
 
Description Community feedback meetings in Lokichar, Nakukulas and Loperot in Turkana County, Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Jeremy Lind organised and presented at community feedback meetings in Lokichar, Nakukulas and Loperot locations in southern Turkana - the region where oil exploration is happening. The meetings included a half-day seminar in Lokichar with local professionals and community leaders, and a series of focus group discussions in all three locations with men, women and young people, that involved both conversation and participatory exercises to convey the significance of the study findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Digital story on 'Precarious prospects: oil in northern Kenya' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Jeremy Lind recorded a digital story using photography from the acclaimed photographer Sven Torfinn and Turkana-based Evans Otieno, with analysis of the influences and implications of oil development in southern Turkana County in Kenya. The 14 minute recording on YouTube has been widely advertised on Twitter and the IDS website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UFH8kuIKvKM&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Discuss research findings with national policy makers and representaitves of the mining industry in Abidjan 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact at this workshop were present representatives of the different ministries and the association representing the mining industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ids.ac.uk/publication/how-can-mining-in-c-te-d-ivoire-better-serve-local-communities-with...
 
Description Discussing research findings at Zouan Hounien 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact after having done our data collection (survey and semi-structured interviews), we shared the most important policy results of the research with the local community. this included the prefet, sub-prefect, representative of the mining company, traditional chiefs, representatives of women, and representatives of the youth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussing research findings in Man 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact after having done our data collection (survey and semi-structured interviews), we shared the most important policy results of the research with the regional policy actors. this included the regional prefet, representatives of ministries at the regional level, and academics / trainers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description European Conference of African Studies Panel 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jeremy Allouche (PI) and Jeremy Lind (co-PI) convened panel on 'Hybrid governance and large development projects at the rural margins' at the European Conference of African Studies in Paris in July 2015. They presented the overall project as well as early findings from case studies in Kenya and Ivory Coast; other presentations by Ian Taylor (St Andrews) and Celeste Hicks (BBC and author of 'Africa's New Oil')
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ecas2015.fr/hybrid-governance-and-large-development-projects-in-marginal-rural-areas-the-...
 
Description Exhibition and private viewing on 'Precarious prospects: oil in northern Kenya' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact On October 19th, Jeremy Lind and Saferworld organised an exhibition and private viewing at the Clerkenwell Gallery in London of photographs on oil and development in Kenya's Turkana County. Jeremy Lind and Saferworld's director of policy and communications Robert Parker gave light speeches.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Follow-up workshop Zouan Houien Cote d'Ivoire 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact One day local follow-up workshop organised by Dr. Bley Hiacinthe and Frnack Souhou on the survey around gold mining and peacebuilding in Zouan Houein
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview with journalist 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jeremy Lind (co-PI) interviewed by Sebastian Stryhn Kjeldtoft, freelance journalist with Magasinet Udvikling (Danish current affairs magazine) on relationships between development and security, drawing on Kenya research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://ipaper.ipapercms.dk/Udenrigsministeriet/Udvikling/2016/Udviklingnr12016/
 
Description Lodwar (Turkana County capital) talk on 'The extractive industries in northern Kenya: risks and opportunities for conflict sensitive engagement' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jeremy Lind gave a talk at St Teresa's mission in Lodwar (Turkana County capital) on June 12th to share detailed findings from research on oil development in Turkana County, and the dilemmas this raises for development, peacebuilding and efforts to good governance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Nairobi Regional Dialogue 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Two-day regional research symposium in Nairobi in October 2015 with CHRIPS (Kenya research partner) and Jason Mosley (Chatham House Horn of Africa programme and Oxford University) on 'Dynamic Change and Violence in eastern Africa'. Included presentations on impacts of oil exploitation in Kenya and Tanzania; impacts of other large-scale investments in Rwanda and Kenya; and theoretical perspectives on security trends in the region. Participants from Rwanda, Tanzania, Kenya, Canada and the UK. Jeremy Lind (co-PI), Patrick Mutahi and Mutuma Ruteere (from Kenya research team) gave presentations and chaired sessions. Outcomes included proposed journal special issue; networking amongst group of scholars from eastern Africa working on extractive governance and conflict dynamics; Jeremy Lind invited to present paper at IUAES Inter-Congress on 'World anthropologies and privatisation of knowledge' in May 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.chrips.or.ke/events.php?id=8&article_id=43&title=the-institute-of-development-studies-uk-...
 
Description Nairobi seminar on 'The extractive industries in northern Kenya: risks and opportunities for conflict sensitive engagement' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A a half-day workshop was organised with partners Saferworld and CHRIPS on 09 June 2017 to explore the dilemmas for peacebuilding and addressing conflict in a setting characterised by new extractive developments. Jeremy Lind gave a detailed presentation of findings from Turkana, followed by discussant comments from Ikal Angelei (Friends of Lake Turkana), Greg Akal (Cambridge University), Sean McMurtry (Tullow Oil), and Augustine Ekitela (Turkana County Government security adviser).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Op-ed for Conversation website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jeremy Lind (co-PI) authored blog on how progress can be achieved in meeting the new peace and security goal (SDG 16). Blog reproduced on the website for the World Economic Forum
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://theconversation.com/how-the-new-peace-and-violence-development-goals-can-be-met-50998
 
Description Panelist at workshop - Academic conference discussant 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Jeremy Lind was panelist and discussant on 'large scale investment and social acceptance' at workshop on 'Unlocking investment in Africa's renewables:
what are the binding constraints?'"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Policy workshop in Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Policy workshop organised by Jeremy Lind and CHRIPS in Nairobi on 'SDG 16 and achieving progress in reducing violence in sub-Saharan Africa'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at African Studies Association of the US 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jeremy Lind presented a paper at a panel on 'Natural Resources and Conflict in Kenya' at the African Studies Association of the UK meeting in Washington, D.C. in December 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public exhibition of photography on 'Precarious prospects: oil in northern Kenya' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact An exhibition of photography by Sven Torfinn and Evans Otieno, with captioned-analysis by Jeremy Lind, is displayed at the Amnesty International Human Rights Action Centre in London from January 8th-February 2nd.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Rift Valley Forum Public Debate 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Public debate hosted by Rift Valley Forum in Nairobi, attended by 80 researchers, diplomats, government officials (Kenya), and representatives of relief, human rights, and private sector agencies. Jeremy Lind (co-PI) organised the event, identified panellists and a panel moderator, and gave introductory remarks. Event moderated by Melba Wasunna (Strathmore Extractives Industry Centre), panellists from International Alert, British Institute of East Africa, Max Plank Institute (Halle), and the Université Saint-Louis-Bruxelles. Outcomes included new networking with civil society groups and donors working on extractive governance and peacebuilding
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://riftvalley.net/event/extractives-development-and-violence-eastern-africa#.VtwdLfmLTIV
 
Description STEPS Resource Politics Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Jeremy Lind (co-PI) organised panel at STEPS Resource Politics Conference on 'Extractive regimes' at the margins: Resource extractions and development in eastern Africa'. Jeremy presented findings from Kenya with Mutuma Ruteere (Kenya research partner). Other presentations by James Van Alstine (Leeds University), Jason Mosley (Chatham House/Oxford University) Jeremy Allouche(PI) acted as the main rapporteur for the conference on the theme militirasation, securutisiation and resources
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://resourcepolitics2015.com/
 
Description Stakeholder workshop Zouan Houien Cote d'Ivoire 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact One day local stakeholder workshop organised by Jeremy Allouche (PI) and Conciliation resources (co-Pi) on gold mining and peacebuilding in Zouan Houein. Audiences included civil society, traditional chiefs, youth representatives, private sector. Impact included endorsemnt by the local community of the project and follow up activity on local perception survey and agreement of another meeting towards the end of the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Sussex Sub-National Violence Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Workshop on Sub-National Violence organised by the Sussex University Department of Geography. Jeremy Allouche (PI) and Jeremy Lind (co-PI), respectively, presented papers on their research in Ivory Coast and Kenya. Outcome was that Jeremy Allouche and Jeremy Lind both invited to contribute articles to special issue of Political Geography
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description The End of the Mano River War(s) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One day workshop which regrouped for the first time all the UK based West African experts to discuss the various civil wars in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast and their relationships. It focused particularly on the regional dimension of the conflict, including the role of natural resources. workshop participants: Sara Batmanglich (OECD), Jesper Bjarnesen (NUPI), Tony Chafer (University of Porstmouth), Christine Cheng (Kings College), Richard Crook (IDS), Lisa Denney (ODI), Rinaldo Depagne (ICG), Richard Fanthorpe (consultant), James Fairhead (University of Sussex), Joseph Hellweg (Florida State University), Paul Jackson (Birmingham University), Zoe Marks (Edinburgh University), Kieran Mitton (Kings College), Janet Mohammed (Conciliation resources), Clare Thomas (FCO) and Mark White (FCO)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description The extractive industries in East Africa: risks and opportunities for conflict sensitive engagement - London seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Jeremy Lind with Saferworld convened a half-day workshop on 11 October 2017 to explore the dilemmas for peacebuilding and addressing conflict in settings characterised by new extractive developments in East Africa. Jeremy Lind gave a detailed presentation of findings from Turkana Kenya, followed by discussant comments from Doris Okenwa (London School of Economics), Sean McMurtry (Tullow Oil), and Izzy Birch (Government of Kenya, National Drought Management Authority).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshop Regional Dialogue on Pastoralism and the New Alliance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Starting point of regional dialogue

Creation of the New Alliance
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.future-agricultures.org/pastoralism/8011-regional-dialogue-on-pastoralism-and-the-new-all...
 
Description Workshop for Stakeholders in Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Interactions between government and donor agencies, and peacebuilding and research organisations began new dialogues.

Stakeholders began dialogue, too early to determine outcomes at this stage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Workshop on Large-Scale Investments, Rising Powers, and Peacebuilding in Sub-Saharan Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I broadened my network and was views an an important expert on the issue.

It is too short a time since the event to measure any impact as yet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.ids.ac.uk/events/large-scale-investments-rising-powers-and-peacebuilding-in-sub-saharan-...