Analyses of Food Supply Chains for Risks and Resilience to Food Fraud/Crime

Lead Research Organisation: Queen's University of Belfast
Department Name: Sch of Biological Sciences

Abstract

As food supply chains have become increasingly global and complex, new and challenging risks have emerged. One of the risks gaining attention from industry, governments, regulatory bodies and consumer organisations is food fraud conducted for economic gain. The Food Standards Agency says that Food fraud is committed 'when food is deliberately placed on the market, for financial gain, with the intention of deceiving the consumer'. Although there are many kinds of food fraud the two main types are: (1) the sale of food which is unfit for consumption and (2) the deliberate misdescription of food. Both types may directly threaten human health. For example, a cancer causing toxin (called melamine) was added to milk and infant formula in China to increase its protein content. Additionally, swapping one fish species with another could expose consumers to different allergens which could make them sick. In many instances, food fraud can reduce consumer trust in the both the food industry and food safety, and negatively impact on sales, as was demonstrated in the UK horsemeat scandal.

There is a growing concern that in some ways food fraud may be more risky than traditional threats to the food supply as the adulterants used in these activities are often unconventional. Melamine for example was not considered a potential contaminant in the food supply before 2007 and hence was not included in routine quality checks. In addition, current food protection systems are not designed to look for the never-ending number of potential adulterants that may show up in the food supply. As criminal activity by design is intended to elude detection, new tools and new approaches to supply chain management are called for.

This proposal suggests combining theories and methods from psychology, political economy, sociology, anthropology, criminology and law, with natural science disciplines.
In order to develop new approaches to detect possible criminal activity in food supply chains, this project will undertake 34-40 semi-structured interviews with major buyers, brokers, regulators, customers etc. relating to the three food chains which are most prone to food fraud (wheat; fish and red meat). This will help us to determine how fraud can happen and what measures could be put in place to prevent it from happening in the future. Furthermore, using a desk-based approach we will explore how other countries deal with issues of food safety and analyse legal law cases as they relate to fraud. Based on an assumption that fraudsters WILL exploit any intelligence gathering system we will examine current and potential models of data collection and intelligence sharing and test their vulnerabilities to future fraudulent attacks. This will help to develop a novel data collection sharing system that is more robust and secure.

By evaluating a number of risk ranking methodologies used for fraud, food contaminants and emerging food issues, we will develop a risk ranking framework, to classify and highlight food security risks for different food commodities in our chosen supply chains. This will help recognise and prioritise the incentives/pressures to commit fraud, opportunities to commit fraud, and attitudes/rationalisations to justify fraud. A cost-benefit ranking will also be conducted in the risk assessment procedures.

Finally, based on the data gathered for this project and a previous food fraud report we will identify methods of presenting fraud detection/prevention strategies to the public. We will also utilise eight focus groups with consumers to investigate their perceptions, attitudes, behavioural intentions, trust parameters, and expectations in relation to food fraud. Based on the findings we will conduct a survey (with 1000 UK consumers aged 18+ from different socio-demographic groups) to experimentally test the efficacy and feasibility of different fraud prevention strategies for its impact on enhancing consumer trust and increasing sales.

Planned Impact

Impact to Industry through change in organisational culture and practices
Through their close involvement in the project design and implementation, both organisations (M&S and Youngs) will gain a key insight into how they could change their practices based on the research findings. We expect to have direct impact on all other retailers (e.g. Tesco, Sainsburys, etc.) working in the same sector as the organisations in the study. Further practices and lessons learned will lead to recommendations for improving risk management strategies. The efficacy of strategies tested with consumers will offer a way forward for food industries to enhance trust and confidence in the food products with a long term impact on sales. The knowledge gained about the environment in which food fraud/crime transpires within the international food system will assist UK suppliers and retailers to implement best practice.

The use of developed model systems in the UK for addressing the knowledge and technological challenges in combating fraud may in the long term increase competiveness through reducing the incidence of food recalls which, in turn, will improve consumer confidence in the UK food supply.

Impact on government departments through contributing towards evidence based policy making and influencing public policies and legislation at local, regional, national and international revel
The interaction with industry and Which? on the Expert Committee will allow the development of feasible and workable recommendations for data gathering as well as flagging up potential problems that can subsequently be communicated to regulators so future legislation/regulation is 'fit for purpose'. This is one of the unique aspects of this proposed research.

These findings will also help regulatory organisations (FSA & DEFRA) to review existing regulations and practices. Impact of food fraud on policy relevant information will be distilled and distributed to decision makers to inform their work around the area of public trust and credibility. The knowledge gained about the environment in which food fraud/crime transpires within the international food system and its effect on the UK will inform policy-makers on best practice for ensuring that food fraud does not taint supply chains.

The models developed will be an advantage for both assessing the risk of compromised food security or fraud and through its implementation could help to maintain UK consumer safety associated with imported foods and ingredients. Capitalising on the team's previous and current involvement in international networks and EU projects would enable the UK to have a major influence on EU level regulation in future.

Impact on public perceptions and behaviours through enhancing consumer trust and industry risk management
We expect to have a direct dialogue with the consumer through the use of traditional and social media such as national and international TV (BBC, ITV, Sky), radio broadcasts at national and local levels, print media including all national newspapers, trade and consumer journals, LinkedIn, Twitter (@QUBFoodProf) and YouTube.
 
Description 1. Definitions of food fraud, food fraud prevention strategies as well as implementation steps from government and industry perspectives revealed the complexity of this interdisciplinary area. There is currently no agreed definition for food fraud at a national or EU level. Research highlighted the need for common terminology and assessment tools so that the most appropriate operational activities can be implemented to avoid/mitigate/detect food fraud incidences. The use of tools such as the Product Counterfeiting Incident Clustering Tool on large datasets of food fraud incidences revealed that for incident data to be useful the filters used in the classification need to be carefully thought through. The datasets should also be made available to industry.
2. While the EU has established a comprehensive legal framework, gaps in the system were identified which may limit the deterrent effect and therefore undermine the prevention of food fraud. Hence greater harmonisation and regular inspection and testing of high risk products are needed. Information sharing between the 28 member states was identified as critical for the functioning of five important activities such as an information hub, for coordinating strategy, as a platform for transmitting information and as a conduit to cooperate with relevant authorities and organisations.
3. Through the mapping of food chains (for beef and fish) Vulnerability Assessment and Critical Control Point (VACCAP) has been advocated within the industry to mitigate against food fraud. Some key recommendations include sound risk ranking of food fraud vulnerabilities in supply chains; assignment of effective economically viable mitigation strategies at critical control points; evaluation of current and innovative authenticity detection methods; working towards robust, easy to use, rapid and inexpensive, legally upholdable analytical techniques; governing plan which considers a balance between resources and constraints and assigns responsibility and accountability to each supply chain player and guardian; implementation of targeted education to the supply chain players to equip them with the knowledge to implement VACCP; collaboration to address the challenges of current traceability practices in the increasingly complex and global supply chains.
4. Traceability and transparency were viewed as important for deterring food fraud both by consumers and industry and regulatory stakeholders. However the meaning of "traceability" and the way traceability information is conveyed was debated with some consumers wanting shorter supply chains with trusted known actors while others were happy to accept longer complex supply chains where traceability information is conveyed through alternative means such as QR codes. Traceability information was demonstrated to enhance consumer beliefs resulting in positive attitudes and trust towards the product and supplier. However not all consumers were interested in traceability information. Some traceability interested sub groups within the population would be willing to pay moderately more for the product. These individuals have greater concerns about food hazards, have greater trust in traceable products and trust in the ability of consumer organisations, scientists and government bodies to provide this information.
Exploitation Route The consumer study results will feed into the design of the H2020 EU-China-Safe - Delivering an Effective, Resilient and Sustainable EU-China Food Safety Partnership project that will start in October 2017.
Results from the work package -To identify ways of improving the collection and exchange of information on Food Fraud detection globally will be taken forward by Dr Spink as an expert committee member in the EU Food Integrity project and his other projects.
Both the Beef chain and the Fish chain developed in the study are being used by industry and research.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description This research project led by Professor Chris Elliott, founder of the Institute for Global Food Security (IGFS) at Queen's University Belfast (QUB), aimed to investigate current and future vulnerabilities to fraud and criminality in food supply chains in order to identify fraud opportunities and evaluate countermeasures that are effective and will enhance consumer trust in food and producers. Impacts included: • Engaging with and feeding into public policy based on a deeper understanding of global food fraud initiatives and insight into the vulnerability of food supply chains to fraud and criminality; • Encouraging and supporting those throughout the food industry to carry out a full analysis of the fraud risks in their food supply chain and to achieve excellence in terms of supply chain integrity; • Providing industry with insight into whether a food traceability label would increase consumer trust, intention to buy, and willingness to pay for a food product; • Providing specific educational and other public events, raising public awareness of food fraud, the widespread implications of food crime both locally and nationally and the role of science in helping to ensure that our food supply chains are reliable and robust; • Developing the knowledge and experience of non-academics (industry and government) who worked with the project team as part of the expert committee, informing practices and policies for ensuring that fraud does not taint supply chains; • Further developing the IGFS at QUB as a major international hub for research and collaboration in the area of food fraud, and so presenting UK-based researchers at the forefront of research in this crucial area of public concern. These impacts have been achieved through numerous dissemination activities including several peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, various speaking engagements at events/conferences, interviews on BBC radio/TV, MOOC's on food safety at QUB, written magazine opinion pieces, an engagement focused website and project specific social media posts on Twitter. Public engagement with a wide audience has also been an important part of this project as the research findings were disseminated as part of a two-day event within Northern Ireland Science Festival (2017). Professor Elliott also acted as 'scientific advisor' for 'The Hand that Feeds', a theatrical song cycle about food crime, which enables wider audiences to engage in this important topic. Through this project, Professor Elliott has supported numerous government and industry sector-sponsored networks and associations whose remit covers supply chain integrity and authenticity, such as, the Food Industry Intelligence Network (FINN) and the International Meat trade Association (IMTA). For example, in the former instance, IGFS guides FINN on supply chain integrity on a global basis and provides recommendations on what testing and checks should be conducted. Professor Elliott has also informed and commented on IMTA's guide to help protect businesses in the meat industry and wider food industry from fraud/food crime/criminals, and written the welcome quote. Several companies (such as Danone and Young's Seafood Limited) were also supported in their aim to achieve excellence in supply chain integrity via a number of one-to-one consultations and stakeholder events organised by the project team, including an event which was held to showcase a Risk Register which helps companies keep abreast of potential and emerging food safety and authenticity risks in relation to the ingredients they source. Through this project, IGFS has further developed as a major international hub for research and collaboration in the area of food fraud. International links between the UK and China have been particularly strengthened through this project and this has led to the establishment of an EU-China Consortium (co-ordinated by Professor Elliott) who were successful in obtaining €10 million in funding (from The European Horizon 2020 programme and Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) programme) for a large supply chain project (EU-China-Safe). The overall goal of EU-China-Safe is to develop and implement a shared vision of best practice within the EU and China that will enhance food safety, deter food fraud, restore consumer trust, deliver mutual recognition of data and standards and support the flow of agri-food trade between the two trading blocks to promote economic growth.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Dr Spink was a member of the team to conduct the first CFSA translation of Food Fraud education and training from English to Mandarin
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL http://foodfraud.msu.edu/2015/11/02/announcement-spink-returns-to-china-as-food-fraud-advisor-for-th...
 
Description Food fraud incorporated into QUB food security MOOC (Massive Online Open Course)
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Work Package 1: Adoption of Elliot's 8 pillars of food integrity into supply chain management systems at Danone.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Danone have adopted the 'eight pillars of food integrity' (from the Elliott Report) into their supply chain management systems and are currently in discussions with Prof Elliott. This will ultimately protect Danone, making it harder to penetrate by fraudsters and criminals in order that the greatest levels of protection and assurance can be provided to the consumer.
 
Description Work package 1: IMTA guide to protecting businesses from fraud/food crime/criminals
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact This guide aims to help protect businesses in the meat industry and wider food industry, making the food industry harder to penetrate by fraudsters and criminals in order that the greatest levels of protection and assurance can be provided to the consumer. Prof Chris Elliott has informed and commented on the guide and written the welcome quote. It brings together advice on general food fraud prevention measures and practical measures that can be taken as well as steps at different points in the supply chain including transport and cold storage as well as how insurance plays a role in protecting a business. The guide was presented to IMTA members and other attendees at the 2015 IMTA risk forum on 24th November in London. The forum included sessions entitled 'Reflections on the 2014 IMTA Risk Forum', where an update on food fraud initiatives where given by IMTA, Andy Morling (head of the FSA's NFCU), and Prof Elliott. This meeting brought together IMTA members and the NFCU with the aim of strengthening meat supply chains and mitigating meat crime threats to consumers.
URL http://www.imta-uk.org/images/stories/press_releases/IMTAFraudPressRelease.pdf
 
Description Work package 1: Prof Chris Elliott asked to chair FIIN
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Prof Chris Elliott has been asked to chair FIIN which met in October 2015 for the first time. FIIN provides a forum for retailers and processors to exchange sensitive information in relation to food fraud. It ultimately aims to make businesses harder to penetrate by fraudsters and criminals in order that the greatest levels of protection and assurance can be provided to the consumer.
 
Description Work package 1: Young's Seafood Limited (YSL); A leading company in food crime risk analysis
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Based on both conversations with Prof Chris Elliott and on the Elliott review, Young's Seafood Limited (YSL) have carried out a full analysis of the fraud risks in their supply chains and have developed the industry leading food crime risk analysis. An up-to-date database is now maintained by YSL which identifies the mitigated food crime risk level (in nine areas) for all commodity materials purchased. The level of mitigated risk is contingent on the appropriate and identified measures being in place at the time of purchase. This approach was presented by Mike Mitchell (from YSL) at the World Seafood Congress in Grimsby on 8th September, 2015. This will ultimately protect YSL, making it harder to penetrate by fraudsters and criminals in order that the greatest levels of protection and assurance can be provided to the consumer.
 
Description £3000 GFS Policy Lab Award to develop a report for the GFS programme (Dr Michelle Spence; Continuous Professional Development)
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation Global Food Security 
Sector Public
Country Unknown
Start 03/2016 
End 09/2016
 
Description ESRC standard grant (open call based thematically on the case study in Work package 4):'The Right to Certify? Mobilizing for the Self-Certification of Food' (Koensler as PI)
Amount £163,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/M011291/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 04/2018
 
Description QUB and UOM proposal to the Global Food Security Programme 
Organisation University of Manchester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution QUB and UOM submitted a joint proposal to the Global Food Security Programme entitled: 'Tackling the obstacles to food chain resilience and sustainability'. Professor Chris Elliott (QUB) was PI.
Collaborator Contribution QUB and UOM submitted a joint proposal to the Global Food Security Programme entitled: 'Tackling the obstacles to food chain resilience and sustainability'.
Impact The proposal did not receive funding. Elements of the proposal may be re-submitted for funding elsewhere. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving experts working within both the natural and social sciences.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Dialogue with Marks and Spencer to inform new beef tracebility campaign (summer 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Professor Elliot met with representatives from Marks and Spencer to inform the content of a new British beef traceability campaign. The extensive media campaign commenced in summer 2018 and is still active (Feb 2019).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://corporate.marksandspencer.com/media/press-releases/2018/m-and-s-raises-the-stakes-with-unriv...
 
Description ESRC Food Fraud Project Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Project website can be accessed at: http://esrcfoodfraud.co.uk/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://esrcfoodfraud.co.uk/.
 
Description Final dissemination event; 21-22nd February 2017 at Elmwood Hall QUB 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A two-day dissemination event (organised by the project team at QUB) with speakers from our project team, Manchester University and Natcen (both funded under this grant), IMTA, and young's Seafood Limited. This event was ran as part of the NI Science Festival (http://www.nisciencefestival.com/) and open to the public (all ages).

Day one: Food Fraud Detectives
Tuesday 21 February, 12.30pm - 6.00pm
Is oregano really oregano? Is cod really cod? Leading scientists will present the natural and social science methods used in detecting food fraud including Supply Chain Mapping, Social Network Analysis, Risk Ranking and finger printing technology.


Day two: Food Fraud Risk and Resilience along the Food Supply Chain
Wednesday 22 February, 10:00 am - 3:30 pm
These workshops will provide information on the fish and beef supply chains, the legal framework and alternative practices used in preventing food fraud and the impact of food fraud on consumer trust and the strategies used to improve trust.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.qub.ac.uk/home/media/Media,744189,en.pdf
 
Description John Spink presents 'Supply Chain Transparency and Food Fraud Data Collection Needs A review of two research surveys' (June 2017; USP HQ, Rockville, MD) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented at the Food Safety Supply Chain Conference.

Attendees (mostly from industry) learnt:
1. What is the role of data -and data analytics- in food supply chain transparency.
2. How data and intelligence analysis supports food fraud prevention.
3. Specific needs-assessment from food brand owners including manufacturers and retailers.

Taken from URL entered in box below:This presentation leverages the MSU Supply Chain Management program, a grant with Queen's University Belfast, and results from two industry surveys on the topic. This is not another 'food fraud overview PowerPoint'. There is a tremendous opportunity to apply a wide range of existing technologies and systems to support Food Fraud prevention. While the emerging vulnerably assessments and prevention strategies will identify the need for new authentication technologies, adjacent innovation will provide a residual contribution. One of those adjacent innovations is Big Data or Data Analytics. This report will review the basic focus of Food Fraud prevention, the emerging innovations in the management of extremely large data sets including whole genome sequencing, and then explaining exactly how these technologies apply to Food Fraud prevention. This presentation is based on two recent MSU research projects.
The first is 'The Methods and Data Used to Rank Food Fraud Vulnerabilities using an Industry Survey Case Study'.This paper reviewed (1) how risk assessors rank vulnerabilities and (2) Non-food, or non-food safety, examples were used to better understand the process.
The second on 'Food Fraud Data Collection Needs Survey'. This was part of a UK Grant with Co-PI Professor Christopher Elliott from Queen's University Belfast. This scope was to (1) Review the data needs to conduct a Food Fraud Vulnerability Assessment, and (2) To explore future needs for data and data collection systems. Both articles are under review at scholarly, peer-reviewed journals. These research projects were funded in part by a group of food industry, brand owner sponsors. The survey population included the 'MSU Food Fraud 50' - food fraud leaders from 50 different food manufacturers or brand owners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.cvent.com/events/food-safety-supply-chain-conference/agenda-f90407627d3142b295383067e8f14...
 
Description Keynote lecture by Prof Chris Elliott; Food Fraud: A Problem without Borders 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Towards Global Prevention and Mitigation of Food Fraud.

April 4-5, 2017 | Château Frontenac, Québec City, Canada.

A major Conference to review current knowledge, mobilize resources and create momentum for collective action.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://foodfraudconference.ca/no_cache/en/global-understanding-of-food-fraud/program/
 
Description Mike Mitchell presents 'Product Integrity - provenance and Authenticity' to the SEAFISH Common Language Group (CLG) in London (March 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Mike Mitchell (a member of our advisory board) authored a paper on seafood product integrity for SEAFISH and presented it at their Common Language Group (CLG) meeting in London (March 2017). Mike's paper is drawn upon the same origins as a publication which has arisen from this grant ('The Seafood Supply Chain from a Fraudulent Perspective'), but his version (which is entirely sympathetic with the QUB paper) was developed through consultation with other industry players and the Seafish team. In his CLG presentation, Mike outlined the paper which has arisen from this grant as an additional perspective.

The CLG is a popular industry event which has a capped attendance at around 70 of the UK's most influential seafood producers, brands, retailers, federations and other agencies such as NGOs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.seafish.org/responsible-sourcing/discussion-forums/the-common-language-group
 
Description Mike Mitchell; Engagement with the European Seafood Processors Association (AIPCE) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Mike Mitchell (a work package advisor and Technical and corporate Social Responsibility Director at Young's Seafood Limited) gave a presentation on Seafood Fraud to the European Seafood Processors Assocaition (AIPCE) in Amsterdam (October 2016). Mike presented our working paper on Seafood Fraud, whose aim was to systematically map the seafood supply chain for finfish, shellfish and crustaceans to identify all the nodes which an unscrupulous mind can expose, infiltrate and exploit. These mappings and risk evaluations provide the foundations for a proactive mitigation plan to assign control measures and responsibility where vulnerability and threats exist.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.aipce-cep.org/content/about-us
 
Description Presentation by Prof Moira Dean in Guelph (July 2017); Consumer perceptions of food fraud and its management in Europe & China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Using qualitative and quantitative results from consumer research conducted in China (EU framework 7 Food Integrity project) and the UK (ESRC/FSA Food resilience project)
Prof Moira Dean illustrated how consumers view food fraud and the implications of food fraud on consumer trust. Moira discussed possible ways of regaining consumer trust in food chain products and food chain actors.

This presentation was organised by OMAFRA in partnership with the "Guelph Food Safety Seminar Series" (GFSSS). GFSSS is a forum for communicating various food safety issues and topics among government, academia and industry. Monthly seminars and an annual symposium are held throughout the year. GFSSS is sponsored and coordinated through the collaboration of the following public and non-for-profit agencies (in alphabetical order):
- Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)
- Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
- Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors (CIPHI - Ontario Branch)
- Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety (CRIFS) at the University of Guelph Food Safety Network (FSN)
- Guelph Food Technology Centre (GFTC)
- Health Canada (HC)
- Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food & Rural Affairs (OMAFRA)
- Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Prof Chris Elliott 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Every two months, Prof Elliott writes an opinion piece on food fraud for The Grocer.

The Grocer has been publishing for over 150 years. It is still the UK's most trusted source of independent information about the grocery retail and fmcg market and continues to move with the times, providing a range of services to keep you up to date with the latest industry developments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.thegrocer.co.uk/chris-elliott/2402.contributor?PageNo=1&PageSize=20&SortOrder=1
 
Description Prof Chris Elliott (@QUBFoodProf) on food fraud and prevention 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Posts on Twitter in relation to food fraud and prevention to 2666 followers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL https://twitter.com/QUBFoodProf/with_replies?lang=en
 
Description Prof Moira Dean presented 'Recent surveys on consumer response and expectation vis a vis food fraud and its management in Europe and China'. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Towards Global Prevention and Mitigation of Food Fraud

April 4-5, 2017 | Château Frontenac, Québec City, Canada

A major Conference to review current knowledge, mobilize resources and create momentum for collective action!
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://foodfraudconference.ca/no_cache/en/global-understanding-of-food-fraud/program/
 
Description Research Dissemination as part of Northern Ireland Science Festival 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Study results were showcased during the Northern Ireland Science Festival 2017, over a two day period; 21st February and the 22nd February. The first day of the event focused on the'Food Fraud Detectives: Investigative Methods' and the second day on 'Food Fraud Risk and Resilience along the Food Chain'. The
event was highly successful with a range of people such as professional practitioners, schools, general public, industry, as well as
undergraduate and postgraduate students attending.

Day 1- Food Fraud Detectives: Investigative methods
http://www.nisciencefestival.com/event.php?e=499

12.50 Welcome to Food Fraud Detectives:
A flavour of the Natural and Social Science methods used to investigate food fraud related issues from Detection to perception
Prof Moira Dean

13.00 - 15.00 Presentations (25 minutes, 5 minutes for questions):
Steph Brooks (QUB) - Mapping the beef chain for transparency
Michaela Fox (QUB)- Risk ranking: Assessment and Prioritisation
Cecilia Flores Elizondo (Manchester University) - Social Network Analysis Methods (Manchester)
Simon Haughey (QUB)- Herb Fraud: The Oregano Story

16.00 - 18.00 Suzanne Boyd (QUB) - Regulatory Methods for the Detection of Food Fraud.
Connor Black (QUB) - Innovations in fish fraud detection using rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry (REIMS)
Alexander Koensler (QUB)- Ethnographic fieldwork in legal gray areas of food production: perils and opportunities of participant observation
Caireen Roberts (Natcen)- Designing survey questions on food-related issues

Day 2- Food Fraud Risk and Resilience along the Food Chain
http://www.nisciencefestival.com/event.php?e=508


10.00 Welcome to Food Fraud Risk and Resilience along the Food Chain
10.10-12.30 Results from ESRC partners (30 minutes, 5 minutes for questions):
Adam Leaver (Manchester University)- Food Fraud: Integrated Supply Network Systems
Liz Murphy (IMTA)-Beef Supply Chain: Risk & Mitigating Strategies
Mike Mitchell (Young's Seafood)- Identifying and mitigating food fraud risks in seafood supply chains.
Caireen Roberts (NATCEN)- Food journeys - what do people know and care about?

13.30 -15.15
Brian Jack (QUB)- Deterring Food Fraud: Analysing the EU's Legal Framework
Alexander Koensler (QUB)- The opaque side of transparency: Passion, trust and audit in 'clandestine' local food networks in Italy
Moira Dean (QUB) - Do consumers trust their food?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The Hand That Feeds - A musical about Food Crime, 14th May 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prof Chris Elliott was part of the artistic team who helped to produce 'The Hand that Feeds', a theatrical song cycle about food crime. Chris acted as 'scientific advisor' for the show and attended the event which was held on Saturday 14th May at 12pm and 2:30pm in Edgbaston Street, Birmingham.

The purpose of this event was to raise public awareness of the issues and the widespread implications of food crime both locally and nationally - and to create a platform for discussion. Audiences were encouraged to follow the conversation both in the run up to and during the live shows with #StopFoodCrime.

This fun, arts-based event enabled wider audiences to engage with food crime, where the role of science, i.e. the forensics of food fraud, play a big part in helping to ensure that our food supply chains are reliable and robust.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.createdinbirmingham.com/2016/05/05/hand-feeds-musical-food-crime/
 
Description Work Package 1: Stakeholder engagement at the British Meat Processors Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Professor Chris Elliott gave a talk to the British Meat Processors Association (BMPA) Conference held at the Law Society in London on the 4th June 2015. Prof Elliott spoke about managing fraud in supply chains.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Work package 1: Stakeholder engagement to share new insights into combatting food fraud and protecting businesses. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Those working throughout the food industry (food processing industry, food producers, retailers, regulators, policy makers and academia) attended this event on 12th November, 2015 in Belfast. The seminar shared new insights into combatting food fraud and how individuals can protect their business. The presentations focussed on recent advances in monitoring, detecting and preventing food fraud. Key speakers included Prof Chris Elliott, Queen's University Belfast, Paul Willgoss, Marks & Spencer and Lynn Patterson, LP Associates. An open
discussion was facilitated on how everyone can play their part in protecting both their business and their
customers from food fraud.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.safefood.eu/Professional/Events/Food-Authenticity-Protecting-your-business-from-f-en.aspx
 
Description Work package 1: Stakeholder engagement to showcase the risk register which was developed for the pork and poultry meat sectors 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 47 delegates working throughout the food industry (food processing industry, food producers, retailers, regulators, policy makers and academia) attended this event on 18th September, 2015 at CAFRE, Loughry Campus, Dungannon Rd, Cookstown, Tyrone BT80 9AA, Northern Ireland. The purpose of this event was to showcase a Risk Register which will help companies to keep abreast of potential and emerging food safety and authenticity risks in relation to the ingredients they source.

Presentations sparked questions and produced feedback in a session that was chaired by Prof Elliott. Subsequently, a series of meetings have also been held with individual companies (e.g. Cranswick plc, Rangeland Foods Ltd.) to discuss the risk register in further detail.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.safefood.eu/Professional/Events/Development-of-a-Risk-Register-for-the-pork-and-po.aspx
 
Description Work package 4: Invited presentation to the largest professional farmer's association in Italy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The event, attended by 300 Italian farmers, was part of the mobilitation of the farmer's association to develop legislative proposals for more sustainable agriculture. Alexander Koensler gave the following presentation: Tra protezione o mercato? Ripensare l'autonomia dell'agricolture, International conference of the Confederazione Italiana Agricoltori [the biggest professional farmer's association in Italy], Campobasso. The title of the booklet (translated) that came out of the conference is: "Territory as Destiny. The contribution of the Confederation of Italian Farmers to Development in Italy"; this booklet was presented at the Italian Senate in March 2014.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015