FAPESP-ESRC-NWO-Joint Call Sustainable Urban Development ...... RESOLUTION: REsilient Systems fOr Land Use TransportatION

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis

Abstract

We will explore the impact of transportation on social segregation in São Paulo and London, comparable world cities in terms of their population, area and density at both municipal and metropolitan levels. In large cities, social groups classified by income, class, and ethnicity manifest extreme differences in where they locate and how accessible they are to a variety of opportunities for mobility, as reflected in the physical distribution of resources associated with different transport systems. These two cities provide us with examples of segregation enabling us to use the findings in one city to 'probe' the other; patterns of segregation with respect to transportation are similar in some senses, different in others. This provides us with an ideal opportunity for comparative work on segregation using rich data sets for each of these cities. We first construct web-based portals that allow us to represent a wide variety of network, flow and socio-economic attribute data. We will build on the extensive experience in these systems acquired by CASA (see www.maptube.org; www.datashine.org.uk), transfer these ideas to São Paulo, building on their own systems (www.fflch.usp.br/centrodametropole/en/). We will add transportation explicitly in both cities and this will provide us with a stream of analytics that will inform the development of simple agent-based models which simulate how changes to transport systems are reflected in shifting patterns of segregation. These models will build on existing structures pioneered in various collaborations between CASA, Birkbeck, CEM, UFABC and INPE. The data systems and models we build offer prospects for practical testing of alternative transport scenarios on spatial structure by urban policy makers.

Planned Impact

The expected outcomes and impacts revolve around gaining a much better knowledge of social groups segregated by transport. We need to understand precisely why groups get locked out and this is not simply a matter of linking where they live to the transport available but relating this to other resources such as jobs, health and education. Any systems problem generates wide ramifications on other aspects of the urban system. We also need to identify the locations of such groups and this needs to be done with very detailed data systems at the level of streets and land parcels that approach the level of 'big' data.

We will communicate our research activities and outcomes in the usual ways, through academic papers of various sorts. However as the portals are web-based, a web presence is essential to the way we will pursue this project and we therefore will quite seamlessly communicate our wares through the web and various weblogs. We have extensive experience of contemporary IT in terms of social media (see www.blogs.casa.ucl.ac.uk). CASA organises a yearly conference to support our dissemination and we will use this forum for engaging with a wider interest. Our trips to São Paulo and London built into this proposal will be supported by seminars in both cities.

We do not see IPR as an issue for all our software will be open source or at least non-proprietary. Our software for the various models is likely to be under a Creative Commons licence if there is a license at all. We will of course be careful about copyright of data that is collected and owned by others that we will use in the portal but we envisage most of this will be open data.

Publications

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Barros J (2018) Uneven geographies: Exploring the sensitivity of spatial indices of residential segregation in Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science

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Batty M (2015) Optimal cities, ideal cities in Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design

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Batty, M. (2015) Does Big Data Lead to Smarter Cities? Problems, Pitfalls and Opportunities, in I/S A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society

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Cottineau, C., Defining urban agglomerations to detect agglomeration economies in arXiv:1601.05664 [physics.soc-ph]

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Shen Y (2018) Delineating the perceived functional regions of London from commuting flows in Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space

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Smith D (2016) World city populations 1950-2030: Proportional circle time series map in Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space

 
Description The two metropolitan regions under study, São Paulo and London, are more comparable than expected. The two cities have different social structures, with a strong professionalization in London and a slight one in São Paulo. When analysing ethno-racial groups, London is clearly more segregated than São Paulo - which was an unexpected result. When analysing occupational classes, São Paulo is much more segregated than London. Their structures of segregation are relatively similar considering both residence and jobs location patterns. The theoretical ABM model confirms the findings from analysis using segregation indices.
Accessibility for jobs is much worse in São Paulo than London, and it is also much more unequal for different occupational groups. This is probably associated with the transportation networks, but also with the location of low-income housing which have very distinct patterns in the two metropolitan regions. While in London they tend to be centrally located, with higher accessibility (mainly due to social housing), in São Paulo low-income housing (including social housing) are located in peripheral areas with low accessibility levels.
The project has a number of methodological contributions including: • New disaggregated accessibility metrics applied to the use of social inequality • Implementation of spatial version of spatial indices (including the adaptation of Theory of Information index) available as a QGIS plugin • Greater understanding on use and interpretation of evenness/clustering segregation indices (Dissimilarity and Theory of Information) via sensitivity analysis tests • Development of methods for international comparison studies, including the development of methods for comparing occupational classes between São Paulo and London (international comparability contribution) • A generative agent-based model for residential location based on accessibility and segregation was developed and parametrised based on London and São Paulo datasets, contributing to the understanding of the dynamic relationship between segregation and accessibility in producing unequal spatial patterns of residential location • A web mapping tool was developed for São Paulo providing access to socio-economic data and maps as well as the results of segregation and accessibility analysis for the general public. This portal, allowed by the partnership and transfer of skills between UK and Brazil, is hosted by CEM/USP. We believe it will have a short to medium-term impact in allowing the Centre for Studies of the Metropolis (CEM) to fulfil its institutional outreach mission, but also as it will serve as basis for a larger outreach project in widening access to spatial information to stakeholders and general population, with a long-lasting impact at Brazilian national level.
Exploitation Route The results of our analysis can serve as basis for the understanding of inequality in regards to accessibility and segregation in both study areas. This can be taken forward academically, by the further development of studies of spatial residential inequalities and segregation in light of transport as well as in practice. The project results are of interest to the general public, government and stakeholders looking into improving social justice in urban areas. For London, the project provides clear indication of the role of social housing in maintaining social equality. For São Paulo, the project has provided evidence of known inequalities issues with clear indication of areas which require attention.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Energy,Environment,Transport

 
Description This project explored the impact of transportation on social segregation in São Paulo and London, comparable world cities in terms of their population, area and density. It focused on social inequality in terms of income, transport and social segregation. As such, it is directly relevant to the SDG 11: Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable and SDG 10: Reduced Inequalities and contributes to SDG 1: No poverty. The country in the DAC that directly benefited from the project is Brazil, although there have been strong contributions to UK and the understanding of inequality in the large metropolitan region of London. The project provided a better understanding of urban inequality and mobility in the metropolitan regions of London and São Paulo, which are essential for the development of policies and urban planning measures able to tackle social inequality and reach long-term sustainable growth. Those included developed a range of different accessibility indicators and segregation indices that revealed patterns of inequality in the two metropolitan cities and highlighted the need for those to be addressed. Thus, the project contributed to produce knowledge and tools that help promoting economic development and welfare in Brazil. A web mapping tool was developed for São Paulo providing access to socio-economic data and maps as well as the results of segregation and accessibility analysis for the general public. This portal, allowed by the partnership and transfer of skills between UK and Brazil, is hosted by CEM/USP. We believe it will have a short to medium-term impact in allowing the Centre for Studies of the Metropolis (CEM) to fulfil its institutional outreach mission, but also as it will serve as basis for a larger outreach project in widening access to spatial information to stakeholders and general population, with a long-lasting impact at Brazilian national level. The project has also allowed for the development of a new research network which resulted in the establishment of a strong and equal partnership between UK and Brazilian teams. In addition to publications currently under preparation, the teams already have new projects been planned and funding applications being prepared. A collaborative project between Birkbeck, USP and UFABC has been submitted for funding and awaiting results. The UK team has recently been awarded funding for a project entitled SIMETRI which is part of the JPI Europe-NSF China grant scheme. The project will further develop the inequality and accessibility methods and tools in the project and apply them to the Greater Bay Area in the Pearl River Delta, thus extending the impacts of the project to China. Publication of results in international academic journals and diffusion of project outcomes in both countries is still taking place following the official end of the project. We will continue to update this narrative as the outcomes of the project are published and reaches the desired impact.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Environment,Retail,Transport
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description JPI Urban Europe/NSFC SustaInable Mobility and Equality in mega-ciTy RegIons: patterns, mechanisms and governance
Amount £303,411 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/T000287/1 
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 02/2022
 
Title Segreg QGIS Plugin 
Description The software calculates all indices of spatial segregation used in the project. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact It facilitates the use of spatial segregation indices for other members of the academic community. Information on how to use it is available at https://github.com/sandrofsousa/Segreg/wiki. 
URL https://plugins.qgis.org/plugins/Segreg/
 
Description Publicising the research on accessibility 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact We are working on publicising our work with Sao Paulo through various channels in Brazil as well as in the UK. We are actively developing presentations at various conferences, see publications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019