PATH-AI: Mapping an Intercultural Path to Privacy, Agency, and Trust in Human-AI Ecosystems

Lead Research Organisation: The Alan Turing Institute
Department Name: Research

Abstract

PATH-AI is a UK-Japan collaboration that will develop and pilot a methodology for inter-cultural co-design of a culture- and human-centric framework for a more ethical and equitable human-AI ecosystem.

The project will rely on an experienced multidisciplinary international team of researchers to build the first of its kind intercultural co-designed framework of this sort.

Firstly, a comprehensive literature review and interview-based research on the normative (cultural, social, ethnographic) and institutional (legal, economic, political) dimensions of privacy, agency, and transparency (PAT) will clarify the UK- and Japan-specific views on these values. Specifically, the meaning, roles, and interrelationships between PAT within human-AI interactions will be considered, paying special attention to the fundamental role that PAT values have in furnishing other norms, politices, and laws that guide human-AI interaction.

Secondly, by juxtaposing the Anglo-European and Japanese traditions, the researchers will draw a comprehensive view of PAT in human-AI ecosystems, expanding or delimiting these concepts. Challenging the limits of current AI ethics discussions, we will extend AI ethics to a wider landscape of cultures, values, and societies and explore how these have funded the nature and dynamics of the human-AI ecosystems within the UK and Japan.

Thirdly, the researchers will build an intercultural bridge for communication between British and Japanese citizens through the commissioning and international exhibitions of British and Japanese art, inspired by our comparative analysis of PAT in innovation ecosystems. By exchanging art pieces between the two countries, viewers will be confronted with different views of AI and their reactions and views will be studied. This will conclude Phase One of the project.

In Phase Two, extensive stakeholder engagement within working groups will be initiated. Working groups will collaborate to co-design a unique culture-informed international governance framework for AI ethics that is based on the enriched UK and Japanese traditions of PAT vis-à-vis AI. Through this work, we will also identify policy shortcomings and make recommendations. This framework and policy recommendations will be launched at an international conference, setting the start for future UK-Japan AI ethics and governance dialogues.

Our work will benefit key stakeholders. The research carried out through this project will advance knowledge in the cultural, anthropopological fields by deepening understanding of and comparison between Anglo-European and Japanese representations and traditions regarding PAT, both between humans and between humans and inanimate objects. Our work will also bring key insights to political philosophy, law, and economics by reflecting how political, legal, and economic institutional structures adapt to different sociocultural views of PAT in practice. This will chart the path towards intercultural ethical studies, but also will highlight key lessons for future institution- and capacity-building that is to be based on and adapted to local norms and beliefs.

PATH-AI will also build communication channels between policy-makers, civil society, research institutions, industry actors, and citizens within and between the UK and Japan. Through continuous and multisided stakeholder involvement in the research process, we will both enhance the quality of our research, but we will also build stakeholder connections that will survive beyond the project. Moreover, by clarifying the different, yet completentary British and Japanese cultures, we will build multual understanding and enrichment between the two nations at the level of both citizens and policy-makers. Ultimately, this will not only benefit intercultural dialogues, but will also facilitate future policy-making and regulation that will encourage ethical innovation and economic activity between the countries as well.

Planned Impact

The research team has extensive interdisciplinary research experience that they will utilise to ensure the research project maximises its impact on multiple levels. A key advantage that our research team will rely on is our extensive experience providing consultation and advice to public authorities both in the UK and Japan. Among those whom we have contacts with are the Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, the UK Department for Culture, Media and Sport, the Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation, and the Office for AI in the UK.

Policy-makers and civil society as beneficiaries
Cross-national and intercultural investigation into the key identified themes - agency, trust and privacy - is imperative in order to encourage progress towards a wider and more inclusive dialogue on AI governance, ethics, and regulation. Our project will lay the foundations for intercultural dialogue on AI governance by:
- Facilitating mutual understanding on the basis of cleare and accessible information about UK and Japanese culture
- Encouraging the formation of bonds between stakeholders through increased stakeholder engagement and working group co-design of an AI framework
- Highlighting and enriching knowledge on the policy and legal tools that are informed and influenced by privacy, agency, and trust and how these have economic, technical, and social reflections

Citizens as beneficiaries
Citizens will also benefit from our research. Individuals within the UK and Japan will be involved in the project through interviews, receiving the opportunity to be heard and directly contribute to an international effort for AI governance. In addition, citizens will be enriched through the PATH-AI experience by being presented with challenging new (and foreign to them) ideas about what human-AI interactions look like and how agency, privacy, and trust fit within that framework. This will be done by employing innovative interactive research and engagement strategies. This will also increase the awareness and capability of citizens to engage in AI ethics conversations in their private and public lives. Finally, citizens will benefit from the governance dialogues that PATH-AI can launch by having better regulation, policy, and AI-driven services and tools produced and representing their interests.

Artists as beneficiaries
This research will also benefit artists, those who enhance and engage with dialogues and raise awareness about AI in the society through the unique subjective emotional prisms that shape their creativity. Artists will be introduced to a new side of human-AI interaction that would enrich their artistic capacity and worldview by placing the modern technological revolution in the historical context of UK and Japanese cultural traditions, with their philosophical, social, and ethnographic complexities. Beyond this, artists will benefit from the opportunity to contribute directly to the intercultural dialogue between the UK and Japan through their art, adding their individual energy to the debate and enjoying the opportunity to exhibit their art internationally.

Economic actors as beneficiaries
Economic actors will benefit from the PATH-AI project by receiving greater clarity about the culturally-motivated particularities about consumer behavior, desire and demands in both the UK and Japan. By being more aware about what is socially acceptable and desirable in both countries, economic actors will better be able to guide and direct their investments towards innovation. In addition, thanks to the intercultural governance dialogue launched with PATH-AI, the international achievement of clarity with regard to AI regulation, standardization, certification, and even international trade will be facilitated and enhanced, leading to increased economic opportunities at closer timespans for such innovators, manufacturers, and entrepreneurs.
 
Description In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, we shifted our initial empirical focus to a comparative analysis of the role of AI and data-driven technology in the public health responses to the pandemic in the UK and Japan. This has provided us an especially enlightening lens into the issues of privacy, agency, and trust upon which the PATH-AI project has been based. In its early stages, our PATH-AI research has been focused on interrogating what sociocultural characteristics can tell us about the resilience or vulnerability of Japan and the UK in the face of the challenges presented by COVID-19. Such characteristics include levels of trust in government, interpersonal trust, and social capital - the bonding and bridging relationships between people that enable a society to function effectively - as well as practical orientations to reciprocity, social duty, and civic engagement. Our preliminary observations have indicated that differing levels of interpersonal trust and trust in government have led to very different public health outcomes in the UK and Japan. Levels of social capital, trust and solidarity have significant implications for the efficacy of different policy responses to the pandemic, as well as for the level of compliance with the current mass vaccination mobilisation and other public health measures. Likewise a lack of trust and a self-protective prioritisation of privacy has, in a significant sense, led to the adoption of digital contact tracing technologies that have ended up somewhat misaligned with public health priorities in both countries. Constructively, we have found that, above all, it is vital to start thinking now about how to rebuild and support forms of both interpersonal civic trust and trust in government as a public health priority in the British context. Part of this is about rebuilding the credibility of government and the trustworthiness of its policies through greater transparency in communication.
Exploitation Route Even at this early stage, we have aimed to facilitate comparative reflection on the relationship of privacy, agency, and trust in the intercultural context. Our initial research provides a good starting point for doing this in the Japanese and British cases, especially as these relate to the novel set of societal challenges that the pandemic has raised.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Security and Diplomacy

URL http://www.path-ai.org
 
Description Even though we are at a preparatory stage of this project, since publishing our website a few months ago, we have seen a dramatic increase in internet traffic on our webpages. This indicates to us that our work is gaining interest in the general public, and that our findings on COVID-19 and digital technologies in the UK and Japan have been disseminated to quite a wide audience in the general public. The uniqueness of our approach and the lack of any comparable outlets for comparative thinking of the type we are involved in suggests that our work is having impact on those engaging it.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Collaboration with Dr Andrew Adams, Deputy Director of the Centre for Business Information Ethics (CBIE) at Meiji University in Tokyo 
Organisation Meiji University
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution N/A
Collaborator Contribution Dr Andrew Adams, Deputy Director of the Centre for Business Information Ethics (CBIE) at Meiji University, Tokyo, is acting as an advisor on our PATH-AI project advisory board.
Impact There are no joint outputs at this stage in the project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Dr Susanne Brucksch, Principal Researcher at the German Institute for Japanese Studies (DIJ) 
Organisation German Institute for Japanese Studies
Country Japan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution N/A
Collaborator Contribution Dr Susanne Brucksch, Principal Researcher at the German Institute for Japanese Studies (DIJ), is acting as an advisor on our PATH-AI project advisory board.
Impact There are no joint outputs at this stage in the project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Professor Andrew McStay, Bangor University 
Organisation Bangor University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution N/A
Collaborator Contribution Professor Andrew McStay, Director of the Network for the Study of Media and Persuasive Communication at Bangor University, is acting as an advisor on our PATH-AI project advisory board.
Impact There are no joint outputs at this stage in the project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Professor Anne Allison, Duke University 
Organisation Duke University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution N/A
Collaborator Contribution Professor Anne Allison, Professor of Cultural Anthropology at Duke University, US, is acting as an advisor on our PATH-AI project advisory board.
Impact There are no joint outputs at this stage in the project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Professor Arisa Ema, the University of Tokyo 
Organisation University of Tokyo
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution N/A
Collaborator Contribution Professor Arisa Ema, Project Assistant Professor at the University of Tokyo and Visiting Researcher at RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligence Project, is acting as an advisor on our PATH-AI project advisory board.
Impact There are no joint outputs at this stage in the project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Professor Colin Bennett, Department of Political Science, University of Victoria, Canada 
Organisation University of Victoria
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution N/A
Collaborator Contribution Professor Colin Bennett, Department of Political Science, University of Victoria, Canada, is acting as an advisor on our PATH-AI project advisory board.
Impact There are no joint outputs at this stage in the project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Professor George Crooks OBE, Chief Executive of the Digital Health & Care Innovation Centre 
Organisation Government of Scotland
Department Digital Health & Care Innovation Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution N/A
Collaborator Contribution Professor George Crooks OBE, Chief Executive of the Digital Health & Care Innovation Centre, is acting as an advisor on our PATH-AI project advisory board.
Impact There are no joint outputs at this stage in the project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Professor Kenji Shibuya, Professor and Director, University Institute for Population Health King's College London, UK 
Organisation King's College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution N/A
Collaborator Contribution Professor Kenji Shibuya, Professor and Director, University Institute for Population Health King's College London, is acting as an advisor on our PATH-AI project advisory board.
Impact There are no joint outputs at this stage in the project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with Professor Mireille Hildebrandt, Vrije Universiteit Brussels 
Organisation Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution N/A
Collaborator Contribution Professor Mireille Hildebrandt, Research Professor at Vrije Universiteit Brussels and Co-Director of the Law, Science, Technology & Society Studies Research Group at the Faculty of Law and Criminology, is acting as an advisor on our PATH-AI project advisory board.
Impact There are no joint outputs at this stage in the project.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with RIKEN research institute (Japan). 
Organisation RIKEN
Country Japan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The PATH-AI project involves a research collaboration with the Center for Advanced Intelligence Project (AIP) team at RIKEN, the largest comprehensive research institution in Japan. The AIP team includes researchers from Keio University, Kyushu University, and the University of Tokyo. We hold regular meetings with our RIKEN partners, and also exchange information and advice on a range of topics relevant to our PATH-AI research on an ongoing basis via a large shared document.
Collaborator Contribution We hold regular meetings with our RIKEN partners, and exchange information on a range of topics relevant to our PATH-AI research on an ongoing basis via a large shared document. Our partners have also contributed to our overall research project plan and approach.
Impact We have a working document sharing information on UK and Japanese approaches to digital contact tracing. We have also planned two open online workshops to present work from both teams in April and May 2021.
Start Year 2020
 
Description 'AI as Global Public Utility' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Keynote, London Business School, Reinventing the Mainstream Conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.socialimpactconference.co.uk/copy-of-line-up
 
Description 'AI/ML ethics and governance in research and practice' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture to the UKRI CDT in Modern Statistics and Statistical Machine Learning, Imperial College and Oxford
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description 'Boots-on-the-ground AI governance in the era of COVID-19' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited Lecture, Research in Real Worlds Lecture for the Oxford Internet Institute
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description 'Changing Shapes of Psychic Life in the Prediction Society,' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Lecture, The Open University Psychological Society, 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description 'Data science for the society of tomorrow' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Keynote, INEGI- Tecnológico de Monterrey, México
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.inegi.org.mx/eventos/2020/newData/
 
Description 'Digital Medicine and Electronic Healthcare Records: Ethical Tensions and Solutions' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Talk, Ethics of Precision and Preventative Psychiatry Workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description 'Garbage In, Garbage Out': A Conversation with Dr David Leslie 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Monday Science Podcast
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://mondayscience.medium.com/episode-23-garbage-in-garbage-out-a-conversation-with-dr-david-lesl...
 
Description 'Human rights in the era of AI' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited Panel Participation, Conference hosted by Germany's Presidency of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021
URL https://germanycoe.de
 
Description 'Process-based explanation for complex algorithmic models,' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Lecture and Panel Participation, The National Institute for Standards and Technology (US)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.nist.gov/news-events/events/2021/01/explainable-ai-workshop
 
Description 'Responsible AI innovation in the context of COVID-19,' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Conference Presentation, Data for Policy Conference, 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://dataforpolicy.org/data-for-policy-2020/
 
Description 'Why AI ethics and responsible data science?' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Invited Lecture, Leaders of Tomorrow in Tech, Pilot School Programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://evessio.s3.amazonaws.com/customer/8c4659ee-526a-4e9c-89dc-f6f4c3c1a789/event/8e7310da-eb58-4...
 
Description Conference presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Prof Charles Raab and Dr Fumi Kitagawa delivered talk entitled: "PATH-AI: Mapping an Intercultural Path to Privacy, Agency and Trust in Human-AI Ecosystems". Presented at the Critical Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence (CPAIE) Conference, Edinburgh, 22-23 October 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Creation of project website (www.path-ai.org) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Members of the PATH-AI project team created a project website (www.path-ai.org) to communicate information about the project, including an overview of the research, details of the researchers and advisory board members involved in the project, a detailed timeline comparing events in the UK and Japan relating to the public health and technology responses to COVID-19, as well as a section with regular blog posts from members of the research team and guest writers. The website is aimed at informing and engaging with the general public as well as specialists in related fields (such as academic researchers and third sector professionals), and we may use it in future as a tool for direct public engagement (for example, as a platform for disseminating a survey).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021
URL http://www.path-ai.org
 
Description Interview for Care Matters podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Dr James Wright was interviewed for the "Care Matters" podcast (produced by Centre for International Research on Care, Labour & Equalities, University of Sheffield), in an episode focusing on the use of AI and other technology in adult social care.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://circle.group.shef.ac.uk/care-matters-podcast/
 
Description PATH-AI Twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Members of the PATH-AI project team launched a Twitter account (https://twitter.com/PATHAIResearch) to post regular information about PATH-AI.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021
URL https://twitter.com/PATHAIResearch
 
Description Paper presentation at academic conference (Society for Social Studies of Science). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A paper presented by Dr James Wright entitled "Alexa, Care Worker Platforms, and Emergent Precarious Technologies of Care in the UK" at the annual conference of the Society for Social Studies of Science (4S), held online. An audience of around 40 attended. The panel organisers recommended the paper be submitted to a special issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, and it was subsequently published.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://easst.net/easst-4s-2020/
 
Description Paper presentation at academic seminar on histories of AI. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A paper presented by Dr James Wright entitled "Suspect AI - Vibraimage, Emotion Recognition Technology, and Algorithmic Opacity" at the online Mellon Sawyer Seminar on Histories of AI, based at the University of Cambridge. Around 50 people attended the seminar, including postgraduate students and professors, and several contacted me individually afterwards to discuss the issues raised further and propose future research collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/research/projects/histories-of-ai
 
Description University seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A seminar delivered by Prof Charles Raab on "Data Ethics, Technology and Impact Assessment", presented in the Seminar Series, Controversies in the Data Society, University of Edinburgh Futures Institute, 5 March 2021.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://efi.ed.ac.uk/events-overview/controversies-in-the-data-society-2/
 
Description University seminar presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Prof Charles Raab and Dr Fumi Kitagawa presented a talk entitled: "PATH-AI: Mapping an Intercultural Path to Privacy, Agency and Trust in Human-AI Ecosystems". Presented at a seminar of the International Relations Research Group, University of Edinburgh, 11 May 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description University talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk by Fumi Kitagawa entitled: "A tale of Two Countries - How have the UK and Japan (not) used Digital Contact Tracing Technologies at the time of the Covid-Crisis?" Research Share talk, 17 June 2020, University of Edinburgh Business School
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020