OSCAR - Oceanographic and Seismic Characterisation of heat dissipation and alteration by hydrothermal fluids at an Axial Ridge

Lead Research Organisation: Durham University
Department Name: Earth Sciences

Abstract

The cooling of young oceanic crust is the main physical process responsible for removing heat from the solid Earth to the hydrosphere. Close to the mid-ocean ridge rapid cooling is dominated by hydrothermal circulation of seawater through the porous and fractured basalt crust. This hydrothermal fluid is then discharged into the ocean mainly along the ridge. In this interdisciplinary project we will investigate the effects of this heat loss and hydrothermal circulation in both the solid Earth and the ocean. We will, for the first time, derive an integrated model which will be constrained by geophysical, geological and physical oceanography data that includes pathways in both the solid Earth and the ocean including fluxes through seabed.

The most rapid heat exchange occurs close to the fast-spreading ridges, where there are little or no sediments, driven by hydrothermal flow. Cold ocean water enters the fractured basalt in areas on the ridge flanks and flows through the permeable crust becoming super-heated in the proximity of the axial magma chamber. This highly buoyant water ascends rapidly and escapes into the oceans along the ridge axis and is known to form distinct vents called black smokers. Once in the ocean the hot water mixes with the ambient cold water through entrainment and forms a plume that rises to its point of neutral density. The entrainment process may increase the volume of the water in the plume by several orders of magnitude thereby providing a mechanism to heat and lift the densest waters away from the bottom boundary layer. These waters are then more readily available for further mixing and heating as part of the global thermohaline circulation system. The intensity of the hydrothermal fluid flow in the crust decays with distance from the ridge axis because of clogging of the pathways by geochemical alteration products which changes the geophysical properties of the crust and with age, pelagic sediments isolate the fractured basaltic upper crust from the overlaying water preventing direct water exchange. Here conductive heat loss is determined by the thickness and structure of this layer of sediment.

The project will acquire an interdisciplinary dataset which integrates physical oceanography and geophysics into a single data acquisition cruise. Using these data we will build and parameterise new integrated models that will provide valuable insight and new constraints of the thermal processes close to ocean ridges that includes a permeable seabed. These data and resultant models will set a new benchmark for integrated multi-physics experiments and will result in a new understanding of the fluid and heat fluxes at ocean ridges and, as importantly a better understanding of what geophysical and oceanographic data actually resolve in the context in an oceanic axial ridge setting, and a predictive model that can be applied to similar ocean ridge systems world-wide.

Planned Impact

The main beneficiary of knowledge arising from this research is anticipated to be the academic community working on a diverse range of problems related to ocean ridge processes, in particular those interested in the formation of the ocean crust and hydrothermal circulation and transport of minerals from the solid Earth to the hydrosphere and biosphere. There may also be commercial interest from mineral extraction industry 1) to determine the mode of formation and hence mode of extraction of seabed located mineral deposits and 2) the better understanding of the origin and development of ore resources generated by the flow of fluids though host rocks, which extract and then enrich specific minerals at specific locations along that particular fluid flow path.

As part of the project we will convene a number project meetings and workshops. In particular, we plan an interdisciplinary workshop in the fourth year of the project which will bring together all interested parties to discuss the results and their wider implications for understanding fundamental processes. Results will be presented through seminars at other institutions and at national and international conferences. Collaborative science papers with other interest groups will be encouraged, together with joint applications for further funding for cross-disciplinary research based on the results of this project. We will use the web to publish work package summaries, progress updates and results, both in "academic speak" and in language and presentation style for stimulating general public's interest in the project and the associated research areas. We will also establish a web-forum to enable inter-researcher discussion with the wider community.

We will encourage public interest in the research throughout as exploration of the deep oceans and geological processes that shape the planet are of general interest. This research project involves a major sea campaign of data acquisition using a wide and diverse range of equipment, therefore, while at sea the science party will engage in "blogging", including video and sound clips as well as images, to convey their experiences of the research activities as they happen. We will also participate in the Classroom at Sea scheme (see http://www.classroomatsea.net/index.html) to encourage real-time interaction with teachers and school children of all ages.

The following milestones will measure the success of this impact plan:
1)web site with both public and private sites - monitor usage;
2)setting up teacher at sea and class room at sea - monitor websites;
3)a list of seminars will be maintained, together with abstracts and science papers (these too will be placed on the web);
4)establishing links with free-lance science writer early in project and involve them at project workshops - popular science article in year 3 and/or 4;
5)a 2-day interdisciplinary workshop hosted at Durham with invited keynote speakers on ridge formation, evolution, and associated hydrosphere and biosphere.
 
Description The assumption made was the ocean crust under investigation in the Panama basin would have been produced as the ocean ridge in a similar manner over the past 6 million years. However we have discovered that there is a significant change in the physical properties of the crust at 5 million years. This was unexpected and calls into question the understanding of ocean crust formation and/or the tectonic model of the formation of the Panama basin and Central America.
Exploitation Route Our understanding of ocean crust and its formation and aging are developing rapidly. This result supports ongoing research into the nature of ocean crust from both an academic viewpoint as the underlying mechanism that drives plate-tectonics, to commercial considerations as to the potential of 'Blue Mining' of ore bodies originally formed at mid-ocean ridges but are now dispersed in the ocean basin. The research has also initiated renewed interest in Fracture Zones, which was not anticipated in original project proposal.
Sectors Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

URL https://academic.oup.com/gji/article/218/3/1617/5475122
 
Title Controlled source seismic acquisition - source 
Description Devised, tested and deployed a novel seismic source for collection of multi-bandwidth data for imaging the subsurface structure of the Earth. The method was deployed during the NERC funded OSCAR project cruise on the RRS James Cook and the FS Sonne in the Panama basin. The seismic source consisted of three arrays deployed from two ships to give a seismic imaging bandwidth from 5 to 200 Hz. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Research ongoing but early results show how the different source complement each other by providing different levels of information. 
URL https://www.bodc.ac.uk/resources/inventories/cruise_inventory/report/15036/
 
Title Controlled source seismic acquisition - vertical array 
Description Development and deployment of a far-field vertical hydrophone array to record controlled source shots from surface vessels. The recorded signals are used to quality control the seismic source and to improve processing of the recorded seismic data by the use of deterministic filters. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The records show that the seismic sources deployed on NERC vessels by NMF are significantly far from that requested by the scientific community based on widely used industry standard modelling software. The distortion of the source wavelet has a significant impact on the outcomes of the research as it will limit the final deliverable product from this project. Also the technology developed here is being deployed on an up-coming survey in an attempt to mitigate against the now known source problems. 
URL https://www.bodc.ac.uk/resources/inventories/cruise_inventory/report/15036/
 
Title Oceanographic data for archival 
Description The oceanographic data collected during the OSCAR cruises is being prepared for archival and will be deposited in the BODC archives this year. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact For the moment, we are the only research group using the data. 
 
Title geophysical data for archival 
Description Geophysical data acquired as part of OSCAR will be deposited in the BODC database this year 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These data represent the most comprehensive geophysical dataset of ocean crust collected to date. This has allowed the creation of new proxies for ocean crust formation and aging and in conjunction with the co-located physical oceanographic database has allowed, for the first time, quantitative analyses of the heat and mass transfer across the seabed. 
 
Description Collaboration with Institute of Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Germany. 
Organisation University of Cologne
Department Institute of Geophysics and Meteorology
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Donata Banyte, physical oceanographer and postdoctoral researcher in OSCAR, uses facilities in the said institution when visiting Germany, her home country.
Collaborator Contribution They provide computing and office facilities for Donata Banyte when she is visiting Germany so that she can continue working on OSCAR while away.
Impact This informal collaboration has helped sustain Donata's productivity while she is abroad visiting her home country.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with National University of Colombia 
Organisation National University of Colombia
Country Colombia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Carlos Vargas of the National University of Colombia sailed on the OSCAR data acquisition cruise during which we deployed ocean bed instruments to passively record earthquakes in region of his research interest. We have also made the other OSCAR data available to him so he can further his analysis. Also Dr Vargas involvement was strategic as it showed good-will during application to work within Colombian national water.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Carlos Vargas has completed his initial analysis of the data provided and has presented the results at the GSA meeting in Denver. He continues to work on the data and has been awarded a Santander travel grant to visit Durham this year.
Impact Paper at GSA 2016
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collboration with South China Seas Oceanology Institute (Qunshu Tang) 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences
Department South China Sea Institute of Oceanology
Country China 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution Qunshu Tang is using data from the OSCAR cruise for his research into using seismic reflection methods to image thermohaline structure of oceans
Collaborator Contribution The image of seismic thermohaline structure can be inverted to give internal wave spectra (mixing) and internal wave movement. Early results show the upper ocean stratification is weaker over the mid-ocean ridge, it is not yet clear if this is just a near surface effect or the additional mixing is being induced by the hydrothermal action at the ridge.
Impact Internal reports
Start Year 2014
 
Description Heatflow NSF 
Organisation Oregon State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The science lead is from the UK so we provided the science case/justification for the proposal
Collaborator Contribution This piggy-back proposal funds the acquisition of heatflow data that complements the original work funded by NERC
Impact None as yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description Heatflow NSF 
Organisation Virginia Polytechnique Institute and State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The science lead is from the UK so we provided the science case/justification for the proposal
Collaborator Contribution This piggy-back proposal funds the acquisition of heatflow data that complements the original work funded by NERC
Impact None as yet
Start Year 2014
 
Description VIrginia Tech 
Organisation Virginia Tech
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of data
Collaborator Contribution used supplied data to constrain models of heat-flow
Impact Publications in international journals
Start Year 2015
 
Description A talk or presentation EGU 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk at EGU2018-16566 | Orals | GD7.1/GMPV8.7/SM4.15/TS9.12
Investigation of the variability in ocean crustal structure at an intermediate-spreading ridge and its implications for geothermal processes
Richard Hobbs and the OSCAR Science Party
20 people attended talk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2018/EGU2018-16566.pdf
 
Description A tlak or presentation at AGU 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A talk at AGU T33B-07 Evolution of Heat Flow, Hydrothermal Circulation and Permeability with Age on the Southern Flank of the Costa Rica Rift
Kannikha Parameswari Kolandaivelu (Virginia Tech).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm18/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/454711
 
Description A tlak or presentation at EGU 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Poster presented at EGU2018-15830 | Posters | GD7.1/GMPV8.7/SM4.15/TS9.12
Spreading ridge lower order segmentations effect on large scale fault heave
Gavin Haughton, Richard Hobbs, Bramley Murton, and Tim Henstock
Generated an active discussion on methods to map and interpret ocean floor features
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2018/EGU2018-15830.pdf
 
Description A tlak or presentation at EGU 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk presented at EGU2018-15762 | Orals | GD7.1/GMPV8.7/SM4.15/TS9.12
A new geophysical proxy for the characterisation of the layer 2A/2B boundary in the oceanic crust ground-truthed by ODP borehole 504B
Emma Gregory, Dean Wilson, Richard Hobbs, and Christine Peirce
to an audience of about 20 people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2018/EGU2018-15762.pdf
 
Description A tlak or presentation at EGU 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Poster at EGU2018-15826 | Posters | GD7.1/GMPV8.7/SM4.15/TS9.12
Ecuador Fracture Zone - fluid flow, serpentinisation and dynamic plate uplift in a mid-ocean ridge setting
Adam Robinson, Richard Hobbs, Christine Peirce, Matthew Funnell, Russell Azad-Khan, Jacob Barrett, Isabelle Minihan, Matthew Kemp, and Dean Wilson
Presented new insights into fracture zones an area of ocean floor that has been neglected in favour of mid ocean ridges and trenches. Has led to new interest in these features including grant applications to NERC and adoption of topic by InterRidge
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2018/EGU2018-15826.pdf
 
Description A tlak or presentation at EGU 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A poster presented at EGU2018-18911 | Posters | OS1.1
Abyssal water transformation in the Panama Basin
Donata Banyte, Miguel Angel Morales Maqueda, Richard Hobbs, David Smeed, Alexis Megann, and Sonia Recalde
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2018/EGU2018-18911.pdf
 
Description A tlak or presentation at EGU 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A poster presented at EGU2018-15604 | Posters | GD7.1/GMPV8.7/SM4.15/TS9.12
Intermediate oceanic crust is created by alternating periods of magma-rich and magma-poor spreading: evidence from a 7 Myr transect from the Costa Rica Ridge to ODP borehole 504B
Dean Wilson, Richard Hobbs, Christine Peirce, Emma Gregory, and Adam Robinson
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2018/EGU2018-15604.pdf
 
Description AGU Conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Major international conference. Poster on OSCAR modelling presented by Jowan barnes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://fallmeeting.agu.org/2017/
 
Description AGU Conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Major international conference. Poster presented by Donata Banyte on OSCAR oceanography.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://fallmeeting.agu.org/2017/
 
Description American Geophysical Union Fall meeting (San Francisco) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation of modelled heatflow at the Costa Rica Ridge in the Panama basin, the poster session was well attended with extended discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm16/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/142138
 
Description American Geophysical Union Fall meeting (San Francisco) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation on the seismic velocity structure of young ocean crust formed at the Costa Rica Ridge in the Panama basin, the poster session was well attended with extended discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm16/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/140575
 
Description American Geophysical Union Fall meeting (San Francisco) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited oral talk that summerised the current progress of the OSCAR project to understand the heat and mass flow between the ocean and the solid earth in young ocean crust in the Panama basin.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm16/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/126036
 
Description American Geophysical Union Fall meeting (San Francisco) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation on the heatflow in the Ecuador fracture zone in the Panama Basin, the poster session was well attended with extended discussions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm16/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/182638
 
Description American Geophysical Union Fall meeting (San Francisco) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on geophysical evidence for the formation of new ocean crust at the Costa Rica Ridge in the Panama basin.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm16/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/156995
 
Description American Geophysical Union Fall meeting (San Francisco) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation on the seismic characteristics at ODP 504B borehole in the Panama Basin, the poster session was well attended with extended discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm16/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/140714
 
Description American Geophysical Union Fall meeting (San Francisco) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation on the measured heatflow on young ocean crust formed by the Costa Rica Ridge in the Panama Basin, the poster session was well attended with extended discussions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm16/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/138979
 
Description Challenger Conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Major national conference. Poster on OSCAR modelling by Jowan Barnes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/challenger-conference-2016/
 
Description Challenger Society Conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Major national oceanography conference. Oral presentation by Donata Banyte on OSCAR Oceanography.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/challenger-conference-2016/
 
Description EGU 2017 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific presentation to an academic audience at the European Geosciences Union conference in 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/EGU2017-19042.pdf
 
Description EGU 2017 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific presentation to an academic audience at the European Geosciences Union conference in 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/EGU2017-10558.pdf
 
Description EGU 2017 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific presentation to an academic audience at the European Geosciences Union conference in 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/EGU2017-8513.pdf
 
Description EGU 2017 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific presentation to an academic audience at the European Geosciences Union conference in 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2017/EGU2017-4162.pdf
 
Description European Geosciences Union (Vienna) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on the OSCAR project aims and initial results to map the geophysical structure of young ocean crust in the Panama Basin.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2016/orals/21213
 
Description Geological Society of America annual meeting Denver 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Report outcomes of scientific research to an international audience. The presentation reported new findings on the nature of the Sandra ridge and Panama fracture zone in the Panama basin.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2016AM/webprogram/Paper277993.html
 
Description InterRidge Third Theoretical Institute (Hangzhou) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation of the preliminary analysis of the aging of ocean crust from formation until 6 Ma.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.interridge.org/node/17263
 
Description InterRidge Third Theoretical Institute (Hangzhou) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation of mapping ocean structure from swath bathymetry in the Panama Basin, this was part of a 3-day focused workshop on mapping ocean crust
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.interridge.org/node/17260
 
Description InterRidge Third Theoretical Institute (Hangzhou) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation of the preliminary analysis of ocean crust near ODP 504B borehole in the Panama Basin. The poster won one of three prizes for research students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.interridge.org/node/17261
 
Description Ocean Sciences Conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Major international conference. Presentation by Donata Banyte on OSCAR oceanography.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://osm.agu.org/2018/
 
Description Ocean Sciences Conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Major international conference. Presentation by Jowan Barnes on OSCAR modelling.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://osm.agu.org/2018/
 
Description Presenation at AGU 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at major international science conference to an academic audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm17/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/271616
 
Description Presenation at AGU 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at major international science conference to an academic audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm17/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/217248
 
Description Presenation at AGU 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at major international science conference to an academic audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm17/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/271421
 
Description Presenation at AGU 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at major international science conference to an academic audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm17/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/272678