Characterisation of the nature, origins and ecological significance of dissolved organic matter in freshwater ecosystems

Lead Research Organisation: University of Bristol
Department Name: Geographical Sciences

Abstract

Evidence indicating that nutrient flux to inland and coastal waters is increasing worldwide is clear. Despite significant management effort to reduce theses fluxes, while N & P concentrations have recently levelled off or decreased in some European catchments, in others an increase is reported, particularly in rivers draining through rapidly developing economic regions. A rising trend in Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) flux to freshwaters & coastal areas such as the Baltic Sea is also widely reported, particularly in the N Temperate & Boreal regions. Impacts on ecosystem health are extensive & undesirable in both freshwaters & coastal waters, & there are implications for human health where DOC & DON are also known to support carcinogen formation in water supplies.

In Europe the control of nutrient flux to all freshwaters & the coastal zone is required in order to meet the target of restoring waters to Good Ecological Status under the EU Water Framework Directive, while the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is currently revising Annex IX of the Gothenburg Protocol (to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication & Ground-level Ozone) to further reduce the emission of ammonia from land-based activities.

Simultaneously, the UN has listed coastal nutrient pollution and hypoxia as the one of the greatest current threats to the global environment. Impacts include eutrophication of coastal waters and oxygen depletion, and the associated damage to ecosystems, biodiversity & coastal water quality. The UNEP Manila Declaration (Jan 2012) identifies nutrient enrichment of the marine environment as one of 3 foci for its Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, and this was one of the key foci at the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development, June 2012.

A detailed understanding of the nature, origins & rates of nutrient delivery to waters is essential if we are to control these impacts through management intervention, yet much of the necessary evidence base is lacking. Routine water quality monitoring is largely based on inorganic nutrient fractions, and substantially underestimates the total nutrient flux to waters, while research confirms that dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in ecosystem function including supporting microbial metabolism, primary production and pollutant transport, suggesting that its oversight in routine monitoring may undermine international efforts to bring nutrient enrichment impacts under control.

Here, we address this knowledge gap, building on the specific expertise of project members, undertaking a suite of interlinked experimental & observational research from molecular to catchment scale. We will use a combination of well-established approaches widely used in catchment research, with a range of cutting-edge approaches which are novel in their application to nutrient cycling research, or employ novel technologies, bringing new insights into the process controls on nutrient cycling at a molecular to river reach scale.

The programme will deliver improved understanding of:

1. the role of DOM in the transport of N & P from source to sea & the ways in which this might alter nutrient delivery to freshwaters & the coastal zone under a changing climate;
2. the ecological significance of DOM as a source of nutrient uptake & utilisation by algal, plant and microbial communities in waters of contrasting nutrient status & DOM character; and
3. the impacts of DOM flux from soils, livestock & human waste fluxes on the ecological status, goods & services provided by freshwaters.

It will also deliver knowledge exchange between the 5 groups & the wider science community, and have an impact beyond the lifetime of this project, building capacity through staff & PhD appointments in a field where current understanding is uncertain, undermining business planning and international policy development.

Planned Impact

Impact in the user community will be realised through the development of KE partnerships with those involved in policy and operational management of the environment. To this end, we have held a suite of meetings and discussion sessions with a wide range of stakeholders prior to finalising our proposal, in order to ensure that their interests and concerns are properly represented in the programme, and that the science we propose is transferable and useful beyond the immediate academic beneficiaries.

Nine stakeholder organisations have agreed to join us as Project Partners, providing access to data and infrastructure assets, staff expertise, project placements and training. These include Government organisations (Defra, Environment Agency, Natural England, Countryside Council for Wales), charities (The Rivers Trust), and the water utilities including Wessex Water (Hampshire Avon), Welsh Water (Conwy) and Scottish Water who have significant problems with DBP formation in a number of their water supply catchments.

We will also develop a number of novel technologies, including the testing of novel sensor technologies to capture high resolution information on CDOM flux at catchment scale, and the development of a novel proteomic/metabolomics approaches to allow holistic study of the metabolic processes controlling nutrient utilisation by microbial communities, and characterisation of the enzymatic functions involved. The group at Bangor is world-leading in this field, and we have secured a letter of support from Dr Ferrer, Institute of Catalysis, Madrid confirming his support for and involvement in the application of this technology to this project as a Project Partner.

We will deliver KE through a 5 step process:

1. all Project Partners have participated in the final formulation of this bid, providing valuable suggestions to hone the programme to ensure that anticipated outcomes meet their interests and operational needs; they will join the Project Board, establish a programme of placements and working partnerships with staff and PhD students, and participate in a start-up workshop to refine the proposed sampling programme, to ensure that this capitalises on their existing data, infrastructure assets and focus areas;
2. we will produce a series of briefing notes on specific policy implications of our research findings for our Project Partner organisations throughout the programme making these publicly available through our project website and the publicity activities of our Project Partner organisations;
3. we will develop links with the wider stakeholder community through the project website and existing KT networks in which we are already involved in our Hampshire Avon and Conwy research, and will ensure wider public engagement through University Science Days and local and national media;
4. we will engage with the wider academic community through: (i) free weekly access for external researchers to our high frequency quantitative data; (ii) publication of 10 core papers in international peer reviewed journals, a suite of integrative papers in a special issue of Global Biogeochemical Cycles, and an overarching paper in Nature on the 'Environmental Role and Significance of DOM Flux in Freshwaters'; (iii) feedback on our findings to the international policy arena through our participation as expert members of the IPCC, UNECE Task Force for Reactive N and UNEP Foresight programmes, (iv) presentation of our findings at international conferences, and (iv) a contribution to Planet Earth;
5. we will to host an end-of-programme interactive workshop on 'The Role and Management of DOM in Freshwater Systems' for our Project Partners and the wider stakeholder community, and will host an international research meeting at The Royal Society on 'The Global Significance of DOM in Potable, Inland and Coastal Waters' with invited international speakers, focusing on KE with the wider international research community.

Publications

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Carswell A (2017) Impact of microbial activity on the leaching of soluble N forms in soil in Biology and Fertility of Soils

 
Description We have now completed all field-based research on the DOMAINE programme, and are in the process of completing the final analysis of samples using novel high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques developed in the programme under Work Package 2 (WP2).

Our Tier 2 sampling was completed following a period of storm sampling and sampling over the diurnal cycle at 3 of our Tier 1 sites. Tier 2 selected a total of 80 sites around the UK: 20 in peat catchments, 20 in clay catchments supporting intensive cattle production, 20 chalk catchments, and 20 sewage treatment works, mapping onto the common catchment characteristics of our sites in our two Tier 1 catchments.

Our analysis of all samples to determine nutrient speciation and DOC concentrations confirmed trends identified in our Tier 1 research (reported previously), with nutrient flux from all of our upland, oligotrophic sites dominated by dissolved and particulate organic nutrient fractions (>80% of Total N (TN) and P (TP) flux). In the lowland clay catchments organic and particulate nutrient flux comprised up to 50% of the TN and TP load, and in contract, in lowland chalk catchments we confirmed our original finding that TN flux was dominated by nitrate leaching from arable soils, while TP flux was dominated by particulate P delivered to the streams from eroding arable soils in the catchment.

Our laboratory experiments, based on biota collected from the Tier 2 sites, confirmed our initial findings from Tier 1 of co-limitation of stream production by both N and P in many of our mesotrophic sites, no evidence of N or P limitation of stream production in highly enriched eutrophic to hypertrophic streams, where stream flow regime, light availability and temperature play a more important role in regulating stream production, and P limitation evident only in headwater peatland waters with low levels of nutrient enrichment (oligotrophic sites). There are, then, implications for national water quality monitoring efforts which assume P to be the key limiting nutrient in freshwaters and aim to control P concentrations in streams in order to drive improvements in freshwater ecology. Our findings indicate that this would miss the dominant factors impacting on ecosystem health in the majority of UK waters.

Tier 2 has allowed us to upscale these findings to draw general conclusions regarding the composition of the total nutrient load delivered to streams from complex catchments, and to derive generic understanding that can be used to predict the likely composition of this pool in any catchment sharing similar landscape, geoclimatic and environmental conditions. We are currently working to produce a GIS based model of the UK to reflect this upscaled understanding. We are also working to complete a backlog of sample analyses from the Tier 2 programme, using our novel high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify discrete chemistries of the DOM pool linked to these same landscape character.
We have been delayed in completing this to date owing to a 1-year maternity leave for the PDRA leading that work. It is worth noting that the project has also had to cope with 2 separate periods of maternity leave for our Data and Project Manager in the course of the programme of work, and we now have another member of staff on WP4 on maternity leave. We are working our way around these periods of staff absence, but they have necessarily impacted on the delivery of the science in the manner we initially anticipated. Happily, we have now been granted a no-cost extension to 31/12/2019 to cover these periods of absence and allow us to complete the final analysis of samples and writing up of papers.

With regard to dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a part of the total nutrient pool available to the biota (as DOC, DON, and DOP) our laboratory microcosm experiments under WP3 and WP4 allowed us to demonstrate, for the first time, that DOM compounds are taken up by the primary producer community, and that in many cases they are taken up in preference to inorganic nutrient forms (previously considered to be the primary nutrient resource available to stream autotrophs). Our findings from Tier 1 were replicated in our Tier 2 programme. However, we were concerned that our external colleagues would want to see evidence that these compounds were taken up by stream biota under ambient conditions and in the presence of other stressors, in order to be persuaded to shift away from the current paradigm in freshwater sciences, which focuses almost wholly on understanding and controlling the inorganic nutrient fractions in streams. We therefore designed and undertook a final pair of experiments on the Nant-y-Brwyn stream in the headwaters of the Conwy, using dual-labelled 13C15N isotopes of a suite of DOM compounds previously identified as present at this site in our Tier 1 WP2 work. The site was confirmed as N limited in a pilot study we undertook prior to setting up the experiment, a pre-condition for our experiment as we would only be able to use isotopically labelled C and N compounds (not P) in the natural environment. We set up a series of replicated (in triplicate) stream microcosms, using a small recycling pump in each jar to simulate stream flow conditions, with a control, two inorganic nutrient control treatments (Potassium Nitrate, Ammonium Sulphate) and 6 DON treatments (Urea, Glutamate (Glutamic Acid), Glycine, N-Acetyl Glucosamine, Cellfree Amino Acid Mixture (Sigma Aldrich 767964) to mimic the amino acid profile likely to be found in natural waters, and 15N labelled Sheep Urine collected in the catchment from one of our PhD experiments under this programme, and therefore likely to mimic the profile of DOM compounds likely to enter the stream from sheep grazing in the vicinity. We added pebbles taken from the stream and coated in endemic biofilm, together with endemic mosses collected from the stream to each jar, with water, mosses and pebbles sampled for each treatment after 48 hours incubation, at the end of the experiment.

In our second experiment, we selected one compound, 13C15N labelled glutamate, and dosed this at 1-minute intervals into an adjacent tributary stream containing the same pebble and moss communities as in the first experiment. This allowed us to explore the processing and rates of DON uptake in the absence of physical alteration of the stream environment.
The experiment ran for 8 days, with sampling of the water, moss and pebbles (later scraped to remove the biofilm for analysis), 1, 2, 6, 12, 24 hours, then 2 days, 4 days, and finally 8 days from the start of the experiment. We are now near completing the analysis of these samples. The outcomes are promising, and we propose to use these data as the basis of a Nature publication pulling together the key findings from each of our core papers, and entitled Characterising the Nature, Origins and Ecological Significance of DOM in Freshwater Ecosystems, at the end of the programme. This approach was wholly novel in its design and application to freshwater ecosystems, and has allowed us, for the first time, to explore the role of DOM as a nutrient resource in freshwater ecosystems under ambient environmental conditions, and will form the basis of future experimental approaches (new programmes) to elucidate the nature, rates and types of DOM uptake by stream biota under the wide variety of stream nutrient, morphological and physico-chemical conditions that exist in freshwater ecosystems.

In terms of overall progress the programme is now nearing completion. All of the tasks we outlined in the proposal, together with novel science approaches developed to test new ideas as they emerged from our initial research, are either complete, or will be completed before the end date of the programme on 31/12/2019. We are pleased with our progress but have had to deal with two notable issues causing delays. The first has been the 4 periods of maternity leave (each of 1-year duration) amongst our project team, which means that we are still awaiting the completion of the sample analyses proposed under WP2, and are currently without a key member of staff working on WP4 who will return from maternity leave in July 2019. However, we have now been awarded a no-cost extension to the 31/12/19 and are confident that the team will be able to adjust to weave the evidence from this interdisciplinary programme into high calibre and impactful publications. Our second major delay related to the provision of metabolomics data from our project partner, the Institute of Catalysis in Madrid. However, we have now received their report and are currently working to analyse these data to help us interpret findings from our experimental work completed under WP3 and WP4. We anticipate reporting on this in our next ResearchFish submission.

Publication activity is now well underway following a planning exercise undertaken in December 2016 where 30 cross-WP papers were identified. 19 papers have been published so far, another 4 have been submitted for publication, and several more are in preparation at present, each involving input from all four WP. In addition, three PhD students associated with the programme (one directly funded, two associated with the programme) and one MScR student (who was our Biogeochemistry Research Technician working on WP1, and studying part-time) have all submitted their theses and successfully defended them in the past 2 months. 3 more are now nearing submission including our Biogeochemistry Research Technician working on WP3 who also studied for her PhD part-time while working on the DOMAINE programme. 2 final theses (one directly funded by NERC under the DOMAINE programme but starting late due to an early withdrawal by the original PhD student, and one NERC GW4 DTP student whose work we linked to the NERC DOMAINE programme so that she could capitalise on data available from the Tier 1 field sites) are due for submission in the autumn of 2019. Those submitted and defended are detailed separately in this submission. While we are still in the process of analysing our data and writing it up for publication, we also anticipate there being several newsworthy items once our stream isotope experiment analyses are completed. We have been using our website (www.nerc-domaine.uk), and also more recently Twitter to report on our work here, for example https://twitter.com/pj13302/ status/1007566501363306496, and have tagged @NERCscience in each activity.

We also applied for funding from the Royal Society to hold a Theo Murphy meeting as part of The Royal Society's 2019/20 Science Programme, with 15 invited speakers and chairs, all of whom accepted the provisional invitation. We are delighted to report that our application was successful and the meeting, entitled Characterising the nature, origins and ecological significance of DOM in freshwaters, will take place 20-21 January 2020 at Chicheley Hall, Buckinghamshire and will include a special issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society on this topic. While more than 50% of the programme will be delivered by our international colleagues, three of our NERC DOMAINE early career researchers will be speaking at the meeting, while the PI and 3 Co-Is will be either speaking or chairing sessions. We will be using the remainder of our T&S budget to fund the presentation of posters by each of our PhD students at the event and expect each to contribute to publications arising from the event.
Exploitation Route We are currently working up the comparison of our initial findings against conditions in a wider range of catchments sampled in Tier 2, in order to confirm their validity and generate generic knowledge that is transferable between systems and scales. These findings have relevance to policy makers and practitioners engaged in the management and control of nutrient enrichment impacts on stream ecology in UK catchments. They will have international relevance, while the findings from Tier 1 of the WP1 component have already been fed into the international programme on Stream Energy and Nutrient Cycling funded by the NSF under the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) programme of which Penny Johnes is a member. The patterns observed in UK lowland catchments are quite distinct from those observed in forested and semi-natural vegetated catchments across the conterminous USA, and in the boreal region of Scandinavia, and confirm the unique DOM chemistry of highly perturbed systems such as those found in the UK. The key findings regarding the quantitative significance of DOM as a component of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus flux and cycling in freshwater ecosystems have already been fed into advice presented to the OECD Environment Ministers at their 2016 conference via an invited briefing on Nitrogen from Penny Johnes, to the House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee in evidence presented by Penny Johnes to its Nitrates Inquiry, from both of which official reports have now been produced quoting this evident. They have also fed to Natural England via Penny's role as a member of its Science Advisory Committee, and to the water industry via her membership of the Wessex Water Catchment Panel and ad hoc meetings between Professor Jones and his team at Bangor and Welsh Water, To Scottish Water in the workshop they organised on Organic Carbon in Drinking Water Catchments, and in the recent briefing provided by Professor Johnes to our project partner, the Environment Agency, and a wider range of water industry companies outside our Project Partner group via a UKWIR Closed Group consultation. In each of these, the findings across our combined work package activity have already been used to inform the revision of their existing routine monitoring programme and catchment management approach, and to inform the development of their operational plans under the water industry's Asset Management Planning process (AMP7). We are also routinely disseminating our findings via invited, keynote and more commonly offered oral and poster presentations at international conferences by all members of the team, and via publication of our findings in academic journals. We plan to deliver further engagement and impact in our Royal Society Meeting on Dissolved Organic Matter in Freshwaters, and we will be proposing a special session on the role of DOM in freshwater ecosystems in the Fall AGU meeting 2019 in San Francisco with our US colleagues with whom Professor Johnes is currently working on the NSF funded programme LTER programme on Stream Elemental Nutrient Cycling. Finally, we propose to work with Policy Bristol, a unit dedicated helping University of Bristol academics engage in activities that enhance the impact of their policy-relevant research. We will be working with them and our stakeholder partner organisations in the latter stages of this programme to produce a series of Policy Research Briefing notes to make our key findings more accessible to research users outside academia so that they can inform and shape policy and practice.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.nerc-domaine.uk
 
Description Initial findings from WP1 need to be calibrated against conditions in a wider range of catchments in order to confirm their validity and generate generic knowledge that is transferable between systems and scales. These findings have relevance to policy makers and practitioners engaged in the management and control of nutrient enrichment impacts on stream ecology in UK catchments. They will, subject to calibration in our Tier 2 catchment study in the next year of study, have international relevance and have already been fed into international research activities via the LTER programme on Stream Energy and Nutrient Cycling, funded by NSF, of which Professor Johnes is a member. The findings could be used to inform the revision of existing routine nutrient monitoring programmes which are not currently fit for purpose. Indeed, this has already been taken up by one of our Project Partners, Wessex Water, feeding directly into their monitoring and catchment management approaches which have now been modified to include measurement of the total N and P concentrations in water samples from their sites and operations, rather than just the inorganic nutrient fractions. This will generate more effective catchment management and planning. In addition the findings from DOMAINE have been fed into briefings of the OECD Environment Ministers in Paris, Autumn 2016 at their Environment Ministerial Conference, where Professor Johnes was invited to provide a briefing on Nitrogen. Attendees reported a change of attitude and broadened understanding of the nature and scale of N enrichment of waters, globally, of projected increasing trends in relation to population and economic growth, and of the role of DOM in the transport and ecological impact of N in inland and coastal waters.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee: Professor Penny Johnes was called to give evidence to the committee to assist in its Nitrate Inquiry.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
URL https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/environmental-audit-comm...
 
Description Make the whole of the UK and NVZ, top professor tells MPs
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Following presentation of evidence to the House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee under its Nitrates Inquiry, on the nature, sources and scale of N enrichment in freshwaters, and the impacts of this enrichment on ecosystem and human health, drawing on evidence collected under the NERC DOMAINE programme, several organisations picked up on the key messages. This one was published in the Farmers Guardian magazine (Abi Kay (2018) Make the whole of the UK and NVZ, top professor tells MPs. Farmers Guardian. Published 07 March 2018 in print and online), reaching a wide readership of farmers and the general public.
URL https://www.fginsight.com/news/news/make-the-whole-of-the-uk-an-nvz-top-professor-tells-mps-54972
 
Description Natural England Science Advisory Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Outcomes feed into the development of policy, practice and delivery of actions against environmental regulation in the remit of Natural England.
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/natural-england/about/our-governance
 
Description Natural England Science Advisory Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Natural England's Science Advisory Committee (NESAC) is an advisory committee to the Natural England Board and has an important role providing independent advice, challenge and review to Natural England's Science and Evidence functions and strengthening its relationships with the wider scientific community. More specifically NESAC: (1) Provides advice to the Board on the integrity and relevance of Natural England's overall science and evidence programme; of its prospective research and monitoring programmes; and (on occasion) of its plans for particular pieces of work; (2) Provides challenge on the rationale and methods for proposed studies; and to the emerging findings of specific pieces of research; (3) Provides post hoc analysis, and comment, on the success of methodologies and approaches its has applied; (4) Provides assurance that internal peer review and external QA processes adopted are robust; (5) Identifies suitably qualified reviewers that might be approached to undertake external quality assurance or peer review; (6) Act as an external champion for Natural England's science and evidence; helping to forge links and partnerships with the wider scientific community such as hosting a series of NESAC Science Seminars. NESAC is also occasionally asked to provide advice on issues relating to the natural environment across government, reflecting Natural England's role as the government's statutory adviser on the natural environment in England. Recently it has provided advice on Natural England's evidence strategy 2012- 2017, which describes how evidence plays a critical role in its work. Its purpose is to make sure that Natural England collect and use evidence effectively and transparently in support of its statutory purpose. NESAC supports the strategy by giving independent advice, and challenging and reviewing Natural England's science and evidence work. It is made up of members of the Natural England Board and academics from a wide range of disciplines. Professor Penny Johnes was appointed to NESAC in 2017, as an independent external members, judged by the representatives of the Natural England Board to offer appropriate expertise. She has, since appointment, provided specific advice on nutrient pollution in waters, and on the importance of taking the dissolved organic matter fraction into account in developing both evidence and strategies to mitigation the impacts of nutrient pollution in SPAs, SACs and SSSIs.
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/642689/science_advisory_co...
 
Description Nitrate: there's something in the water
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Following presentation of evidence to the House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee under its Nitrates Inquiry, on the nature, sources and scale of N enrichment in freshwaters, and the impacts of this enrichment on ecosystem and human health, drawing on evidence collected under the NERC DOMAINE programme, several organisations picked up on the key messages. This one (James Fitzgerald (2018) Nitrate: there's something in the water. Chief-Exec.com: Essential News for Business Leaders. Published 04 April 2018) was published in the Chief Exec online magazine, reaching a wide readership of business people and the general public.
URL https://chief-exec.com/?p=4314
 
Description OECD Environment Policy Committee Meeting at Ministerial Level, OECD Conference Centre, Paris, 28-29 September 2016.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact The OECD Environment Ministerial Conference occurs every two years. In September 2016 Environment Ministers from OECD and selected non-member countries met at OECD Headquarters under the chairmanship of New Zealand, with Chile and Slovenia as Vice-Chairs. The meeting took place after two major international events in 2015, the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. These international events were seen as likely to significantly shape the national and international environmental policy landscape for many years into the future. Ministers were provided with the opportunity to reflect on these developments and discuss how policies could help their countries to meet their commitments. The meeting addressed a range of issues in plenary sessions and in a number of breakout groups. The issues of climate change and circular economy were discussed in plenary at the start and end of the meeting, with breakout sessions on air pollution from transport, mainstreaming biodiversity across sectors, effective management of marine protected areas, nitrogen, financing investment in water security, and urban water pollution. Professor Penny Johnes was invited to attend the meeting to provide the briefing on Nitrogen. A summary of the discussions is available here: https://issuu.com/oecd.publishing/docs/2016-env-ministerial-chair-summary/2, with the relevant material on this particular briefing available on page 6 of this summary.
URL http://www.oecd.org/environment/ministerial/
 
Description OECD Report (2018) Human Acceleration of the Nitrogen Cycle: Managing Risks and Uncertainties
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Influence is on the first step of agreeing the need for action on Human Acceleration of the Nitrogen Cycle, across OECD member states.
URL https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/human-acceleration-of-the-nitrogen-cycle_9789264307438-en
 
Description UK Progress on Reducing Nitrate Pollution
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmenvaud/656/65602.htm
 
Description UKWIR Closed Group on Phosphorus and the Environment
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Wessex Water Catchment Panel
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Wessex Water founded its Catchment Panel to provide it with scrutiny and advice upon Wessex Water's environmental performance to be achieved through an optimal balance of: - Asset construction and operation - Management of natural resources - Influencing behaviours Professor Johnes is one of two university researchers invited to join the panel, which is otherwise composed of the chairs of local wildlife trusts, government agencies and departments, and local government within the Wessex Water region. One outcome from this role drawing directly on evidence generated from the DOMAINE programme on the quantitative significance of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in freshwater nutrient flux, has been a change in analytical practice for samples collected from Wessex Water sites and assets. Samples are now analysed to determine the total nutrient concentration in the sample (including the DOM) rather than just the inorganic nutrient fraction as has previously been standard practice.
URL https://www.wessexwater.co.uk/About-us/Environment/Catchment-management/
 
Description CEB-The Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, co-funded by ERDF (Welsh European Funding Organisation, Welsh Assembly Government) and Bangor University
Amount £7,600,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 81280 
Organisation European Commission 
Department European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 11/2017 
End 11/2022
 
Description NERC GW4 DTP
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description NERC Industrial CASE Studentship
Amount £83,515 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description National University of Ireland Travelling Scholarship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation National University of Ireland 
Sector Academic/University
Country Ireland
Start 08/2015 
End 07/2018
 
Description PhD scholarship
Amount $245,160 (USD)
Organisation University of Costa Rica 
Sector Academic/University
Country Costa Rica
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Title High resolution HPLC-MS confirms overestimation of urea in soil by the diacetyl monoxime (DAM) colorimetric method 
Description Urea represents a common form of organic nitrogen (N) which is added to agricultural soils in large quantities in both cropping (e.g. fertiliser) and livestock (e.g. urine) systems. In addition, there is a small, dynamic ambient pool of urea in soil associated with metabolic functioning in the microbial community. The diacetyl monoxime (DAM) colorimetric method is routinely used to quantify urea in soil, however, it lacks specificity due to the potential to react with the ureido group (R1NHCONHR2), a common structural moiety in soil organic matter. The aim of this study was therefore to critically evaluate the accuracy of this method for urea determination in soil. Using the DAM assay, we demonstrated significant cross-reactivity with a range of ureido compounds, many of which are ubiquitous in soil. We conclude therefore that the DAM assay is highly likely to overestimate urea concentrations in environmental materials. Such overestimation was confirmed using high resolution HPLC Orbitrap MS to quantify urea in grassland soils using standard addition and the concentrations compared with those of the DAM assay. The results obtained show the DAM colorimetric method overestimated urea concentration by between 7.2 and 58 times for the sites studied. This significant overestimation of urea emphasises the need to validate the colorimetric method with reference to the LC-MS assay to ensure the robustness of measured urea concentrations. On this basis we recommend that reporting of the results from the DAM colorimetric method as "urea" concentration be curtailed and reported as "ureido-N" to recognise the contribution of unknown and variable contributions from other compounds. Indeed, given the problems with quantitatively assessing the latter contributions we would recommend the DAM method is now avoided in surveys of urea concentrations in soil and the wider environment. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Refinement of our understanding of the non-specificity of a standard analytical technique used widely in environmental research. 
 
Title Identification and quantification of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in complex environmental matrices using ion chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry in comparison to 31P NMR spectroscopy 
Description Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, or phytic acid, (myo-IP6) is a key organic phosphorus (P) compound in soils and manures. Determinations of myo-IP6 in soils and manure extracts are frequently performed by 31P NMR spectroscopy. This approach is time-consuming in terms of both sample preparation and instrument time, with uncertainties existing in relation to accuracy of identification and quantification due to potentially interfering resonances from co-extracted P species. In contrast, ion chromatography (IC) in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) negative ion, electrospray ionisation (ESI) has been shown to enable highly specific identifications of myo-IP6 isolated from complex mixtures. In this paper, IC and ESI-HRMS were applied to the identification and the quantification of myo-IP6 isolated from soils and manures using NaOH-EDTA extraction, and quantifications based on IC. ESI-HRMS analysis of eluate trapped from IC unequivocally confirmed identification of myo-IP6 from a soil extract. The ion suppression cell of the IC instrument provides isolates of the analyte free of ionic components that would interfere with ESI. The myo-IP6 was identified in the NMR by comparing spectra of extracts of soils with and without authentic myo-IP6 "spiked" prior to extraction. Comparison of quantification via standard addition in IC and NMR analysis gave good correlation (r=0.955). IC with ESI-HRMS was found to be more sensitive, rapid and reliable for the identification and quantification of myo-IP6 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.7 mg kg-1 and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 2.1 mg kg-1 using IC versus > 10 mg kg-1 LOD using 31P NMR. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A novel method allowing accurate identification of dissolved organic phosphorus concentrations in environmental media. 
 
Title Novel approach for exploring the role of DOM in nutrient fluxes in catchments 
Description The pool of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems is dynamic, consisting of a wide range of compounds with differing chemical structures and reactivities. As a result DOM has a multifaceted role in the biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems, impacting upon ecosystem production, complexation of trace metals and the mobilisation of pollutants. Understanding its role within the transfer of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus to waters and its cycling within freshwater ecosystems has been limited, to date, by the lack of an effective sample handling and analytical protocol which allows identification of each of the major chemical forms contributing to this flux, and in particular the dissolved organic matter fraction (as DOC, DON and DOP). This paper presents the outcomes of a novel approach allowing this level of identification, across two contrasting catchments. The novel method uses sequential analysis, filtration and digestion using persulphate oxidation under high temperature and pressure, to separate these fractions and, in combination with the use of novel fluorescence and UV-visible spectrometric approaches, allows the quantification of DOM flux in these systems and a parallel assessment of DOM quality. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Initially within the programme, but others are now adopting this technique, notably in the NERC LOCATE programme headed by CEH, and in the revision of standard monitoring practice in Wessex Water's routine water quality monitoring programme. 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716314000
 
Title Novel method for DOP detection 
Description The phosphorus storage compound in grains, phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), is important for nutrition and human health, and is reportedly the most abundant organic phosphorus compound in soils. Methods for its determination have traditionally relied on complexation with iron and precipitation, acid digestion and measurement of phosphate concentration, or 31P NMR spectroscopy. Direct determination of phytic acid (and its homologues) using mass spectrometry has, as yet, found limited application to environmental or other complex matrices. The behaviour of phytic acid in electrospray ionisation high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and its fragmentation, both in-source and via collision-induced dissociation, have not been studied so far. This paper reports a novel method allowing the detection of the compound in environmental matrices which provides greater resolution and than the traditional method using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Specifically, the ESIHRMS of inositol phosphates is unusual and highly characteristic. The study of the full mass spectrum of IP6 in ESIHRMS mode indicates the detection of the compound in environmental matrices using this technique is preferable to the use of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The results of this investigation demonstrate the potential forusing full scan ESIHRMS to study inositol phosphates, with clear gainsto be made in incorporating the technique into protocols for theexploration of organic phosphorous cycling in the environment at themolecular level 
URL http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rcm.7935/epdf
 
Title Novel method for determination of 15N-enriched amino sugars 
Description Amino sugars are the building blocks of structural biopolymers in many microorganisms and invertebrates, constituting the second largest structurally defined pool of organic nitrogen (ON) in soil, accounting for between 5% and 12%.The microbial source specificity (with minor contributions from other sources) of these compounds enables investigation of the size and activity of bacterial and fungal pools within soilAmino sugars can be used as indices to evaluate the role of soil microorganisms in active nitrogen (N) cycling in soil. This paper details the assessment of the suitability of gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) for the analysis of 15N-enriched amino sugars as alditol acetate derivatives prior to application of a novel 15N stable isotope probing (SIP) approach to amino sugars. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None yet. 
URL https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b04838
 
Title Novel method for pre-treatment of water samples for determination of DOC concentrations 
Description Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a central role in regulating productivity and nutrient cycling in freshwaters. It is therefore vital that we can representatively sample and preserve DOM in freshwaters for subsequent analysis. Here we investigated the effect of filtration, temperature (5 and 25 °C) and acidification (HCl) on the persistence of low molecular weight (MW) dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen (DON) and orthophosphate in oligotrophic and eutrophic freshwater environments. Our results showed the rapid loss of isotopically-labelled glucose and amino acids from both filtered (0.22 and 0.45 µm) and unfiltered waters. We ascribe this substrate depletion in filtered samples to the activity of ultra-small (< 0.45 µm) microorganisms (bacteria and archaea) present in the water. As expected, the rate of C, N and P loss was much greater at higher temperatures and was repressed by the addition of HCl. Based on our results and an evaluation of the protocols used in recently published studies, we conclude that current techniques used to sample water for low MW DOM characterisation are frequently inadequate and lack proper validation. In contrast to the high degree of analytical precision and rigorous statistical analysis of most studies, we argue that insufficient consideration is still given to the presence of ultra-small microorganisms and potential changes that can occur in the low MW fraction of DOM prior to analysis. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Clarifies the role of ultra-small microorganisms in compromising sample integrity for DOM analyses prior to analysis, and recommends to other researchers a modification in sample storage in order to mitigate these impacts. 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717308847?via%3Dihub
 
Title Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) for untargeted screening of DOM in freshwaters 
Description Many polar organic compounds that are part of the environmental DOM pool are highly reactive and bioavailable, and are therefore often missing in samples returned to a laboratory for analysis having been metabolised, taken up by the biota or having undergone physico-chemical transformation en route. POCIS (Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) can be used to trap these compounds onto an appropriate sorbent material, to allow a fuller picture to emerge of the range of DOM compounds present in the natural environment. In this work, undertaken by a 4th year undergraduate project student, Laurie Brummitt, supervised by our WP2, the use of POCIS as a means of deriving a representative sample of this material was assessed and compared to conventional grab sampling methods. Modified pharmaceutical POCIS were deployed upstream and downstream of the Chew Valley sewage treatment works outfall for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days.Comparative grab samples were taken at each time point and extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) with Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) solid phase cartridges. The amount of extracted organic carbon (EOC) in each of the samples was assessed by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The grab samples showed a consistent DOM concentration, with little deviation between the upstream and downstream samples. From the TOC results the grab sample extraction efficiency was calculated to be 47 - 60%. The POCIS samples exhibited a linear uptake of organic carbon in both locations, with the downstream diverging to higher EOC concentrations. Samples were qualitatively assessed for compositional differences, with respect to the location and sampling method employed, using high-performance liquid chromatography- electrospray ionisation- Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS) and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254 nm). From the HPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS data, compounds linearly accumulating onto the POCIS were prioritised, and separated into those with purely anthropogenic origins and those ubiquitous to the river. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) spectra of these compounds were acquired and compared to the online database mzCloud. The only match was citalopram, a common pharmaceutical, emitted from the sewage treatment plant effluent. Polypropylene glycol, also originating from the effluent, was identified from the MS2 spectra. POCIS was shown to be a viable option for untargeted analysis of DOM, although grab sampling should be used as well to provide a more comprehensive picture of DOM as not all compounds are polar and will therefore not be trapped by the POCIS. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet. We will be writing this up for a publication shortly. 
 
Title Untargeted characterisation of dissolved organic matter contributions to rivers from anthropogenic point sources using direct infusion- and high-performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry 
Description RATIONALE: Anthropogenic organic inputs to freshwaters can exert detrimental effects on aquatic ecosystems, raising growing concern for both environmental conservation and water security. Current regulation by the EU water framework directive (European Union, 2000/60/EC) relates to organic pollution by monitoring selected micropollutants, however, aquatic ecosystem responses requires a comprehensive understanding of dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition. The introduction of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is set to greatly increase our understanding of the composition of DOM of both natural and anthropogenic origin derived from diffuse and point sources. METHOD: DOM was extracted from riverine and treated sewage effluent using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysed using dissolved organic carbon analysis, direct infusion-high resolution mass spectrometry (DI-HRMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/HRMS (HPLC/HRMS). The data obtained were analysed using univariate and multivariate statistics to demonstrate differences in background DOM, anthropogenic inputs and in-river mixing. Compound identifications were achieved based on MS2 spectra searched against on-line databases. RESULTS: DI-HRMS spectra showed the highly complex nature of all DOM SPE extracts. Classification and visualisation of extracts containing many thousands of individual compounds were achieved using PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis. Kruskal-Wallis analyses highlighted significant discriminating ions originating from the sewage treatment works for more in-depth investigation by HPLC/HRMS. The generation of MS spectra in HPLC/HRMS provided the basis for identification of anthropogenic compounds including; pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, metabolites and polymers, although many thousands of compounds remain unidentified. CONCLUSIONS: This new approach enables comprehensive analysis of DOM in extracts without any preconceived ideas of the compounds which may be present. This approach has the potential to be used as a high throughput, qualitative, screening method to determine if the composition of point sources differs from that of the receiving water bodies, providing a new approach to the identification of hitherto unrecognised organic contribution to water bodies 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The capacity for comprehensive determination of DOM composition in environmental samples. 
 
Description Collaboration with National Trust staff 
Organisation National Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Knowledge exchange with National Trust staff who manage estate land in the Conwy catchment, particularly at Bodnant Gardens in teh Hiraethlyn catchment where we have been give permission to site one of our high resolution sampling stations, and in the headwaters of the Conwy in the Mignient where The National Trust are undertaking a range of management strategies aimed at increasing the retention of carbon within the peatland landscape.
Collaborator Contribution See above. Local knowledge advice on mitigation measures, and access to sites suitable for the installation and operation of our sampling equipment.
Impact Site access and knowledge exchange. Ongoing at present.
Start Year 2015
 
Description FERA Industrial CASE collaborator 
Organisation Fera Science Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution FERA act as CASE partner on a joint Industrial CASE studentship with Professors Richard Evershed and Penny Johnes as supervisors at the University of Bristol, together with Dr Adrian Charlton of FERA as CASE supervisor. The studentship has been formally linked to the DOMAINE programme, allowing synergies to be identified, for the student to become part of the wider DOMAINE community and to benefit from access to data generated by the programme, and for FERA to benefit from access to new findings of relevance to their activities which are emerging from DOMAINE. The title of the studentship is Comprehensive determination of dissolved organic matter to underpin river water quality assessments.
Collaborator Contribution A CASE partner financial contribution to the studentship. In addition, provision of training for the student, access to in-house expertise, and a recent invitation for the student and our PDRA on WP2 to attend a closed meeting of the UK Water Mutual Aid Group at FERA where they presented a paper to representative of all the major UK water companies plc summariing the work of WP2 in developing methods for "Untargeted Characterisation of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter using a Hierarchy of Mass Spectrometric Methods'.
Impact See entry above. A paper is currently in preparation on this work.
Start Year 2015
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 1 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, data digests and infrastructure, invited participation on stakeholder workshops, and Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Access to Demonstration Test Catchments data, infrastructure, staff time, Project Partner participation in Programme Advisory Board
Impact None yet. Programme started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 1 
Organisation Environment Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, evidence to underpin policy, infrastructure, participation in stakeholder workshops, access to programme website, membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of access to infrastructre, long-term and 3rd Party data, provision of staff time input to the programme, membership of Programme Advisory Board, provision of staff placements for project staff to work with Agency staff
Impact None yet. Programme started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 3 
Organisation Natural England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, evidence to underpin policy, participation in stakeholder workshops, membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of access to River Avon Catchment Sensitive Farming sites and 5 days staff time input per year, to include attendance at Programme Advisory Board meetings
Impact None yet. Project started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 4 
Organisation Rivers Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, infrastructure and guidance to underpin practical management in the field, including participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of field support for project staff in the Hampshire Avon and Conwy catchments, 10 days per year technical input and assistance with dissemination of research findings
Impact None yet. Project started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 5 
Organisation Wessex Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge and evidence to underpin business planning, participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of Sewage Treatment Works effluent quality data, staff attendance at Programme Advisory Board and stakeholder workshops, and provision of river ecology data for the Hampshire Avon
Impact None yet. Project started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 6 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of samples for analysis, joint authorship of publications, attendance at stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of metabolomic analysis on 150 samples, provision of meta-proteomic analysis on 10 samples, attendance at stakeholder workshops and 4 days staff time for attendance at project and Programme Advisory Board meetings
Impact None yet. Project started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 7 
Organisation Scottish Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, infrastructure and evidence to support business planning, participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of access to data assets and infrastructure, 5 days staff time input per year and a placement opportunity for PhD student 1 in Year 3 of their study.
Impact None yet. Project started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 8 
Organisation Welsh Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, evidence to underpin business planning, participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Access to data assets and infrastructure, 5 days staff time per year and in-kind support for PhD 1 studentship
Impact None yet. Started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 9 
Organisation Government of Wales
Department Wales Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge and evidence to underpin policy, participation in stakeholder events, membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Access to CCW data assets for the Conwy, 5 days staff time input per year and participation in Programme Advisory Board
Impact None yet. Project started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description Wessex Chalk Streams and Rivers Trust 
Organisation Wessex Chalk Stream and Rivers Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Reciprocal exchange of knowledge, advice and access to data generated under the NERC DOMAINE programme. Access to local contacts, landowners and liaison over the timing on instream habitat management and restoration activities being undertaken by the WCSRT at or near our monitoring infrastructure.
Collaborator Contribution See above. Reciprocal exchange of knowledge, contacts and data.
Impact Professor Penny Johnes provided a presentation on the Nature, Origins and Ecological Significance of DOM in Freshwaters to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership, chaired by the WCSRT. Dr Paul Jose, Director of the WCSRT has provided dissemination of project information to the WCSRT members on the NERC DOMAINE project, and information on the nature, location and timing of in-channel restoration works in the catchment.
Start Year 2015
 
Description The role of DOM in phosphorus transfer and impacts in freshwaters 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Professor Penny Johnes was invited to brief a closed group of UK Water Industry Research (UKWIR) on the implications of findings from the NERC DOMAINE programme for our understanding of the role of DOM in driving ecosystem responses to phosphorus enrichment of waters from diffuse and point sources in their catchments. UKWIR has been running a common research programme for UK water and sewerage companies on 'one voice' issues since 1993, and is planning an expert elicitation workshop on phosphorus and the environment later in 2019, to which Professor Johnes has been invited. The group included representatives from a wide range of UK water companies plc, including our project partner, Welsh Water, as well as Yorkshire Water, Southern Water, Thames Water, Anglian Water and United Utilities, and 3 senior staff from the Environment Agency who are also a Project Partner on DOMAINE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description A landscape scale assessment of environmental controls on the composition of dissolved organic matter delivered to aquatic ecosystems 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Chris Yates and Professor Penny Johnes presented a paper on outcomes from our WP1 Tier 1 work, on Landscape Scale Assessment of Environmental Controls on the Composition of DOM Delivered to Aquatic Ecosystems. at the International Nitrogen Workshop in Rennes, France, 25-27 June 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://workshop.inra.fr/nitrogenworkshop2018/content/download/4995/57403/version/1/file/20th+Nitrog...
 
Description Aberconwy School outreach event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Professor Jones gave a presentation on the NERC DOMAINE and allied research programmes ongoing in the Conwy catchment at an outreach event at Aberconwy School on 13/07/2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Farming Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Evershed gave an interview on soils, microbes and methane on Farming Today on 18/02/2015, drawing on research underway under the NERC DOMAINE programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b052j5g6
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Farming Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Johnes gave the lead interview to BBC Radio 4 Farming Today for its week long focus on Agriculture and Water Quality on 09/02/2015 February drawing on research underway
under the DOMAINE programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b051rflx
 
Description CEH Conwy Catchment Stakeholder Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professors Johnes, Jones and Evans gave presentations to a large group of stakeholder organisations as a CEH-led Stakeholder engagement event at the Glasdir Centre in Llanrwst, Conwy catchment on 16/06/2015. New links were made with local Natural Resources Wales staff and National Trust field officers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conwy Catchment Partnership meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 13/02/17, the WP3 project team attended and presented an update on the DOMAINE programme at the Conwy Catchment Partnership Stakeholder Meeting held at Llanwrst, in the Conwy catchment. The meeting was attended by The National Trust, Natural Resource Wales, Welsh Water and RSPB Cymru
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Cumbrian Lakes Research Forum presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 13/10/16 outcomes from our work on the biotic uptake of dissolved organic matter from WP4 were discussed at the annual stakeholder event, the Cumbrian Lakes Research Forum hosted by CEH and attended by representatives from the water industry, Environment Agency, Natural England and The National Trust.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ceh.ac.uk/news-and-media/blogs/cumbrian-lakes-research-forum-2016
 
Description Defra Demonstration Test Catchments Newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Defra Demonstrating Catchments Spring 2015 newsletter featured a 1 page article on the NERC DOMAINE programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.demonstratingcatchmentmanagement.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/DTC-Newsletter-Mar-2015.p...
 
Description Dissolved organic matter in freshwater ecosystems: characterisation and biotic uptake 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Charlotte Lloyd presented an invited paper to Keele University staff and students as part of their School Seminar Series. 12 March 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Environmental hazards in unplanned urban areas 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Helen Gaven gave a presentation at the Newton Fund Researcher Link Workshop on Geohazard Rish Reduction in Unplanned Urban Areas, in Caldas Nova, Brazil, 10-14 September 2018. In this she presented techniques developed under the DOMAINE programme to showcase their relevance to this theme (where DOM in waters is a hazard in these systems, particularly under high flow conditions when DOM is flushed from land to water).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.britishcouncil.org.br/events/researcher-links-workshop-geohazard-risk-reduction
 
Description Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Johnes gave an invited presentation to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership on 15th December, at the invitation of the Wessex Chalk Streams Rivers Trust who Chair the partnership. She presented the DOMAINE and linked Defra-funded Demonstration Test Catchments programme findings on nutrient flux, nutrient chemistry and ecological impacts in the Wylye and Nadder sub-catchments of the Hampshire Avon and explained the implications for the HACP stream management programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.hampshireavoncatchmentpartnership.org.uk/
 
Description House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee, broadcast on Parliament TV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Penny Johnes was invited to present evidence to the House of Commons Environmental Audit Select Committee in its Nitrates Inquiry, following the submission of her written evidence to the Committee (https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/environmental-audit-committee/news-parliament-2017/nitrates-evidence1-17-19/). The evidence session was recorded, and broadcast live (http://parliamentlive.tv/Event/Index/db6b5de4-1baa-4ced-ab02-838a0f0bde0a). The aim of the session was to provide an understanding of the science surrounding nitrate pollution of water courses, to expose the scale of the challenge, and to ensure that MPs were made aware (1) that we are a long way off the necessary targets to support good ecological status in UK waters as a result of nutrient pollution, (2) that current monitoring and policy is piecemeal, ineffective and unfit for purpose, (3) that organic nutrient pollution of waters, particularly dissolved organic nutrient pollution, is the major driver of ecological damage in livestock farming areas of the UK and in waters receiving significant pollution from sewage systems, and (4) that new policy is urgently needed that is holistic and cross-sectoral if ecological damage is to be halted to reversed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://parliamentlive.tv/Event/Index/db6b5de4-1baa-4ced-ab02-838a0f0bde0a
 
Description Investigating biotic uptake of organic nitrogen in a riverine system using stable-isotope probing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A paper was presented by Dr Charlotte Lloyd on behalf of the NERC DOMAINE team (Lloyd, C.; Johnes, P.; Yates, C. A.; Jones, D.; Maberly, S.; Mackay, E. B.; Glanville, H.; Brailsford, F.; Evershed, R. P.) on results emerging from our recent Stream Isotope Dosing experiments, completed in June 2018. The paper outlined the methods adopted and the novel understanding generated on the biotic uptake of dissolved organic N in freshwater ecosystems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AGUFM.B53B..04L
 
Description Keynote presentation, 7th European Conference on Prokaryotic and Fungal Genomes "ProkaGenomics 2017" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 7th European Conference on Prokaryotic and Fungal Genomes "ProkaGenomics 2017" (http://www.prokagenomics.org/ ), Invited plenary (keynote) lecture "Activity-based discovery of novel enzymes from marine environments".September 19-22, 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.prokagenomics.org/
 
Description Meeting with Welsh Water 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Meeting on 3 occasions to discuss water quality issues
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Meeting with Welsh Water to discuss knowledge arising from the DOMAINE programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Professor Davey Jones and colleagues held a series of meetings held with our Project Partner, Welsh Water to discuss outcome from the DOMAINE programme and feed this into discussions on their operational planning for work on wastewater treatment and the impacts of freshwater DOM fluxes on coastal water quality. Meetings have taken place on 18/10/18, 25/01/19, and most recently on 27/02/19.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Midlands Innovation Workshop to discuss research on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH). Attended by Dr Helen Glanville 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Helen Glanville attended the Midlands Innovation Workshop at the University of Nottingham to discuss research on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), feeding into this the insights from DOMAINE on the role of Dissolved Organic Matter in water bodies. The workshop took place on 23 January 2018 and explored the GCRF Challenge areas of Sustainable Health and Well-Being and Clean Air, Water and Sanitation as they map to the Sustainable Development Goals and Midlands Innovation research strengths
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/midlands-innovation-gcrf-wash-workshop-tickets-39688391046#
 
Description Natural England Strategy Development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Natural England Science Advisory Committee consultation on its new strategy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Novel approaches to characterise phosphorus sources in water supply catchments 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Two meetings with Wessex Water, one of our Project Partners, to discuss ideas for the use of novel approaches to characterising the nature and origins of phosphorus and dissolved organic matter in water supply catchments, as part of the AMP7 planning process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Nutrient limitation removal induces a shift in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) metabolism in oligotrophic freshwater sediments 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Francesca Brailsford has presented a paper on her work exploring the impact that the removal of nutrient limitation has on DOC metbolism in freshwater sediments, at the Centre for Environmental Biotechnology (CEB) seminar series in Bangor this month.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description OECD Environment Ministerial Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 28/09/2016 Penny Johnes (WP1 and PI) was invited to brief the OECD Environment Ministers at their biannual Environment Ministerial Conference at OECD Headquarters in Paris. The topic of the briefing was on Nitrogen, and she used images from eutrophicated waters worldwide, including the green pool at the Rio Olympics swimming centre and the Serpentine during the London Olympics triathlon event to drive home the message regarding the widespread, rising and adverse impacts of nitrogen enrichment of waters. This drew directly on findings emerging from the NERC DOMAINE and allied research programmes internationally, and generated some interesting debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.oecd.org/environment/ministerial/
 
Description OECD/UNECE Joint Workshop on The Nitrogen Cascade and Policy - towards integrated solutions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Johnes gave a keynote presentation on 10 May 2016 at the OECD/UNECE joint Paris workshop on The Nitrogen cascade and policy - towards integrated solutions at the invitation of the Chair of the UNECE Task Force for Reactive Nitrogen. In this she briefed attendees on the sources, opportunities and impacts of nitrogen pollution of inland and coastal waters, and the role of organic nitrogen flux in this process, drawing on research findings emerging from the DOMAINE programme and linked Defra-funded Demonstration Test Catchments programme findings on nutrient flux, nutrient chemistry and ecological impacts in the Hampshire Avon, Eden, Wensum and Tamar catchments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.clrtap-tfrn.org/sites/clrtap-tfrn.org/files/documents/TFRN%2011/Nitrogen%20Workshop%20OEC...
 
Description Off-grid water quality monitoring technologies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact On 20/09/16 Chris Yates (WP1) presented an invited paper on Nutrient and fluorescence sensing at a stakeholder-led workshop at the University of the West of England. The workshop organisers were OTT Hydromet and Sea-bird Coastal, manufacturers of a number of the instruments deployed on the DOMAINE monitoring platform. The workshop brought together like-minded users and researcher using off-grid water quality monitoring technologies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ott.com/ott-hydromet-water-quality-solutions/
 
Description Organic Carbon in Drinking Water Catchments 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Professor Penny Johnes was invited to attend a workshop on Organic Carbon in Drinking Water Catchments hosted by Scottish Water, and to provide advice on the distribution of risk associated with DOM character in waters within Scotland, based on outcomes from the DOMAINE programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact At the invitation of the Wessex Chalk Streams and Rivers Trust, we were invited to present a briefing on the DOMAINE programme to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership, a working group of 30 local government, government conservation, NGO and business organisations with interests in and responsibility for the Hampshire Avon and similar chalk catchments in southern England. Professor Penny Johnes gave a joint briefing on both the NERC DOMAINE programme and the allied Defra Demonstration Test Catchments programme, both of which utilise a range of sites (including some shared infrastructure) in the Hampshire Avon catchment. She made the audience aware of the nature of the problems in the Hampshire Avon, the areas of the landscape and activities contributing to C, N, P and sediment enrichment of the river and its tributaries, and the novel findings emerging from each programme, particularly from DOMAINE. The organisations were also given a brief introduction to the data available in real time via our NERC DOMAINE websie (www.nerc-domaine.uk) for all of our sites in the catchment. Opportunities to meet again to discuss options for data access and knowledge exchange were also discussed and agreed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.hampshireavoncatchmentpartnership.org.uk/
 
Description Project website and Twitter feed 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The DOMAINE project website was launched at the end of 2014 and provides a single access point for any external party to view our
sensor data in real time, and has spurred interest from a range of user groups across the platform.

A username and password are available to any viewer via the following link: (www.nercdomaine.uk/data/),, which provides free and open access to view out field sensor data in real time from all 6 instrumented sites in our two tier 1 catchments.

We are now working to develop a series of downloadable monthly data summaries, and project summaries aimed at the general public which will also be available free to download via the website.

DOMAINE also has its own Twitter account at https://twitter.com/dominfreshwater (@DOMInFreshwater) which has attracted interest via a number of other Twitter feeds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nerc-domaine.uk/
 
Description Radioactive tracers for investigating microbial processing of dissolved organic matter in freshwater ecosystems 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Helen Gavin presented a paper at The Institution of Environmental Sciences (2-3 July 2018), University of Edinburgh.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Royal Society Meeting - Science for Defra: excellence in the application of evidence: invited member of the Environmental Quality expert panel and speaker, 29-30 March 2017, The Royal Society, London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Defra/Royal Society joint conference on Science for Defra: excellence in the application of evidence: invited member of the Environmental Quality expert panel and speaker, 29-30 March 2017, The Royal Society, London. There are a range of websites summarising outputs, including the blog from Ian Boyd, Chief Science Advisor to Defra (given below), and the following additional sources: https://storify.com/SLRS/science-for-defra-conference and a blog from Professor David Fowler who chaired the Environmental Quality Panel https://blogs.royalsociety.org/in-verba/2017/05/02/science-for-defra-environmental-quality/. Outcomes from this panel have led to the current (2018) House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee Nitrates Inquiry, to which Penny Johnes has given evidence (February 2018) and the House of Commons Joint Select Committee Inquiry into Air Pollution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://blogs.royalsociety.org/in-verba/2017/04/28/science-for-defra-excellence-in-the-application-of...
 
Description Royal Society Theo Murphy International Meeting on DOM in Freshwaters 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I secured Royal Society funding to host an international meeting as part of the Theo Murphy scientific programme. The focus was on DOM in Freshwaters: Nature, Origins and Ecological Significance. It attracted significant interest on Twitter, 60 attendees and keynote lectures from leading international authorities in the field, including our work on DOMAINE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2020/01/dom-freshwaters/
 
Description Sensors in Water Interest Group (SWIG) publication outlining our work 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Sensors in Water Group produced an article in International Environmental Technlogy, which outlines the DOMAINE programme and highlights its work in deployment and testing of novel sensor systems for catchment monitoring and research. The article is as follows: Richards, R (2015) Catching up with Catchment Monitoring, International Environmental Technology, June 2015, 21-22. Available from: [http://www.envirotech-online.com/articles/water-wastewater/9/rosa_richards/catching_up_withcatchment_monitoring_/1871/]
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.envirotech-online.com/articles/water-wastewater/9/rosa_richards/catching_up_withcatchment...
 
Description Sensors in Water Interest Group presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Wavelength Environmental gave a presentation on the novel sensor technology used in the NERC DOMAINE programme at the Sensors in Water Group (SWIG) workshop held at Rothamsted Research North Wyke on 18/03/2015. The title of the presentation was 'Integrated sensing and sampling system for catchment based research'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.swig.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Catchment-monitoring-18-Mar-2015-Final-lflt.pdf
 
Description UK Living Laboratories Capability: Our Watershed and Landscape-based Approaches 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Penny Johnes was invited to attend the Tetrapartite Talks (UK, France, USA, Canada) to present an overview of UKRI and Defra capability in watershed and landscape-based approaches to living laboratories research. This was presented jointly by Professor Johnes and Professor Jim Harris (Cranfield University) on behalf of NERC, BBSRC, ESRC, as well as Defra. This included the approaches developed under various NERC BESS programmes, the NERC DOMAINE programme, the BBSRC investment in Rothamsted Farm Platforms, UKRI Cross-Council Initiative on Achieving Sustainable Agricultural Systems (ASSIST) and a series of flagship Defra programmes (DTC, SIP) conducted on a distributed UK platform for catchment and landscape scale research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description UK Water Mutual Aid Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact On 09/11/16 Charlotte Lloyd and Jon Pemberton (both WP2) presented an invited paper at the closed meeting of the UK Water Mutual Aid Group at FERA. Their paper, presented to representatives of all of the major UK water companies plc summarised the work of WP2 in developing methods for Untargeted Characterisation of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter using a Hierarchy of Mass Spectrometric Methods. This was very well received, pointing the way forward for novel approaches for water companies to assess, anticipate risk and adopt adaptation and mitigation strategies to ensure future legislative compliance and minimise impact on operational business activities.

There is no reporting available from this meeting - Chatham House Rules applied.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Untargeted characterisation of riverine dissolved organic matter using a hierarchy of mass spectrometric methods. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Charlotte Lloyd presented outcomes from WP2 in an invited presentation to staff and students at Rothamsted Research on 15 March 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Water Source 19 Conference, Newport Conference Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Welsh Water Catchment Management Conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.dwrcymru.com/en/WaterSource/Watersource19.aspx
 
Description Wessex Chalk Streams Rivers Trust Newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Wessex Chalk Streams Rivers Trust produced an article on the NERC DOMAINE programme in its Spring newsletter, aimed at members, practitioners, policymakers andthe general public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.wcsrt.org.uk/News_Letters
 
Description Why Dissolved Organic Matter matters - schools presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact On 20/02/17, Davey Jones gave a short talk to secondary school students about the research being conducted in the DOMAINE project and they are planning to film a short video about the research programme with the Field Studies Council (FSC).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description working with industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact discussion with welsh water on DOC
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description • Catchment drivers of nutrient enrichment: the need for holistic science to underpin effective management and policy. Invited keynote presentation, British Phycological Society, Winter Meeting, Southend, 8-11 January 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited keynote presentation to the British Phycological Society on Catchment drivers of nutrient enrichment: the need for holistic science to underpin effective management and policy. , British Phycological Society Winter Meeting, Southend, 8-11 January 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://brphycsoc.org/documents/bps-winter/BPS2018ABS.pdf
 
Description • Using hydrochemistry evidence to identify sources of pollution in agricultural catchments. Invited keynote presentation, Defra Demonstration Test Catchments National Conference, University of Exeter, 4-5 September 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited keynote presentation at the Defra Demonstration Test Catchments National Conference, University of Exeter, 4-5 September 2017 on Using hydrochemistry evidence to identify sources of pollution in agricultural catchments. Key outcomes were engaging with a very wide range of stakeholder organisations (water companies plc, government agencies and departments including Defra, Environment Agency, Natural England; conservation trusts and charities) involved in catchment management to mitigate diffuse water pollution impacts on freshwater ecosystems and water quality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.catchmentbasedapproach.org/deliver/monitoring/demonstration-test-catchments