Characterisation of the nature, origins and ecological significance of dissolved organic matter in freshwater ecosystems

Lead Research Organisation: University of Bristol
Department Name: Geographical Sciences

Abstract

Evidence indicating that nutrient flux to inland and coastal waters is increasing worldwide is clear. Despite significant management effort to reduce theses fluxes, while N & P concentrations have recently levelled off or decreased in some European catchments, in others an increase is reported, particularly in rivers draining through rapidly developing economic regions. A rising trend in Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) flux to freshwaters & coastal areas such as the Baltic Sea is also widely reported, particularly in the N Temperate & Boreal regions. Impacts on ecosystem health are extensive & undesirable in both freshwaters & coastal waters, & there are implications for human health where DOC & DON are also known to support carcinogen formation in water supplies.

In Europe the control of nutrient flux to all freshwaters & the coastal zone is required in order to meet the target of restoring waters to Good Ecological Status under the EU Water Framework Directive, while the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is currently revising Annex IX of the Gothenburg Protocol (to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication & Ground-level Ozone) to further reduce the emission of ammonia from land-based activities.

Simultaneously, the UN has listed coastal nutrient pollution and hypoxia as the one of the greatest current threats to the global environment. Impacts include eutrophication of coastal waters and oxygen depletion, and the associated damage to ecosystems, biodiversity & coastal water quality. The UNEP Manila Declaration (Jan 2012) identifies nutrient enrichment of the marine environment as one of 3 foci for its Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, and this was one of the key foci at the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development, June 2012.

A detailed understanding of the nature, origins & rates of nutrient delivery to waters is essential if we are to control these impacts through management intervention, yet much of the necessary evidence base is lacking. Routine water quality monitoring is largely based on inorganic nutrient fractions, and substantially underestimates the total nutrient flux to waters, while research confirms that dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in ecosystem function including supporting microbial metabolism, primary production and pollutant transport, suggesting that its oversight in routine monitoring may undermine international efforts to bring nutrient enrichment impacts under control.

Here, we address this knowledge gap, building on the specific expertise of project members, undertaking a suite of interlinked experimental & observational research from molecular to catchment scale. We will use a combination of well-established approaches widely used in catchment research, with a range of cutting-edge approaches which are novel in their application to nutrient cycling research, or employ novel technologies, bringing new insights into the process controls on nutrient cycling at a molecular to river reach scale.

The programme will deliver improved understanding of:

1. the role of DOM in the transport of N & P from source to sea & the ways in which this might alter nutrient delivery to freshwaters & the coastal zone under a changing climate;
2. the ecological significance of DOM as a source of nutrient uptake & utilisation by algal, plant and microbial communities in waters of contrasting nutrient status & DOM character; and
3. the impacts of DOM flux from soils, livestock & human waste fluxes on the ecological status, goods & services provided by freshwaters.

It will also deliver knowledge exchange between the 5 groups & the wider science community, and have an impact beyond the lifetime of this project, building capacity through staff & PhD appointments in a field where current understanding is uncertain, undermining business planning and international policy development.

Planned Impact

Impact in the user community will be realised through the development of KE partnerships with those involved in policy and operational management of the environment. To this end, we have held a suite of meetings and discussion sessions with a wide range of stakeholders prior to finalising our proposal, in order to ensure that their interests and concerns are properly represented in the programme, and that the science we propose is transferable and useful beyond the immediate academic beneficiaries.

Nine stakeholder organisations have agreed to join us as Project Partners, providing access to data and infrastructure assets, staff expertise, project placements and training. These include Government organisations (Defra, Environment Agency, Natural England, Countryside Council for Wales), charities (The Rivers Trust), and the water utilities including Wessex Water (Hampshire Avon), Welsh Water (Conwy) and Scottish Water who have significant problems with DBP formation in a number of their water supply catchments.

We will also develop a number of novel technologies, including the testing of novel sensor technologies to capture high resolution information on CDOM flux at catchment scale, and the development of a novel proteomic/metabolomics approaches to allow holistic study of the metabolic processes controlling nutrient utilisation by microbial communities, and characterisation of the enzymatic functions involved. The group at Bangor is world-leading in this field, and we have secured a letter of support from Dr Ferrer, Institute of Catalysis, Madrid confirming his support for and involvement in the application of this technology to this project as a Project Partner.

We will deliver KE through a 5 step process:

1. all Project Partners have participated in the final formulation of this bid, providing valuable suggestions to hone the programme to ensure that anticipated outcomes meet their interests and operational needs; they will join the Project Board, establish a programme of placements and working partnerships with staff and PhD students, and participate in a start-up workshop to refine the proposed sampling programme, to ensure that this capitalises on their existing data, infrastructure assets and focus areas;
2. we will produce a series of briefing notes on specific policy implications of our research findings for our Project Partner organisations throughout the programme making these publicly available through our project website and the publicity activities of our Project Partner organisations;
3. we will develop links with the wider stakeholder community through the project website and existing KT networks in which we are already involved in our Hampshire Avon and Conwy research, and will ensure wider public engagement through University Science Days and local and national media;
4. we will engage with the wider academic community through: (i) free weekly access for external researchers to our high frequency quantitative data; (ii) publication of 10 core papers in international peer reviewed journals, a suite of integrative papers in a special issue of Global Biogeochemical Cycles, and an overarching paper in Nature on the 'Environmental Role and Significance of DOM Flux in Freshwaters'; (iii) feedback on our findings to the international policy arena through our participation as expert members of the IPCC, UNECE Task Force for Reactive N and UNEP Foresight programmes, (iv) presentation of our findings at international conferences, and (iv) a contribution to Planet Earth;
5. we will to host an end-of-programme interactive workshop on 'The Role and Management of DOM in Freshwater Systems' for our Project Partners and the wider stakeholder community, and will host an international research meeting at The Royal Society on 'The Global Significance of DOM in Potable, Inland and Coastal Waters' with invited international speakers, focusing on KE with the wider international research community.

Publications

10 25 50

publication icon
Carswell A (2017) Impact of microbial activity on the leaching of soluble N forms in soil in Biology and Fertility of Soils

 
Description Completion of the Tier 1 programme on the Hampshire Avon and Conwy catchments has revealed clear trends in the nature of dissolved organic matter (DOM), its origins within the landscape and the stream itselt, and the ways in which both biotic and abiotic processing of this material occurs within catchments. In our work under WP1, we have identified clear and very strong relationships between DOM composition and concentration, and the nutrient enrichment status of rivers. A cross-WP paper detailing these is currently at draft stage. Initial analysis indicated a very strong, predictive relationship between the %DON composition and the TDN concentration (explaining 90% of the variance in our data across 45 sites, with the Total Dissolved N concentration ranging from 0.5 mg N/L to over 9.5 mg N/L) and a similarly strong relationship between %DOP and TDP concentration (explaining 92% of the variance in our data across 45 sites, with Total Dissolved P ranging in concentration from 5 ug P/L to over 370 ug P/L). Similarly strong predictive relationships have emerged across our Tier 1 data between indicators of DOM composition (quality), with the Specific UV Absorbance (SUVA) at 254nm (a classic indicator of DOM composition) showing a strong curvilinear relationship with the both the DOC:DON ratio (explaining 84% of the variance in out Tier 1 data) and the DOC:DOP ratio (explaining 75% of the variance) in our 45 sites. These indicate strong and generic knowledge is emerging regarding the relationships between DOM flux, nutrient flux and DOM composition which should be scaleable to other data-poor landscapes, based on matching of landscape character to nutrient concentration data in rivers in these systems, a key deliverable from this programme.
We are currently testing these findings in our analysis of data generated in our Tier 2 sampling programme (see below). In addition we have recently completed our work on characterising the nutrient fractionation of atmospheric deposition inputs to each of our Tier 1 catchments. The preliminary interpretation has begun and indicates atmospheric DON sources may be quantitatively important as nitrogen inputs to upland catchments compared to inorganic nutrient forms input from atmospheric deposition, with DON typically representing just under 50% of the total atmospheric N deposition in these systems. Work underway in WP2 will isolate the key compounds contributing to this DOM deposition, and we plan to run some bioassays to assess the relative importance of these compounds for the stream biota in these ecosystems. Finally, we have completed the analysis of samples collected over the course of the diurnal cycle (3 replicates at each of 3 sites in our two Tier 2 catchments) and under extreme (storm) flow conditions, and are in the process of analysing these data sets.
In WP2, several wholly novel methods for untargeted molecular characterisation of DON and DOP using high resolution mass spectrometry have now been developed, allowing wider exploration of the molecular composition of DOM from the range of samples and environmental conditions collected in the WP1 Tier 1 programme. The range of analytical methods have been explored to investigate the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in river water includes ESP-Orbitrap MS, Py-GC/MS, ion exchange chromatography, etc. The preliminary findings indicate that the DOM fraction has distinct composition which vary with location, between catchments and within catchments. This subset of samples from contrasting sources, seasons and sites, to which we are adding samples from storm events currently being sampled, have been freeze dried ready for analysis in WP2. With the methods now developed, we are making steady progress in working our way through the archive, while the novel protocols are currently being written up for publication in a high impact factor journal. Elsewhere in WP2 we have developed a workflow for analysing direct infusion mass spectrometry data using statistical approaches to identify the analytes of interest, and discriminate between sites and sources based on their molecular scale organic chemistry signatures. Our novel method developed for organic phosphorus characterisation using ion chromatography to separate a key compound, phytic acid, from complex environmental matrices followed by analysis using high resolution mass spectrometry has been published.
Finally, in terms of method development, we have been investigating the specificity of the well-used, but poorly understood automated urea detection method in place on our Skalar instrument. A range of nitrogenous compounds have been tested using this method, with reactivity with heterocyclic compounds and both purine and pyrimidine derivatives noted in our early work. This suggests that interpretation of analytical data generated from this method need to proceed with care: the method is not only detecting the concentration of urea, but of a range of compounds that react colourimetrically in the same manner, using this method. A new LC-MS based method has been developed to validate the colourimetric method. This work has been written up for publication, with the clarified method used to support a range of soil and manure-based incubation experiments in one of our programme PhD studentships. Early findings from WP1 and WP2 to date and from linked work undertaken by members of WP3 suggest the importance of higher molecular weight (HMW) compounds in the flux from peaty catchments, the degradation and/or dissolution of peatland DOC along the length of the Conwy and the appearance of a discrete set of DOM compounds which appear only in waters draining from the peat. A second set of low molecular weight DOM compounds present in the Hampshire Avon appear at this stage to be linked to the delivery of animal waste from livestock production and effluent discharges to the river. Further analysis currently underway is allowing us to determine the nature of this material in WP2. A wide range of anthropogenic compounds, including pharmaceutical products and cosmetic/food additives have been identified from a sewage outfall.
In WP3 we have been investigating the microbial processing of DOM in samples collected under WP1, undertaking some method development work here as well, in order to align QA protocols for these different fields. A methods manual is at the planning stage to provide the community with the novel methods and protocols needed for this type of inter-disciplinary research, while a series of papers have been published or are in production from this work (see below for details). Meanwhile WP4 we have been investigating the DOM uptake patterns and preferences of a range of primary producer groups in samples returned from Tier 1 sites. The monthly bioassays to determine the potential for primary produced to use DON and DOP have been completed. A second set of experiments in which we have been testing the seasonal pattern of response to a broader range of DON and DOP compounds of differing structure and complexity is nearing completion. Another experiment has been performed to assess the role of bacteria in making organic nutrients bioavailable to phytoplankton and to assess community changes in the phytoplankton as a result of organic nutrient availability.
The programme is progressing well and to our revised schedule (following two periods of maternity leave for our Data and Project Manager, the early departure of our Biogeochemistry Research Technician on WP1 to a new post, and the return to work part time (80%) of our WP2 PDRA after a year of maternity leave). We have spent the past 12 months completing the storm sampling and diurnal sampling in the Tier 1 catchments to allow us to investigate the shorter-term responses of the dissolved organic matter and its broader role in the C, N and P cycle under extreme flow (delivery and transport) conditions, over the diurnal cycle, and in relation to microbial and primary producer processing instream. In addition, metabolomic analysis of a subset of 31 river samples covering a range of hydrochemical characteristics across seasons has now been completed, though we still await the data from our project partner, the Institute of Catalysis in Madrid. Data analysis, once these data, arrive will involve both targeted and untargeted metabolomics approaches.
In August 2017, we commenced the Tier 2 sampling programme in a range well-researched UK catchments sharing common attributes with our Tier 1 sites as part of our upscaling effort. The ambition was to determine the extent to which we have identified the generic characteristics and role of DOM linked to particular landscape and source types and ecosystem functions. Our hypothesis was that sources with similar soils, lithologies, population or farming practices will have common characteristic molecular markers which could be used, in association with our Tier 1 source characterisation, to identify the provenance of DOM in rivers. This was a cross-WP activity designed to test and upscale the Tier 1 findings. Four landscape or source character groups identified under our Tier 1 analysis were tested against comparable sites in this Tier 2 investigation: peatland and other organic-rich soils; Chalk and other permeable lithologies (Jurassic Limestone and Carboniferous Limestone); Clay with intensive cattle production; sewage effluent discharges. A total of 80 well-researched catchment sites were included in this sampling effort, from Cornwall to Aberdeen, and Pembrokeshire to Norfolk, with sampling completed by the end of December 2017, and all WP1 analyses and WP3 and 4 experiments completed by the end of November 2017. Samples for WP2, as with the storm and diurnal sampling, were initially collected, filtered and placed in frozen storage ready for the return of the WP2 PDRA from maternity leave at the beginning of December 2017, and analysis of these is now underway.
We are in the process of planning for a final stream nutrient addition experiment using 15N13C labelled DON, to be located in the Upper Conwy where our Tier 1 finndings indicate native biotic communities acclimated to DOM as a nutrient resource, and N limitation of moss, algal and microbiological production. The organisms should be hungry for any additional DON added to the stream. We will use this to upscale and test our findings from our Tier 1 WP3 and WP4 experiments in a natural stream environment, and test the hypothesis that DOM is a nutrient resource actively taken up by stream biota under natural environmental conditions and in the presence of inorganic nutrient forms. The experiment will involve staff and techniques developed in all 4 work packages, and is scheduled for May 2018. We anticipate reporting on this in our next ResearchFish submission.
Finally, publication activity is now well underway following a planning exercise undertaken in December 2016 where 30 cross-WP papers were identified. 13 papers have been published so far, another has been submitted for publication, and several more are in preparation at present, each involving input from all four WP. These are detailed separately in this submission.
Exploitation Route We are currently working up the comparison of our initial findings against conditions in a wider range of catchments sampled in Tier 2, in order to confirm their validity and generate generic knowledge that is transferable between systems and scales. These findings have relevance to policy makers and practitioners engaged in the management and control of nutrient enrichment impacts on stream ecology in UK catchments. They will have international relevance, while the findings from Tier 1 of the WP1 component have already been fed into the international programme on Stream Energy and Nutrient Cycling funded by the NSF under the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) programme of which Penny Johnes is a member. The patterns observed in UK lowland catchments are quite distinct from those observed in forested and semi-natural vegetated catchments across the conterminous USA, and in the boreal region of Scandinavia, and confirm the unique DOM chemistry of highly perturbed systems such as those found in the UK. The key findings regarding the quantitative significance of DOM as a component of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus flux and cycling in freshwater ecosystems have already been fed into advice presented to the OECD Environment Ministers at their 2016 conference via an invited briefing on Nitrogen from Penny Johnes, to the House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee in evidence presented by Penny Johnes to its Nitrates Inquiry, to Natural England via Penny's role as a member of its Science Advisory Committee, and to the water industry via her membership of its Catchment Panel, where the findings across our combined work package activity have already been used to inform the revision of their existing routine monitoring programme and catchment management approach. We are also routinely disseminating our findings via invited, keynote and more commonly offered oral and poster presentations at international conferences by all members of the team, and via publication of our findings in academic journals. We plan to deliver further engagement and impact in a Royal Society Meeting on Dissolved Organic Matter in Freshwaters, for which a bid is currently being prepared.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.nerc-domaine.uk
 
Description Initial findings from WP1 need to be calibrated against conditions in a wider range of catchments in order to confirm their validity and generate generic knowledge that is transferable between systems and scales. These findings have relevance to policy makers and practitioners engaged in the management and control of nutrient enrichment impacts on stream ecology in UK catchments. They will, subject to calibration in our Tier 2 catchment study in the next year of study, have international relevance and have already been fed into international research activities via the LTER programme on Stream Energy and Nutrient Cycling, funded by NSF, of which Professor Johnes is a member. The findings could be used to inform the revision of existing routine nutrient monitoring programmes which are not currently fit for purpose. Indeed, this has already been taken up by one of our Project Partners, Wessex Water, feeding directly into their monitoring and catchment management approaches which have now been modified to include measurement of the total N and P concentrations in water samples from their sites and operations, rather than just the inorganic nutrient fractions. This will generate more effective catchment management and planning. In addition the findings from DOMAINE have been fed into briefings of the OECD Environment Ministers in Paris, Autumn 2016 at their Environment Ministerial Conference, where Professor Johnes was invited to provide a briefing on Nitrogen. Attendees reported a change of attitude and broadened understanding of the nature and scale of N enrichment of waters, globally, of projected increasing trends in relation to population and economic growth, and of the role of DOM in the transport and ecological impact of N in inland and coastal waters.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee: Professor Penny Johnes was called to give evidence to the committee to assist in its Nitrate Inquiry.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
URL https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/environmental-audit-comm...
 
Description Natural England Science Advisory Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Natural England's Science Advisory Committee (NESAC) is an advisory committee to the Natural England Board and has an important role providing independent advice, challenge and review to Natural England's Science and Evidence functions and strengthening its relationships with the wider scientific community. More specifically NESAC: (1) Provides advice to the Board on the integrity and relevance of Natural England's overall science and evidence programme; of its prospective research and monitoring programmes; and (on occasion) of its plans for particular pieces of work; (2) Provides challenge on the rationale and methods for proposed studies; and to the emerging findings of specific pieces of research; (3) Provides post hoc analysis, and comment, on the success of methodologies and approaches its has applied; (4) Provides assurance that internal peer review and external QA processes adopted are robust; (5) Identifies suitably qualified reviewers that might be approached to undertake external quality assurance or peer review; (6) Act as an external champion for Natural England's science and evidence; helping to forge links and partnerships with the wider scientific community such as hosting a series of NESAC Science Seminars. NESAC is also occasionally asked to provide advice on issues relating to the natural environment across government, reflecting Natural England's role as the government's statutory adviser on the natural environment in England. Recently it has provided advice on Natural England's evidence strategy 2012- 2017, which describes how evidence plays a critical role in its work. Its purpose is to make sure that Natural England collect and use evidence effectively and transparently in support of its statutory purpose. NESAC supports the strategy by giving independent advice, and challenging and reviewing Natural England's science and evidence work. It is made up of members of the Natural England Board and academics from a wide range of disciplines. Professor Penny Johnes was appointed to NESAC in 2017, as an independent external members, judged by the representatives of the Natural England Board to offer appropriate expertise. She has, since appointment, provided specific advice on nutrient pollution in waters, and on the importance of taking the dissolved organic matter fraction into account in developing both evidence and strategies to mitigation the impacts of nutrient pollution in SPAs, SACs and SSSIs.
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/642689/science_advisory_co...
 
Description OECD Environment Policy Committee Meeting at Ministerial Level, OECD Conference Centre, Paris, 28-29 September 2016.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact The OECD Environment Ministerial Conference occurs every two years. In September 2016 Environment Ministers from OECD and selected non-member countries met at OECD Headquarters under the chairmanship of New Zealand, with Chile and Slovenia as Vice-Chairs. The meeting took place after two major international events in 2015, the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. These international events were seen as likely to significantly shape the national and international environmental policy landscape for many years into the future. Ministers were provided with the opportunity to reflect on these developments and discuss how policies could help their countries to meet their commitments. The meeting addressed a range of issues in plenary sessions and in a number of breakout groups. The issues of climate change and circular economy were discussed in plenary at the start and end of the meeting, with breakout sessions on air pollution from transport, mainstreaming biodiversity across sectors, effective management of marine protected areas, nitrogen, financing investment in water security, and urban water pollution. Professor Penny Johnes was invited to attend the meeting to provide the briefing on Nitrogen. A summary of the discussions is available here: https://issuu.com/oecd.publishing/docs/2016-env-ministerial-chair-summary/2, with the relevant material on this particular briefing available on page 6 of this summary.
URL http://www.oecd.org/environment/ministerial/
 
Description Wessex Water Catchment Panel
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Wessex Water founded its Catchment Panel to provide it with scrutiny and advice upon Wessex Water's environmental performance to be achieved through an optimal balance of: - Asset construction and operation - Management of natural resources - Influencing behaviours Professor Johnes is one of two university researchers invited to join the panel, which is otherwise composed of the chairs of local wildlife trusts, government agencies and departments, and local government within the Wessex Water region. One outcome from this role drawing directly on evidence generated from the DOMAINE programme on the quantitative significance of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in freshwater nutrient flux, has been a change in analytical practice for samples collected from Wessex Water sites and assets. Samples are now analysed to determine the total nutrient concentration in the sample (including the DOM) rather than just the inorganic nutrient fraction as has previously been standard practice.
URL https://www.wessexwater.co.uk/About-us/Environment/Catchment-management/
 
Description CEB-The Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, co-funded by ERDF (Welsh European Funding Organisation, Welsh Assembly Government) and Bangor University
Amount £7,600,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 81280 
Organisation European Commission 
Department European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 11/2017 
End 11/2022
 
Description NERC GW4 DTP
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description NERC Industrial CASE Studentship
Amount £83,515 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description National University of Ireland Travelling Scholarship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation National University of Ireland 
Sector Academic/University
Country Ireland
Start 08/2015 
End 07/2018
 
Description PhD scholarship
Amount $245,160 (USD)
Organisation University of Costa Rica 
Sector Academic/University
Country Costa Rica
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Title Novel approach for exploring the role of DOM in nutrient fluxes in catchments 
Description The pool of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems is dynamic, consisting of a wide range of compounds with differing chemical structures and reactivities. As a result DOM has a multifaceted role in the biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems, impacting upon ecosystem production, complexation of trace metals and the mobilisation of pollutants. Understanding its role within the transfer of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus to waters and its cycling within freshwater ecosystems has been limited, to date, by the lack of an effective sample handling and analytical protocol which allows identification of each of the major chemical forms contributing to this flux, and in particular the dissolved organic matter fraction (as DOC, DON and DOP). This paper presents the outcomes of a novel approach allowing this level of identification, across two contrasting catchments. The novel method uses sequential analysis, filtration and digestion using persulphate oxidation under high temperature and pressure, to separate these fractions and, in combination with the use of novel fluorescence and UV-visible spectrometric approaches, allows the quantification of DOM flux in these systems and a parallel assessment of DOM quality. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Initially within the programme, but others are now adopting this technique, notably in the NERC LOCATE programme headed by CEH, and in the revision of standard monitoring practice in Wessex Water's routine water quality monitoring programme. 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716314000
 
Title Novel method for DOP detection 
Description The phosphorus storage compound in grains, phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), is important for nutrition and human health, and is reportedly the most abundant organic phosphorus compound in soils. Methods for its determination have traditionally relied on complexation with iron and precipitation, acid digestion and measurement of phosphate concentration, or 31P NMR spectroscopy. Direct determination of phytic acid (and its homologues) using mass spectrometry has, as yet, found limited application to environmental or other complex matrices. The behaviour of phytic acid in electrospray ionisation high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and its fragmentation, both in-source and via collision-induced dissociation, have not been studied so far. This paper reports a novel method allowing the detection of the compound in environmental matrices which provides greater resolution and than the traditional method using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Specifically, the ESIHRMS of inositol phosphates is unusual and highly characteristic. The study of the full mass spectrum of IP6 in ESIHRMS mode indicates the detection of the compound in environmental matrices using this technique is preferable to the use of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The results of this investigation demonstrate the potential forusing full scan ESIHRMS to study inositol phosphates, with clear gainsto be made in incorporating the technique into protocols for theexploration of organic phosphorous cycling in the environment at themolecular level 
URL http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rcm.7935/epdf
 
Title Novel method for pre-treatment of water samples for determination of DOC concentrations 
Description Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a central role in regulating productivity and nutrient cycling in freshwaters. It is therefore vital that we can representatively sample and preserve DOM in freshwaters for subsequent analysis. Here we investigated the effect of filtration, temperature (5 and 25 °C) and acidification (HCl) on the persistence of low molecular weight (MW) dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen (DON) and orthophosphate in oligotrophic and eutrophic freshwater environments. Our results showed the rapid loss of isotopically-labelled glucose and amino acids from both filtered (0.22 and 0.45 µm) and unfiltered waters. We ascribe this substrate depletion in filtered samples to the activity of ultra-small (< 0.45 µm) microorganisms (bacteria and archaea) present in the water. As expected, the rate of C, N and P loss was much greater at higher temperatures and was repressed by the addition of HCl. Based on our results and an evaluation of the protocols used in recently published studies, we conclude that current techniques used to sample water for low MW DOM characterisation are frequently inadequate and lack proper validation. In contrast to the high degree of analytical precision and rigorous statistical analysis of most studies, we argue that insufficient consideration is still given to the presence of ultra-small microorganisms and potential changes that can occur in the low MW fraction of DOM prior to analysis. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Clarifies the role of ultra-small microorganisms in compromising sample integrity for DOM analyses prior to analysis, and recommends to other researchers a modification in sample storage in order to mitigate these impacts. 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717308847?via%3Dihub
 
Description Collaboration with National Trust staff 
Organisation National Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Knowledge exchange with National Trust staff who manage estate land in the Conwy catchment, particularly at Bodnant Gardens in teh Hiraethlyn catchment where we have been give permission to site one of our high resolution sampling stations, and in the headwaters of the Conwy in the Mignient where The National Trust are undertaking a range of management strategies aimed at increasing the retention of carbon within the peatland landscape.
Collaborator Contribution See above. Local knowledge advice on mitigation measures, and access to sites suitable for the installation and operation of our sampling equipment.
Impact Site access and knowledge exchange. Ongoing at present.
Start Year 2015
 
Description FERA Industrial CASE collaborator 
Organisation Fera Science Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution FERA act as CASE partner on a joint Industrial CASE studentship with Professors Richard Evershed and Penny Johnes as supervisors at the University of Bristol, together with Dr Adrian Charlton of FERA as CASE supervisor. The studentship has been formally linked to the DOMAINE programme, allowing synergies to be identified, for the student to become part of the wider DOMAINE community and to benefit from access to data generated by the programme, and for FERA to benefit from access to new findings of relevance to their activities which are emerging from DOMAINE. The title of the studentship is Comprehensive determination of dissolved organic matter to underpin river water quality assessments.
Collaborator Contribution A CASE partner financial contribution to the studentship. In addition, provision of training for the student, access to in-house expertise, and a recent invitation for the student and our PDRA on WP2 to attend a closed meeting of the UK Water Mutual Aid Group at FERA where they presented a paper to representative of all the major UK water companies plc summariing the work of WP2 in developing methods for "Untargeted Characterisation of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter using a Hierarchy of Mass Spectrometric Methods'.
Impact See entry above. A paper is currently in preparation on this work.
Start Year 2015
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 1 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, data digests and infrastructure, invited participation on stakeholder workshops, and Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Access to Demonstration Test Catchments data, infrastructure, staff time, Project Partner participation in Programme Advisory Board
Impact None yet. Programme started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 1 
Organisation Environment Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, evidence to underpin policy, infrastructure, participation in stakeholder workshops, access to programme website, membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of access to infrastructre, long-term and 3rd Party data, provision of staff time input to the programme, membership of Programme Advisory Board, provision of staff placements for project staff to work with Agency staff
Impact None yet. Programme started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 3 
Organisation Natural England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, evidence to underpin policy, participation in stakeholder workshops, membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of access to River Avon Catchment Sensitive Farming sites and 5 days staff time input per year, to include attendance at Programme Advisory Board meetings
Impact None yet. Project started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 4 
Organisation Rivers Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, infrastructure and guidance to underpin practical management in the field, including participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of field support for project staff in the Hampshire Avon and Conwy catchments, 10 days per year technical input and assistance with dissemination of research findings
Impact None yet. Project started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 5 
Organisation Wessex Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge and evidence to underpin business planning, participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of Sewage Treatment Works effluent quality data, staff attendance at Programme Advisory Board and stakeholder workshops, and provision of river ecology data for the Hampshire Avon
Impact None yet. Project started 1 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 6 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Country European Union (EU) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of samples for analysis, joint authorship of publications, attendance at stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of metabolomic analysis on 150 samples, provision of meta-proteomic analysis on 10 samples, attendance at stakeholder workshops and 4 days staff time for attendance at project and Programme Advisory Board meetings
Impact None yet. Project started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 7 
Organisation Scottish Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, infrastructure and evidence to support business planning, participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Provision of access to data assets and infrastructure, 5 days staff time input per year and a placement opportunity for PhD student 1 in Year 3 of their study.
Impact None yet. Project started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 8 
Organisation Welsh Water
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge, evidence to underpin business planning, participation in stakeholder workshops and membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Access to data assets and infrastructure, 5 days staff time per year and in-kind support for PhD 1 studentship
Impact None yet. Started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description NERC DOMAINE programme: Project Partner 9 
Organisation Government of Wales
Department Wales Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Provision of access to data, new knowledge and evidence to underpin policy, participation in stakeholder events, membership of Programme Advisory Board
Collaborator Contribution Access to CCW data assets for the Conwy, 5 days staff time input per year and participation in Programme Advisory Board
Impact None yet. Project started 01 April 2014
Start Year 2014
 
Description Wessex Chalk Streams and Rivers Trust 
Organisation Wessex Chalk Stream and Rivers Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Reciprocal exchange of knowledge, advice and access to data generated under the NERC DOMAINE programme. Access to local contacts, landowners and liaison over the timing on instream habitat management and restoration activities being undertaken by the WCSRT at or near our monitoring infrastructure.
Collaborator Contribution See above. Reciprocal exchange of knowledge, contacts and data.
Impact Professor Penny Johnes provided a presentation on the Nature, Origins and Ecological Significance of DOM in Freshwaters to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership, chaired by the WCSRT. Dr Paul Jose, Director of the WCSRT has provided dissemination of project information to the WCSRT members on the NERC DOMAINE project, and information on the nature, location and timing of in-channel restoration works in the catchment.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Aberconwy School outreach event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Professor Jones gave a presentation on the NERC DOMAINE and allied research programmes ongoing in the Conwy catchment at an outreach event at Aberconwy School on 13/07/2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Farming Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Johnes gave the lead interview to BBC Radio 4 Farming Today for its week long focus on Agriculture and Water Quality on 09/02/2015 February drawing on research underway
under the DOMAINE programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b051rflx
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Farming Today 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Professor Evershed gave an interview on soils, microbes and methane on Farming Today on 18/02/2015, drawing on research underway under the NERC DOMAINE programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b052j5g6
 
Description CEH Conwy Catchment Stakeholder Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professors Johnes, Jones and Evans gave presentations to a large group of stakeholder organisations as a CEH-led Stakeholder engagement event at the Glasdir Centre in Llanrwst, Conwy catchment on 16/06/2015. New links were made with local Natural Resources Wales staff and National Trust field officers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Conwy Catchment Partnership meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 13/02/17, the WP3 project team attended and presented an update on the DOMAINE programme at the Conwy Catchment Partnership Stakeholder Meeting held at Llanwrst, in the Conwy catchment. The meeting was attended by The National Trust, Natural Resource Wales, Welsh Water and RSPB Cymru
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Cumbrian Lakes Research Forum presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 13/10/16 outcomes from our work on the biotic uptake of dissolved organic matter from WP4 were discussed at the annual stakeholder event, the Cumbrian Lakes Research Forum hosted by CEH and attended by representatives from the water industry, Environment Agency, Natural England and The National Trust.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ceh.ac.uk/news-and-media/blogs/cumbrian-lakes-research-forum-2016
 
Description Defra Demonstration Test Catchments Newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Defra Demonstrating Catchments Spring 2015 newsletter featured a 1 page article on the NERC DOMAINE programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.demonstratingcatchmentmanagement.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/DTC-Newsletter-Mar-2015.p...
 
Description Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Johnes gave an invited presentation to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership on 15th December, at the invitation of the Wessex Chalk Streams Rivers Trust who Chair the partnership. She presented the DOMAINE and linked Defra-funded Demonstration Test Catchments programme findings on nutrient flux, nutrient chemistry and ecological impacts in the Wylye and Nadder sub-catchments of the Hampshire Avon and explained the implications for the HACP stream management programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.hampshireavoncatchmentpartnership.org.uk/
 
Description House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee, broadcast on Parliament TV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Penny Johnes was invited to present evidence to the House of Commons Environmental Audit Select Committee in its Nitrates Inquiry, following the submission of her written evidence to the Committee (https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/environmental-audit-committee/news-parliament-2017/nitrates-evidence1-17-19/). The evidence session was recorded, and broadcast live (http://parliamentlive.tv/Event/Index/db6b5de4-1baa-4ced-ab02-838a0f0bde0a). The aim of the session was to provide an understanding of the science surrounding nitrate pollution of water courses, to expose the scale of the challenge, and to ensure that MPs were made aware (1) that we are a long way off the necessary targets to support good ecological status in UK waters as a result of nutrient pollution, (2) that current monitoring and policy is piecemeal, ineffective and unfit for purpose, (3) that organic nutrient pollution of waters, particularly dissolved organic nutrient pollution, is the major driver of ecological damage in livestock farming areas of the UK and in waters receiving significant pollution from sewage systems, and (4) that new policy is urgently needed that is holistic and cross-sectoral if ecological damage is to be halted to reversed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://parliamentlive.tv/Event/Index/db6b5de4-1baa-4ced-ab02-838a0f0bde0a
 
Description Keynote presentation, 7th European Conference on Prokaryotic and Fungal Genomes "ProkaGenomics 2017" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 7th European Conference on Prokaryotic and Fungal Genomes "ProkaGenomics 2017" (http://www.prokagenomics.org/ ), Invited plenary (keynote) lecture "Activity-based discovery of novel enzymes from marine environments".September 19-22, 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.prokagenomics.org/
 
Description Midlands Innovation Workshop to discuss research on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH). Attended by Dr Helen Glanville 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Helen Glanville attended the Midlands Innovation Workshop at the University of Nottingham to discuss research on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), feeding into this the insights from DOMAINE on the role of Dissolved Organic Matter in water bodies. The workshop took place on 23 January 2018 and explored the GCRF Challenge areas of Sustainable Health and Well-Being and Clean Air, Water and Sanitation as they map to the Sustainable Development Goals and Midlands Innovation research strengths
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/midlands-innovation-gcrf-wash-workshop-tickets-39688391046#
 
Description OECD Environment Ministerial Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 28/09/2016 Penny Johnes (WP1 and PI) was invited to brief the OECD Environment Ministers at their biannual Environment Ministerial Conference at OECD Headquarters in Paris. The topic of the briefing was on Nitrogen, and she used images from eutrophicated waters worldwide, including the green pool at the Rio Olympics swimming centre and the Serpentine during the London Olympics triathlon event to drive home the message regarding the widespread, rising and adverse impacts of nitrogen enrichment of waters. This drew directly on findings emerging from the NERC DOMAINE and allied research programmes internationally, and generated some interesting debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.oecd.org/environment/ministerial/
 
Description OECD/UNECE Joint Workshop on The Nitrogen Cascade and Policy - towards integrated solutions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Professor Johnes gave a keynote presentation on 10 May 2016 at the OECD/UNECE joint Paris workshop on The Nitrogen cascade and policy - towards integrated solutions at the invitation of the Chair of the UNECE Task Force for Reactive Nitrogen. In this she briefed attendees on the sources, opportunities and impacts of nitrogen pollution of inland and coastal waters, and the role of organic nitrogen flux in this process, drawing on research findings emerging from the DOMAINE programme and linked Defra-funded Demonstration Test Catchments programme findings on nutrient flux, nutrient chemistry and ecological impacts in the Hampshire Avon, Eden, Wensum and Tamar catchments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.clrtap-tfrn.org/sites/clrtap-tfrn.org/files/documents/TFRN%2011/Nitrogen%20Workshop%20OEC...
 
Description Off-grid water quality monitoring technologies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact On 20/09/16 Chris Yates (WP1) presented an invited paper on Nutrient and fluorescence sensing at a stakeholder-led workshop at the University of the West of England. The workshop organisers were OTT Hydromet and Sea-bird Coastal, manufacturers of a number of the instruments deployed on the DOMAINE monitoring platform. The workshop brought together like-minded users and researcher using off-grid water quality monitoring technologies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.ott.com/ott-hydromet-water-quality-solutions/
 
Description Presentation to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact At the invitation of the Wessex Chalk Streams and Rivers Trust, we were invited to present a briefing on the DOMAINE programme to the Hampshire Avon Catchment Partnership, a working group of 30 local government, government conservation, NGO and business organisations with interests in and responsibility for the Hampshire Avon and similar chalk catchments in southern England. Professor Penny Johnes gave a joint briefing on both the NERC DOMAINE programme and the allied Defra Demonstration Test Catchments programme, both of which utilise a range of sites (including some shared infrastructure) in the Hampshire Avon catchment. She made the audience aware of the nature of the problems in the Hampshire Avon, the areas of the landscape and activities contributing to C, N, P and sediment enrichment of the river and its tributaries, and the novel findings emerging from each programme, particularly from DOMAINE. The organisations were also given a brief introduction to the data available in real time via our NERC DOMAINE websie (www.nerc-domaine.uk) for all of our sites in the catchment. Opportunities to meet again to discuss options for data access and knowledge exchange were also discussed and agreed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.hampshireavoncatchmentpartnership.org.uk/
 
Description Project website and Twitter feed 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The DOMAINE project website was launched at the end of 2014 and provides a single access point for any external party to view our
sensor data in real time, and has spurred interest from a range of user groups across the platform.

A username and password are available to any viewer via the following link: (www.nercdomaine.uk/data/),, which provides free and open access to view out field sensor data in real time from all 6 instrumented sites in our two tier 1 catchments.

We are now working to develop a series of downloadable monthly data summaries, and project summaries aimed at the general public which will also be available free to download via the website.

DOMAINE also has its own Twitter account at https://twitter.com/dominfreshwater (@DOMInFreshwater) which has attracted interest via a number of other Twitter feeds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nerc-domaine.uk/
 
Description Royal Society Meeting - Science for Defra: excellence in the application of evidence: invited member of the Environmental Quality expert panel and speaker, 29-30 March 2017, The Royal Society, London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Defra/Royal Society joint conference on Science for Defra: excellence in the application of evidence: invited member of the Environmental Quality expert panel and speaker, 29-30 March 2017, The Royal Society, London. There are a range of websites summarising outputs, including the blog from Ian Boyd, Chief Science Advisor to Defra (given below), and the following additional sources: https://storify.com/SLRS/science-for-defra-conference and a blog from Professor David Fowler who chaired the Environmental Quality Panel https://blogs.royalsociety.org/in-verba/2017/05/02/science-for-defra-environmental-quality/. Outcomes from this panel have led to the current (2018) House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee Nitrates Inquiry, to which Penny Johnes has given evidence (February 2018) and the House of Commons Joint Select Committee Inquiry into Air Pollution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://blogs.royalsociety.org/in-verba/2017/04/28/science-for-defra-excellence-in-the-application-of...
 
Description Sensors in Water Interest Group (SWIG) publication outlining our work 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Sensors in Water Group produced an article in International Environmental Technlogy, which outlines the DOMAINE programme and highlights its work in deployment and testing of novel sensor systems for catchment monitoring and research. The article is as follows: Richards, R (2015) Catching up with Catchment Monitoring, International Environmental Technology, June 2015, 21-22. Available from: [http://www.envirotech-online.com/articles/water-wastewater/9/rosa_richards/catching_up_withcatchment_monitoring_/1871/]
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.envirotech-online.com/articles/water-wastewater/9/rosa_richards/catching_up_withcatchment...
 
Description Sensors in Water Interest Group presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Wavelength Environmental gave a presentation on the novel sensor technology used in the NERC DOMAINE programme at the Sensors in Water Group (SWIG) workshop held at Rothamsted Research North Wyke on 18/03/2015. The title of the presentation was 'Integrated sensing and sampling system for catchment based research'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.swig.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Catchment-monitoring-18-Mar-2015-Final-lflt.pdf
 
Description UK Water Mutual Aid Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact On 09/11/16 Charlotte Lloyd and Jon Pemberton (both WP2) presented an invited paper at the closed meeting of the UK Water Mutual Aid Group at FERA. Their paper, presented to representatives of all of the major UK water companies plc summarised the work of WP2 in developing methods for Untargeted Characterisation of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter using a Hierarchy of Mass Spectrometric Methods. This was very well received, pointing the way forward for novel approaches for water companies to assess, anticipate risk and adopt adaptation and mitigation strategies to ensure future legislative compliance and minimise impact on operational business activities.

There is no reporting available from this meeting - Chatham House Rules applied.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Wessex Chalk Streams Rivers Trust Newsletter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Wessex Chalk Streams Rivers Trust produced an article on the NERC DOMAINE programme in its Spring newsletter, aimed at members, practitioners, policymakers andthe general public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.wcsrt.org.uk/News_Letters
 
Description Why Dissolved Organic Matter matters - schools presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact On 20/02/17, Davey Jones gave a short talk to secondary school students about the research being conducted in the DOMAINE project and they are planning to film a short video about the research programme with the Field Studies Council (FSC).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description • Catchment drivers of nutrient enrichment: the need for holistic science to underpin effective management and policy. Invited keynote presentation, British Phycological Society, Winter Meeting, Southend, 8-11 January 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited keynote presentation to the British Phycological Society on Catchment drivers of nutrient enrichment: the need for holistic science to underpin effective management and policy. , British Phycological Society Winter Meeting, Southend, 8-11 January 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://brphycsoc.org/documents/bps-winter/BPS2018ABS.pdf
 
Description • Using hydrochemistry evidence to identify sources of pollution in agricultural catchments. Invited keynote presentation, Defra Demonstration Test Catchments National Conference, University of Exeter, 4-5 September 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited keynote presentation at the Defra Demonstration Test Catchments National Conference, University of Exeter, 4-5 September 2017 on Using hydrochemistry evidence to identify sources of pollution in agricultural catchments. Key outcomes were engaging with a very wide range of stakeholder organisations (water companies plc, government agencies and departments including Defra, Environment Agency, Natural England; conservation trusts and charities) involved in catchment management to mitigate diffuse water pollution impacts on freshwater ecosystems and water quality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.catchmentbasedapproach.org/deliver/monitoring/demonstration-test-catchments