Towards groundwater security in coastal East Africa

Lead Research Organisation: Queen's University of Belfast
Department Name: Sch Planning Architecture and Civil Eng

Abstract

Groundwater resources in the coastal zone of EA are at risk. Increased demand, linked to rapid population growth in the coastal margins, has led to unsustainable and ill-planned well drilling and abstraction. Sea water intrusion into formerly freshwater aquifers frequently occurs as recharge from rainfall is insufficient to support the rate at which water is extracted. Wells supplying domestic, industrial and agricultural needs have, in many areas, become too saline for use.

Climate change is expected to exacerbate this problem. Rising sea levels in the Indian Ocean region are projected to cause inundation of saltwater along the coastal zone, which is dominated by highly-permeable rock, while altered precipitation patterns and temperature change will affect the amount of water replenishing the aquifer through infiltration and recharge. Local communities across the region are already reporting changing tidal and rainfall patterns. The multiplicity of hydrological and demographic driving factors makes this a very challenging issue for management.
At present the state of coastal aquifers in the EA region is not well constrained and past practices which may have exacerbated the problem have not been clearly identified. This project will bring together teams from Kenya, Tanzania and the Comoros Islands to address this knowledge gap; collaborating and working towards achieving water security in their respective areas.

An integrative approach, combining the expertise of hydrogeologists, hydrologists and social scientists, will target selected sites along the coastal zone in each country. Hydrogeologic observatories will be developed where focussed research will identify the current condition of the coastal aquifers and identify future threats based on projected demographic and climate change scenarios. Water supply and monitoring needs will be identified through consultations with end-users and local authorities and optimum strategies for addressing these sought.

An initial step will be to survey and bring together all existing data on well installations, abstraction, groundwater gradients and the salinity of existing wells at each pilot site. Understanding where wells are located, how deep they are, how much water is abstracted, what the flow directions are and what the salinity is, provides an overview of the state of the aquifer. Local data on hydraulic properties, such as the permeability, porosity, and storativity of the aquifer will be investigated and synthesised. Targeted electrical geophysical surveys, which provide relevant spatial information on both the aquifer structure and the saltwater distribution, will be undertaken.

Similarly data is needed on the hydrological drivers in the system; to understand how much of annual rainfall infiltrates to replenish groundwater reserves (compared to the amount abstracted for human use) and how this might be impacted by changes in rainfall intensity or frequency. Land use and land use change is also important; controlling the proportion of incident rainfall which reaches the soil and subsequently groundwater. Recharge modelling will be an important tool for investigating different scenarios for climate and land use change and evaluating groundwater vulnerability.

The social and political aspects of water use and development will be incorporated to assess the compatibility between the evolution of the availability of coastal freshwater resources and those of society and water politics. Researchers will engage with local community and stakeholder groups in each area and work together towards understanding the issues most affecting the communities with regards accessibility to water supply. A two-way exchange of knowledge between researchers and community members is essential in working towards feasible solutions to existing problems and ensuring preparedness for the changes in demographics and environment in the future.

Planned Impact

This project will have significant academic, economic and social impacts for a broad range of beneficiaries.

Socio-Economic Impacts:

The regional datasets on groundwater, including heads and salinity, hydrology and land use, and the socio-economic aspects of groundwater use will be beneficial to the relevant ministries of water, ministries of social welfare, local authorities, water companies and drilling companies. The availability of this information at the end of the project year will be vital for planning and policy formulation relating to groundwater resources in the coastal region. In a sense this will provide a baseline, which the companies and ministries can utilise in plans for groundwater exploitation and utilisation by the communities, in view of the changing environment and increasing populations.
The local communities in the project sites will enhance their awareness of the social and environmental issues surrounding groundwater resources. Through the discussions in the community outreach meetings, they will learn various best practices for management of groundwater resources. It is expected that the local communities will contribute to the sustainable management of groundwater resources through iterative learning during the project period.

In the long term, the communities will improve water security through implementing strategies which will assist them to gain better access to clean water. Use of the data from the long-term observatories and associated modelling outputs by groundwater resource managers is expected to have a positive impact through improving infrastructure design (better well location, sustainable abstraction rates). In consequence this will reduce the time spent by households (predominately women and children) fetching or cleaning water, and thus release time for other economic activities. This will contribute to improving the health status of the communities, since revised management measures will improve groundwater quality, and the chances of water related diseases will be greatly reduced. Therefore, this will contribute in the long term to an enhanced quality of life, health and well being.

The sharing of the research findings with the various stakeholders through seminars at the partner universities, conferences and community outreach seminars, will also contribute towards narrowing the gap between the scientists and end users who include community groups, water management departments and drilling companies. This will inevitably contribute towards evidence based policy making at the local and regional levels, thereby transforming livelihoods in general.

Academic Impacts:

At European level, the proposed research will strongly benefit the UK & French institutions involved in this project, by strengthening their expertise in groundwater studies and the impacts of climate change (both are key strategic research topics at the partner institutions).

Also, this project will be a key step, through developing research capital for the entire research partnership, towards applying for further research funding, in particular in the subsequent funding stream of the UPGro package. The objective is to establish and then maintain long-term coastal groundwater observatories in the EA region, which can provide decadal datasets on coastal aquifer status and the hydrological and demographic driving factors. Further funding will also allow the initial capital to be built on through funding more detailed fieldwork as well as supporting PhD students from both EU and African institutions, and securing a large number of high ranking international publications.

The output data will be available to other researchers, across disciplines through the data centres (within 2 years of the end of the project).

Publications

10 25 50
publication icon
Bourhane A., Comte J.-C., Join J.-L., Ibrahim K. (2016) Active Volcanoes of the Southwest Indian Ocean: Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala

publication icon
Join J.-L., Folio J.-L., Bourhane A., Comte J.-C. (2016) Active Volcanoes of the Southwest Indian Ocean: Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala

 
Description KEY ACHIEVEMENTS

1) Baseline physical characterisation of 3 selected aquifers in E Africa.

This project represents the first systematic and integrated study of the groundwater, hydrological and socio-environmental status of coastal aquifers in East Africa, applying a common methodology across a range of aquifer typologies. To date, observatories have been established at sites in Kilifi, Kenya; Kilwa, Tanzania and Grande Comore, Comoros (physical infrastructure includes a high-resolution weather station and well loggers) to provide high-resolution temporal data on weather and aquifer recharge and dynamics for each area. An overview of groundwater status in each area has been completed through surveys of existing wells and water quality parameters, encompassing both wet and dry seasons, as well as mapping climate and land use characteristics using available data for decadal time scales. Targeted electrical geophysical surveys have been undertaken to map the saline interface and geological structure in the coastal zone. In all activities training has been provided to local water personnel and partner Universities' students (13 students in total - undergraduates, postgraduates and PhDs), covering data acquisition and maintenance of the weather stations and dataloggers, aquifer characterisation and the application of geophysical techniques to seawater intrusion imaging. This will contribute to achieving long-term sustainability of the observatories. Data synthesis has revealed issues such as: the inapplicability of inland water prospecting and well installation approaches in coastal areas; poor water infrastructure and sanitation; excessive and ill-timed abstraction due to a poor understanding of coastal hydrogeology and the tidal influence and poor source protection leading to contamination.

2) Community and stakeholder engagement

The socio-environmental component of the project has involved close interaction with stakeholder and community groups in each area. Workshops held in the 3 countries initially introduced the project and recruited stakeholders to be involved in its implementation. Through interviews with the stakeholder groups (local water managers, technicians, health providers), the pertinent issues affecting water management in the three areas were identified. Surveys and questionnaires identified the most critical technical and social issues with groundwater access in each area. Community meetings and Participatory Action Research (PAR) activities provided an overview of local concerns and knowledge regarding water accessibility and quality and the social and environmental factors linked to this. The research has identified the current institutional, governmental and community management frameworks in each region. Outreach activities in each area were carried out in conjunction with the surveys, thus gathering the social data while creating awareness on sustainable management of the groundwater resources. Final dissemination activities in September has back recommendations to all participants and stakeholder groups present at local and regional scale.

3) Development of an international multi-disciplinary research team on groundwater in coastal EA.

This project has acted as the catalyst for developing a strong research network with a long term commitment to advancing research in water accessibility in the coastal zone of EA. This led to the consortium applying to the following UPGro Call for further funding to continue our research and extend to further sites in Kenya, Tanzania and Comoros and including new teams and sites in Mozambique and Madagascar. The application was unsuccessful but other sources of funding are being considered. Students (12 in total) at the partner institutions have benefited from training in baseline groundwater investigations (well surveys, water table and electrical conductivity measurement, infiltration tests); data synthesis and GIS mapping and in conducting community surveys. One PhD, 5 MSc and 6 BSc students have been involved and interpretation of their data is in progress with student theses and a chapter of a PhD thesis to be produced by Sept. 2014. Research findings have been presented by the team at: SWIM Salt Water Intrusion Meeting, Germany (2 presentations) in June 2014; the Regional Conference of the International Network of Women Engineers and Scientists (INWES), Nairobi in Nov. 2013; the Annual Conference of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), Morrocco (2 presentations) in September 2014; the 9th Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association Symposium, South Africa, Oct. 2015 (1 presentation). 2 book chapters by Bourhane et al. and Join et al. have been published in 2016 and one paper by Comte et al. in high-impact peer-reviewed journal (J. Hydrol: Reg. Stud.).

KEY FINDINGS - Statement from the Final Workshop held in Nairobi, October 2014:

1) Project objectives:

• To develop coastal groundwater monitoring networks.
• To establish the current status of groundwater resources in the coastal zone of East Africa.
• To identify issues with past practices and to work towards more effective and sustainable approaches.
Project outcome:
• To improve the well-being and livelihood of the communities.

2) Common issues affecting the three studied coastal aquifers:

• All report inadequate groundwater resources and link this to increasing population causing increased demand.
• Overall change in climate across the region - people are noticing changes in weather patterns, seasons, plants and animals.
• Spatio-temporal distribution of rainfall and geology correlates with water quality across the region.
• Low levels of education, income and limited livelihood; all indicate a need for strategies to address poverty in the region.
• Community members are keen to engage and voice their opinions. They want to be actively involved in water resource management - identify it as a critical issue - a direct link with daily life.
• All identify shortcomings in governance.
• Community members are critical of researchers who commonly do not return/share project findings.
• Gender issues: Women are the main stakeholders at community-level - they should be more involved in future activities.
• Most are willing to pay for water, however some resist because water quality is poor.
• Salinity is recognized as a key water quality issue by the community members.
• Technical decisions should be bottom up by local communities and incorporate local knowledge and skills- e.g. the construction of traditional wells in CO rather than drilling dictated by funding agencies. Funders are culpable for perpetuating this.
• Student training is viewed as key for water management as they will be the future decision makers in many areas.

3) Specific issues pertaining to lack of groundwater data centres, lack of rainfall, lack of governance were identified:

• Tanzania (TZ) and Comoros (CO) - traditionally constructed wells are wider and shallower, have better water quality and are more sustainable.
• Cultural importance - Traditional wells often act as meeting points for the community members (often shaded by trees).
• Kenya (KE)- Open wells are more likely to have faecal contamination due to dirty collection buckets/ropes.
• KE - Migration to Kilifi town (and by extension to other coastal sites) is in excess of the existing water resource - water import from other catchments necessary e.g. the establishment of Pwani University brought 7000 new residents to the area.
• Lack of centralisation of basic information on wells and boreholes (TZ, KE). Difficulty in accessing literature and reports.
• Communities feel strongly that it is the responsibility of government to solve water issues (KE, CO, TZ).
• Project results show the importance of having local researchers with experience in the topic (coastal groundwater) and having established links with local water agencies, in order to facilitate literature and data compilation.

4) Conclusions:

• The workshop has recognised the need to understand how the available groundwater resource works so that a sustainable management and development plan can be adopted.
• The workshop has also recognized the important role of engagement both with the stakeholder and community and the importance of education as to how groundwater and aquifers work and why they need stakeholder safeguarding.

5) Major publication directly arising for the project outcomes:

Comte, J-C, Cassidy, R., Obando, J., Robins, N., Ibrahim, K., Melchioly, S., Mjemah, I., Shauri, H., Bourhane, A., Mohamed, I., Noe, C., Mwega, B., Makokha, M., Join, J-L, Banton, O. & Davies, J. (2016). 'Challenges in groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers of East Africa:: Investigations and lessons learnt in the Comoros Islands, Kenya and Tanzania'. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, vol 5, pp. 177-199. DOI: 10.1016/J.EJRH.2015.12.065
Exploitation Route The PROJECT DATABASE will be a valuable resource for:
* planners
* policy makers
* water managers (water authorities, etc.)
* water practitioners (hydrogeologists, drillers, providers, etc.)
* development agencies and NGOs
* other research projects such as the UPGro BGS Groundwater Atlas
* the UK and global research community (when the database will be made public on the NERC datacentres (BGS, EIDC, NGDC)

PUBLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS, BSC/MSC THESIS will be useful to:
* the local (East Africa) and global research community
* local and global research students
* policy makers
* development agencies and NGOs
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Environment,Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214581815002232
 
Description The project findings have been or are being used by the beneficiaries of the research programme, which include: (1) local communities; (2) stakeholder groups (water authorities, conservation groups, planning agencies, NGOs); (3) under- and post-graduate students; (4) the research partners in the project and; (4) the global research community. Local Communities: UPGro research has raised awareness of water issues in local communities in the study areas in Kenya, Tanzania and the Comoros Islands. Fieldwork activities have systematically revealed the importance of source protection, the implications of over-abstraction for saltwater contamination and large and inconsistent discrepancies in water quality and price. These findings were discussed with local communities. In Kilwa, Tanzania, for example, a refuse dump was identified at a well site (directly within the well field perimeter). The community had not hitherto considered the possibility of leachate percolating through the soft sedimentary ground and contaminating the aquifer. Following discussions and advice to local authorities during the stakeholder meetings, the refuse was removed and a new dump established outside the village. In Comoros, the poorest and most remote rural communities are those most affected by saline water, water shortages and facing the highest water costs. This is a serious concern that was raised at community meetings and initiated debate between stakeholders and communities. In Kilifi County, Kenya, the local schools, health centres and other local institutions have become more aware and concerned about the issue of sustainable groundwater management and the need to conserve water during the wet season. Across the 3 countries, the focused group discussions, as part of our Participatory Action Research PAR approach, have elucidated the factors which are perceived to affect water quality, as well as envisioning solutions to degraded water resources. The community members have brought requests to the research team for their boreholes and wells to be tested and are keen on ascertaining the status of the boreholes and wells. In the field, we have strived to ensure that community outreach is fully inclusive to all ages, genders and social status. In all interactions, women, youth and other marginalized groups have been represented. The community meetings, at which research findings were disseminated, have been used in validating the information gathered on the socio-economic and environmental driving factors of water management at the coast. The project final dissemination workshop was attended by community representatives who presented their perspectives on the project and who have undertaken to share the findings (particularly those from the questionnaire surveys) with the communities in their areas. Part of the discussion focussed on ways forward for management of local water resources in each area, with emphasis on community participation in the decision making process. Stakeholders: From the inception of the programme stakeholder groups in each area have been invited and have actively participated in the research programme. Research findings have been communicated to local water managers who have been involved throughout the project (e.g. the District Water Board and local district water engineer in Kilwa, Tanzania; all Water Directorate staff and Ma'Mwe (water company) engineers in Comoros; all the staff of the Kilifi-Malindi Water Services Company and the Water Officers in the community based organizations in Kilifi, Kenya). Water quality analyses in Kilifi used the premises of the Water Services Company who are active as key stakeholders. In Grande Comore Island, the geophysical and water quality monitoring data from the project are being used to guide water prospection in two international development projects on the island (funded by the African Development Bank and the French Agency for Development). Local personnel from the Water Directorate have participated in the field research programmes and received training in the techniques used (geophysics, dataloggers and weather stations). Also in Grande Comore, researchers at the University of the Comores have collaborated with the NGO 'Deux-Mains' on a feasibility study for the supply of drinking water in the region East M'badjini. They have exchanged hydrogeological data with the NGO and borrowed equipment (potentiometric sensors) funded by the UPGro project at the University of Comoros to carry out a well survey campaign in August-September 2014. The water level data collected by the 'Deux-Mains' project have been shared with us and are included in the UPGro project outcomes. Throughout the project, in all 3 countries, the team has interacted in a participatory manner with the stakeholders, holding discussions on issues pertaining to water management. Students: Thirteen (13) students have been involved in research relating to the project covering the physical groundwater resource and the environmental and social driving factors impacting sustainability. The project has provided subsistence for fieldwork which would not have been otherwise possible and has allowed them to develop practical skill sets in environmental/hydrogeological monitoring and social survey techniques. In addition to the students, local water personnel have also benefited from training, covering data acquisition and maintenance of the weather stations and dataloggers, aquifer characterisation and the application of geophysical techniques to seawater intrusion imaging. In Grande Comore, a new course (Water) has been developed for the L3 students at the University of the Comoros. This new course was developed by 2 of the project team members during the course of the project. The objective is to improve the education and knowledge of Comoros students on water issues in the Comoros islands and to enhance the impact of research on education and the society. Research partners: Our international team has developed and strengthened during the course of the project and has extended to include new linkages in other countries in Eastern and Southern Africa (Madagascar and Mozambique) and in Europe. This in turn has led to submission of a proposal for a large-scale project to the UPGro Consortium Grant Programme to build on our current research over a 3 year programme of work. We are also investigating other funding streams for PhD studentships and further work programmes. The sharing of expertise has been of particular benefit, allowing researchers experience in new techniques in hydrometrics and geophysics and exposure to different methods of analysis. Kick-off meetings, numerous group video conferences and the final dissemination workshop provided platforms for cross-fertilisation of ideas among partners and mutual enrichment regarding knowledge and research methodologies. Global research community: This project represents the first systematic and integrated study of the groundwater, hydrological and socio-environmental status of coastal aquifers in East Africa, applying a common methodology across a range of aquifer typologies. This was acknowledged and very well received by the scientific peers when the first synthesis paper was reviewed, accepted and published late 2015/early 2016 (Comte, J-C, Cassidy, R., Obando, J., Robins, N., Ibrahim, K., Melchioly, S., Mjemah, I., Shauri, H., Bourhane, A., Mohamed, I., Noe, C., Mwega, B., Makokha, M., Join, J-L, Banton, O. & Davies, J. (2016). 'Challenges in groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers of East Africa:: Investigations and lessons learnt in the Comoros Islands, Kenya and Tanzania'. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, vol 5, pp. 177-199. DOI: 10.1016/J.EJRH.2015.12.065). To date, observatories have been established at sites in Kilifi, Kenya; Kilwa, Tanzania and Grande Comore, Comoros (physical infrastructure includes a high-resolution weather station and well loggers) to provide high-resolution temporal data on weather and aquifer recharge and dynamics for each area. An overview of groundwater status in each area has been completed through surveys of existing wells and water quality parameters, encompassing both wet and dry seasons, as well as mapping climate and land use characteristics using available data for decadal time scales. Targeted electrical geophysical surveys have been undertaken to map the saline interface and geological structure in the coastal zone. Data synthesis is currently underway and revealing issues such as: the inapplicability of inland water prospecting and well installation approaches in coastal areas; poor water infrastructure and sanitation; excessive and ill-timed abstraction due to a poor understanding of coastal hydrogeology and the tidal influence and poor source protection leading to contamination. The project database is being quality checked for subsequent transfer to the RC Data Centres. We are also, through publicising our research and engaging with researchers in other disciplines, actively looking for opportunities for further collaborations. To date, researchers from the British Geological Survey in charge of the UPGro African Groundwater Atlas, have been in contact with the researchers in our network to invite them to contribute to the chapters on the three countries in the Atlas. Once the project database is validated and finalised, relevant data will be transferred to both the BGS African Groundwater Atlas and Archive as well as the NERC datacentres (EIDC, NGDC).
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Concerted effort at reducing flooding effects in Kilifi town (Kenya), following interactions during the stakeholders meeting in February 2014.
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Interaction with the members of County Assembly of Kilifi - Minister for Environment and water Resources. Active interest by the Kilifi County government - Member of County Assembly on flooding of roads in the town. In the long term this action will impact positively to reduce flooding disaster.
 
Description Re-location of the dump site located on the public water supply well field in Kilwa Masoko, Tanzania. The decisions made by the district authorities were influenced by advice given during the stakeholder meeting in February, 2014 in Kilwa Masoko.
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact The removal of the dump site located on the public well field will have a positive impact on the groundwater quality and subsequently on the quality of water supplied to the people in the town of Kilwa Masoko. In the long term this action will have a positive impact on health.
 
Description Co-funding Elphinstone Fund (Univ Aberdeen) / Water Resource Management Authority of Kenya
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Aberdeen 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 10/2018
 
Description IRD (French Research Institute for Development) PhD studentship
Amount € 23,400 (EUR)
Organisation Institute of Development Research (IRD) 
Sector Public
Country France
Start 09/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Description PhD Scholarship at the University of Tunis El Manar, funded by the Tunisian Ministry of High Education and Scientific Research
Amount د.ت.‏ 9,000 (TND)
Organisation Government of Tunisia 
Sector Public
Country Tunisia
Start 10/2014 
End 10/2015
 
Description Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) Environment and Sustainability Research Grant: East African groundwater resources under climatic and human pressure
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ESRG3/16 
Organisation Royal Geographical Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 05/2017
 
Description Urgency Grant: Extreme rainfall and floods in arid regions: replenishment or contamination of water resources?
Amount £56,092 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/R002568/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 04/2018
 
Title UPGro catalyst project database 
Description A project database has been established for the three pilot sites of Comoros, Kenya and Tanzania. The database is currently on a Sharepoint Server at Queen's University Belfast and is organised in several sections: * Project administration and general documentation: - Grant documentation - UPGro administration - Project meetings: Kick-off meeting; final dissemination workshop * Literature data - General literature: SS Africa; E Africa; coastal aquifers - Kenya: general; Kilifi region - Tanzania: general; Kilwa region - Comoros: general; Vouvouni, Hahaya and Oichili regions * Project data: - Observatories (time series datasets): borehole/well data (head,EC,T); weather station data - WP1 data (hydrogeology): aquifer recharge and discharge; boreholes, wells and springs inventory data; geological and hydrogeological maps; geophysical data; groundwater spatial measurements; hydrogeological parameters - WP2 data (climate and land use): aerial imagery; climatic data; infiltration experiments; land use maps - WP3 data (socio-environment): community meetings; focused group discussion; interviews; questionnaires * Images/photos * Dissemination data (conferences proceedings, abstracts, posters) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The database impacts the whole project team members and their specific institution: * sharing of tools and methods between the different project partners across the 3 project countries (ie. research impact) * use as teaching material by academic partners in Kenya, Tanzania, Comoros, UK and France (ie. education impact) Specific data (eg. groundwater and weather monitoring data) have also been given to local stakeholders in the project countries (ie. stakeholders impact): * water agencies (governmental water resources manager and policy makers) * water providers (governmental or private) The database is currently private (only accessible by project partners using username and password) and under finalization/quality check. It will be transferred in the next months to public datacentres (BGS Groundwater Archive & Atlas; NERC/ESRC datacentre, etc.) where it will impact the UK as well as the global research community 
URL https://intranet.qol.qub.ac.uk/UPGro/
 
Description Collaboration with the British Geological Survey (Edinburgh) to share information and contacts regarding the parallel UPGro project of African Groundwater Atlas 
Organisation British Geological Survey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Following the African Groundwater Atlas workshop held by the BGS at the IAH in Morrocco, the BGS got in contact with JC. Comte regarding advices in identification of local countries hydrogeologist in East Africa and french-speaking Africa for contributing to the groundwater as country chapter leaders. Contact of the Hydrogeologists in Tanzania and Comoros that are involved in our UPGro project were given to them. In addition, a number of useful expert contacts in Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso and Madagascar as well as France (BRGM, University of Avignon, University of Reunion Island) were provided.
Collaborator Contribution None yet.
Impact Further collaborations with the BGS Edinburgh is expected in relation to African Hydrogeology and Scottish Hydrogeology.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with the British Geological Survey (Wallingford) to share groundwater grey literature in Sub-Saharan Africa 
Organisation British Geological Survey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution JC. Comte has provided grey literature to the BGS, including both literature specific to the project area (ie. the Comoros Islands and Scattered Islands) and literature regarding other Sub-Saharan countries where project members are or have been active (eg. Senegal).
Collaborator Contribution The BGS has given our team access to all groundwater grey literature available for Kenya and Tanzania as well as lent their EM34 geophysical kit for surveys in East Africa.
Impact The grey literature access has been used by local African researchers in Kenya and Tanzania to target and optimise field surveys in order to complete gaps in literature. The outcomes includes a more efficient research and increased outputs.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with the NGO Deux-Mains on the Feasibility study for the supply of drinking water in the region East M'badjini, Grande Comore Island. 
Organisation Deux-Mains
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Ibrahim Kassim (partner at the University of the Comoros) has shared hydrogeological data with the NGO DEUX-MAINS that was conducting a feasibility study for the supply of drinking water in the region M'Badjini East (SE Grande Comore). The NGO borrowed equipment (potentiometric sensor) owned by the UPGro team from the University of Comoros to carry out a survey campaign in the region of East Badjini in August and September 2014.
Collaborator Contribution The data collected by the NGO (water heads measurements) have been given to the research team and included in the UPGro project results.
Impact This collaboration resulted in collection of additionnal data regarding well inventory and water levels in the Mbadjini region (SE Grande Comore). This collaboration involved both physical sciences (hydrogeology) and social sciences (community surveys). Currently, the feasabily study is still ongoing, therefore the collaboration has not provided direct outcomes yet.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with the Water Services Company in Kilifi for performing the groundwater quality analyses. 
Organisation Water Service Company of Kilifi
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Kenya research team has shared the groundwater analyses with the Water Service Company.
Collaborator Contribution The Water Service Company in Kilifi has made available their premises and consumables for the water analyses.
Impact The collaboration resulted in a large range of quality elements analysed at low cost.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Water Resource Management Authority of Kenya 
Organisation Water Resources Management Authority of Kenya
PI Contribution Joint supervision and joint funding of PhD student Mr Oiro. PhD project results transfered to the authority for improving groundwater development, management and informing policy.
Collaborator Contribution Co-funding of PhD studentship - in kind provision of equipment and facilities.
Impact PhD thesis in progress. Conference paper IAH Montpellier Sept 2016.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Community meetings, household questionnaires and focused group discussions (Oichili and Vouvouni, Comoros; Kilifi, Kenya; Kilwa, Tanzania) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Community meetings and focused group discussions organised in each studied sites of the projects in the 3 countries aimed at giving the opportunity to the end users (the people) the express their concerns about all groundwater issues (access, quality, quantity, management, cost, etc.). It also aimed at listening people points of views on how water issues could be tackled at the community level and how their quality of life could be improved according to them.

Without exception, community members were thankful to be involved in the research process and to give their views. They all asked to be involved in further research and surveys and to hear about project results (eg. through public lectures).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Informative presentation of the starting UPGro project by JC. Comte to stakeholders in Grande Comore, August 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact At the occasion of the presentation of the results of the Geophysical Study to the stakeholders in Grande Comore (funded by the French Agency for Development), J.-C. Comte presented the starting UPGro project. A large range of stakeholders were present: the Water DIrectorate (DGEME) staff, NGOs, the Met Office, funding agencies (French Agency for Development, French Cooperation), researchers of the University of the Comoros.

Significant impact of this presentation included straightforward contacts to institutions that hold water databases and rapid access to those databases at the very start of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Kenyatta University Seminar Presentation at Department of Geography (January 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Prof Obando gave a seminar to share information with students and academic staff on the topic of issues of water resources management. Other presentations on Hydrological Modelling by a team from California, US and on Water Issues in the Rift Valley Lakes by KU researcher.
Information also availed to the university community in the 'Kenyatta University Newsletter', Vol 10, Issue 1, 27th January to 7th February 2014, Research Updates: 'Seminar on Hydrological Modelling' p13



* impact on the student with regard to information of the water resources management
* over all, sensitization on water management issues in at the coast in Kenya
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Meeting with the Water Managers at the Water Resource Management Authority (WRMA) team representing the CEO of WRMA (January 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Formal Meeting with Water Resources Managers through Appointment to Chief Executive Officer. Consultative meeting to discuss the main issues of research for UPGro and required data.
The formal meeting was organized by the research team led by J. Obando to provide information to WRMA while requesting for partnership




* impact to water resource managers at national level on the ongoing research activities
* over all, sensitization on water management issues in at the coast in Kenya and data needs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Public Lecture on the water issues in the Comoros organised by the French Alliance and the University of the Comoros in Moroni (17th Dec 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The French Alliance [Alliance Francaise] in collaboration with the University of Comoros is organizing a public conference that will be led by teachers and researchers from the University of Comoros (incl. K. Ibrahim and I. Mohamed). They are asked to present their research activities on the water issues in the Comoros Islands. This Public Lecture will take place on the 17th of December and beside the public a large number and diversity of water stakeholders from the Comoros have been invited: the Water Directorate (DGEME), the water provided of the capital Moroni (MAMWE), the representative of a number of communities and community water management associations, local NGOs and International funding agencies (French Development Agency, French Cooperation). A public debate will follow the UPGro presentation.

* impact on the public: education/information of the public in Grande Comore, public debate
* impact on large diversity of stakeholders: government (water directorate), water provider/practitioner, NGOs, funders
* over all, this high national impact event should raise awareness of water management issues in Grande Comore and strengthen collaboration between researchers and stakeholders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description R Cassidy - ODI London presentation November 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Pending.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.odi.org/events/4037-groundwater-poverty-development
 
Description Stakeholder meetings (Comoros; Kilifi, Kenya; Kilwa, Tanzania) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Stakeholder meetings were implemented in the 3 studied countries and involved water agency professionals, decision/policy-makers, NGOs, water practitioners and community representatives along with the project researchers. The activities aimed at presenting the project activities and finding and facilitate dialogue between researchers, practitioners, managers, government bodies and community representatives on the questions of groundwater access and quality. It highlighted the needs and constraints of each parts and allowed discussing the suitability of current practices/management with regards to the characteristics and vulnerability of the groundwater resources.

Some specific impacts included:
- in Kilwa, Tanzania, the decision was taken to relocate a dump located in the perimeter of the public well field
- in the Comoros, project researchers have been asked to lead a National public lecture on water issues (to take place in Dec 2014) which would involve larger audience including the public, students, pupils, and funding bodies.
More generally, decision makers, water managers and funders have acknowledged the natural specificity and vulnerability of coastal groundwater resources as well as the social constraints and have said to be willing to better account for it in future development projects and management strategies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description UPGro final dissemination workshop, Nairobi, Oct 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact The final dissemination workshop held in Nairobi lasted 3 days and involved both the UPGro research team (Comoros, Kenya, Tanzania, UK, France) and selected stakeholders from the studied areas of the 3 African countries (members of water agencies and representatives of community water associations). The workshop had 2 main purposes:
- synthesizing and presenting/transferring the research data acquired during the project (teamwork preparation on the 1st day and presentation on the 2nd day)
- discussing the research findings with the stakeholders on how research can be optimized and transferred to improve groundwater management strategies, water policy and community involvement.


Researchers and stakeholders recognized the importance and benefit of collaboration and dialogue between them and of the involvement of communities in the water debate. Further research funding to continue the project is currently under review (see section Future Steps). The stakeholders have expressed their support and commitment to future activities and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Webinar presentation 'Groundwater resources in coastal East Africa:current status and strategies towards sustainable management' by J. Obando at the UPGro Webinar Series, 24th Feb 2015 (organised by RWSN/SKAT/UPGro knowledge brokers) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Forthcoming
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014