Building understanding of climate variability into planning of groundwater supplies from low storage aquifers in Africa - Second Phase (BRAVE2)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Reading
Department Name: Meteorology

Abstract

Secure access to water by the rural poor in Africa is central to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. With more than 500 million Africans dependent on groundwater and the potential for expanded use, the resilience of aquifers in the face of climate, population growth, and land-use change is key to this. Evidence suggests however, that during extended periods of low rainfall, groundwater supplies from low storage aquifers can fail. It is unclear, therefore, whether planned development of substantial numbers of groundwater supplies as a means to meet the expected large increase in demand, will be effective in all areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of long historical records of borehole levels, we are reliant on process understanding and modelling to infer the stability of groundwater supplies. In partnership with national and local government, NGOs and researchers, the BRAVE project will incorporate new understanding of climate variability and observational capacity and its water resource impacts into the planning and operation of groundwater supplies in the Volta River Basin. As a result of improved understanding of how water moves through catchments representative of the Volta River Basin, combined with output from state-of-the-art climate, land surface and groundwater models, new scientific knowledge will allow appropriate tools to be developed for planning at a range of scales: basin-scale long-term regional planning of aquifer-based water supplies for domestic and productive uses; local-scale long-term and seasonal community management of groundwater supplies; and provision of information that allows timely emergency planning in the light developing drought conditions. New observational capacity and assessments of user vulnerability and an understanding of governance frameworks linking local communities to national government, along with this new scientific knowledge, will be translated into forms that allow participatory decision-making to be made. Bringing together communities, practitioners and policy-makers, the application of the planning tools will be piloted in a series of case studies within eight communities in Ghana and Burkina Faso. A set of meaningful groundwater management tools will be developed with these communities that specifically address the information they want and need, and which are embedded within the existing local, district, national and regional governance structures. The use of the system in the pilot communities will provide insights into the extent such an approach can support sustainable decision making and equitable uptake. Furthermore, after consultation with our partners, we will also develop a methodology to produce seasonal groundwater status reports which will be linked into the newly operational Rainwatch-AfClix Drought Early Warning System in Burkina Faso and Ghana. BRAVE will contribute to building the resilience of poor communities to climate variability and environmental change in the Volta River Basin. The project outputs will be of direct relevance to government departments responsible for water supply development, as well as humanitarian and development organisations. Actively working together from the project inception will encourage ownership, culminating in the co-design and implementation of the planning tools. This will deliver a strategic shift in future national disaster risk reduction, adaptation and resilience related policies to support increased water security for the poorest people in Ghana and Burkina Faso with lessons around resilience building for the wider Sahel region.

Planned Impact

BRAVE2 will have a positive impact, both through the process of conducting the research and the outputs, on the following 6 sets of beneficiaries.

1) RURAL COMMUNITIES IN THE VOLTA RIVER BASIN
Rural smallholder farmers (SHF) will have the opportunity to access, input to, and benefit through their livelihoods from this research. They will be supported to consider development options and pathways for sustainable groundwater use, access and distribution, which will enhance productive (agricultural) and WASH outcomes.

2) AFRICAN WATER SUPPLY-RELATED DECISION-MAKERS
BRAVE2 has very close links with its primary user community of resource planners and government policy makers (e.g. Ghana Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology & Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture, Burkina Faso Direction Générale des Ressources en Eau) to ensure long-term commitment to provisioning accessible information and promoting adaptive capacity through improved regional integrated decision tools for groundwater management. Training & capacity building will be tailored to user groups' specific needs, and the project will empower these groups through participation in networks for appropriate information. Participatory methods to develop new tools will ensure people act as researcher-advocates and contribute to policy uptake by providing practical evidence to inform policy support for SHF. Local/sub-national governments in both countries now have devolved responsibilities for provision of support services and so will also benefit from an improved evidence base to design interventions.

3) INTERNATIONAL & BILATERAL DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS
These will benefit from robust quantitative and qualitative evidence to inform their programmes of support to national innovation support systems (including advisory services, SME promotion, regulatory frameworks). Those active in this area will be invited to participate in the high-level BRAVE2 Learning Platforms

4) NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
Our close claborations with NGO partners (e.g. Christian Aid Sahel, CARE Ghana) who are active in supporting SHFs will help influence their livelihood programmes and provide an improved evidence base to inform their own interventions and modes of working with farmer groups.

5) CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS (CSOs) & MEDIA
CSOs, and national/sub-national farmer organizations in both countries, will benefit from evidence to support their lobbying for improved water services for SHF. Some farmer organisations also provide innovation support services of their own (e.g. Uganda National Farmers Federation - UNFFE) and will be able to use the project findings to enhance their service provision. Engagement throughout with CSOs and the media (e.g. Farm Radio) will raise awareness of the research process and outcomes, such as planning information and decision tools. They will also benefit, along with academic stakeholders, from exposure to research and analytical methods that will inform their future investigation and commissioning of research in this area. These initiatives will contribute to improved and sustainable relationships between policy makers and planners and those working with rural communities, setting a platform for longer-term collaboration which is a critical factor in successful future ground water management.

6) NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH INSTITUTES & MET SERVICES
BRAVE2 has very close links with its primary user community of weather and climate forecasters and hydrologists/hydrogeologists, and the decision-makers who use such forecasts, through our formal project partners (GMet, Meteo-Burkina, WRI, Uni. of Ouagadougou & the Institut d'Application et de Vulgarisation en Sciences). These and other national and international research institutes in the region will have access to a richer understanding of the impacts of climate variability on groundwater resource management and how this leads to innovation in practice in the smallholder sector.
 
Title Lorna Young Radio Programmes 
Description Radio programmes in local dialects for Ghana. The famer listening groups meet monthly with the radio presenters and local agricultural extension staff to select 5-6 key subjects developed in line with a seasonal and agricultural calendar. The aim is to help the local communities prepare for the challenges related to climate and water in the coming months. The group leaders collate the key learnings and send any questions to the radio presenters, so that the MoFA staff can provide timely support to the communities and help them prepare for extreme weather shocks and potential emergencies in a timely manner. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Too early - monitoring is throughout the 2018 rainy season 
URL http://www.walker.ac.uk/news-events/brave-lorna-young-foundation-radio-extension-project-in-ghana-an...
 
Description The three study sites in Ghana and Burkina Faso are being monitored by ourselves in collaboration with other partners and stakeholders such as; IRC 2iE, WASCAL and WRI.
The monitoring has involved local students collecting data during the wet season, which has resulted in significant capacity building. The results show the importance of land use for groundwater recharge.
Recent works include pumping tests of project boreholes and sampling of groundwaters for residence times. The opportunity to apply the MRS geophysical survey technique has come about through links with the GroFutures project
Monitoring of rainfall, groundwater levels and groundwater abstraction for small scale irrigation continues at our community study sites. We have consolidated links with WaterAid and opportunities are being explored for cross-learning and mutual dissemination of approaches. An MOU has been signed with Burkina Faso DEIE (Dept for Water Information). BRAVE has been given access to their groundwater level monitoring data, some of which is over 30 years. BRAVE will explore methods to analyse the data and use models calibrated from the data to examine groundwater resource status under environmental change. BRAVE will train DEIE in these methods and co-develop approaches for using the outputs to underpin WRM decision-making.
Groundwater level and river flow data recently received from DEIE and previously obtained from Ghanaian equivalents, in addition to geological, soils and land use datasets, have put us in a good position to start the modelling that will provide information on basin-scale groundwater resources under climate variability and trends. This modelling is underway by BGS staff on the FCFA HyCRISTAL project, with benefits to BRAVE. This work will be undertaken in collaboration with WRI.
Regional climate model output continues to be used to examine future climate scenarios which, in combination with land surface models, is allowing regional-scale water balances to be quantified.
Exploitation Route Policy round table discussions are taking place in Ghana in May 2018 and in Burkina Faso in June 2018 - key police makers will be present to discuss integration within 5 year water resource plans and disaster management policy. Tools development ongoing in WP3 - suggests more work is needed to assess how incorporated in national planning including (1) Better understanding of potential widespread impact of drought on community and household groundwater supplies; and (2) Opportunities for and limits to upscaling groundwater irrigation
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://braveupgro.org/brave-newsletter/
 
Description 1. Coupled Modelling and Capacity Development: The BRAVE project aims to provide tools to support water resource management in Ghana and Burkina Faso. This is expected to improve our understanding of the water flows and storage through the instrumentation of a series of small catchments to monitor all aspects of the water balance. The strategy for the BRAVE project was to build on existing monitored catchments, recognizing the cost of monitoring equipment; the time and effort required to build relationships with local communities in the catchments being monitored; and the value of existing contextual and longer-term data sets. In Burkina Faso, one of the detailed monitoring catchment which BRAVE is working in is around the village of Sanon, 40 km to the north of the capital city, Ouagadougou. Sanon represents much of semi-arid West Africa as the land cover has been significantly changed through farming. Prior to BRAVE's involvement, there was a network of monitoring boreholes and a weather station in place, and geophysical surveys had been undertaken to characterise the hydrogeological setting. This, with the time series data collected, had allowed a conceptual model of groundwater flows and storage to be developed. Crucially, 2iE has developed a good relationship with the local community and involved members of the community in this monitoring. Through the BRAVE project, the further development of the monitoring network at Sanon has been a collaborative activity involving 2iE, the University of Ouagadougou (UO1), IRC Burkina Faso and the British Geological Survey. This has included the drilling and testing of additional boreholes, enhancement of the weather station, installation of a series of transects of access tubes to measure soil moisture and the setting up of a river flow measurement site. It has also involved the construction of three plots (4 x 20 m) containing land use representative of the catchment within which runoff, soil moisture, groundwater level, soil infiltration, soil evaporation and plant growth and transpiration are directly measured. The monitoring is undertaken by members of the local community and by students from 2iE and UO1, as well as by BRAVE project staff. The other two existing catchments where the BRAVE project has enhanced monitoring, are part of the network of research catchments run by the West African Science Service Centre on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL), a large-scale programme for strengthening research infrastructure and capacity involving ten West African countries and funded by the German government. One of these catchments, Aniabisi, is in Northern Ghana in an area similar to Sanon, where the landscape has been substantially changed through farming; the other, Nazinga, is just across the border in southern Burkina Faso in a nature reserve where the natural land cover is still intact. The infrastructure already in place in these WASCAL catchments has been built upon through collaboration by WASCAL, the Ghanaian Water Research Institute and BGS. Aniabisi now has infrastructure and monitoring equipment similar to that in Sanon, including the three land use plots; Nazinga is a scaled down version of this. As with Sanon, the local relationships with communities has been important in the installation of new infrastructure and local residents are also undertaking some of the monitoring work. Crucial impacts have been the support of WASCAL technical staff in the development and subsequent running of the sites. 2. Knowledge Sharing and Capacity Strengthening Learning Platforms: Mindful of the governance challenges and need to strengthen capacity at national level and local levels and bring the two together, we are working together with IRC, to strengthen a Regional Learning Alliance Platform and set up 2 District level learning alliance platforms (East Mamprusi - N/R & Garu Tempane -UER) in Northern Ghana. These initiatives will together facilitate a greater understanding of climate and water resource information needs of communities and better management of the information by decision makers for the poorest communities, as well as provide the pull through to policy of BRAVE's research findings. Farmers Radio: Radio is arguably one of the most important, cost-effective sources of information for the majority of rural farmers in Africa. Along with farmer field listening groups and multi-stakeholder groups, agri-educational radio programming addresses the training needs of smallholders by establishing a dialogue directly with rural farming populations, delivering live, relevant and real-time updates on issues affecting their crops and livelihoods. In June 2017, the Lorna Young Foundation conducted radio extension training with CARE and Christian Aid Sahel to launch BRAVE's radio extension program. The aim of this radio extension program is to improve the resilience of farming communities to weather shocks, lack of access to good quality water and to support conservation of resources. 3. Policy and Practice Exchanges The BRAVE project is sharing data and findings with the transboundary White Volta Basin Authority. Our partnership is helping with the development of a truly Integrated Water Resource Plan. Prior to our involvement, the 5 year plan neither incorporated the use of groundwater, nor communication that represented a two way dialogue with the water supply sector and community users. We are optimistic that we can continue to use this relationship to influence future policy on groundwater extraction in the county and guide further research being undertaken by the Water Resources Commission and Water Research Institute in Ghana during the development of the plan. We will continue to report on this connection as the project progresses. Current engagement with Aaron Aduna (Director) is on how we can help with the final draft of the next 5 year IWRM plan to better reflect gender issues in groundwater utilization. This will be informed by recent survey work in the Burkina Faso and Ghana around: Local governance of groundwater for agricultural livelihoods - and understanding differential vulnerability through newly developed indicators emerging from BRAVE community studies. The development of the new vulnerability indicators over the last 18 months in BRAVE have created an opportunity to develop an operational partnership with the BRACED Zaman Lebidi project in Burkina Faso. On one hand, BRACED intervenes to Building the Resilience and Adaption of communities to Climate Extremes and Disasters; on the other hand BRAVE intervenes to Bridging science-practice-policy to build livelihoods resilient to drought. These two approaches present many common points of interest which have instigated a joint action supported both by the scientific and technical expertise of the BRAVE project, as well as by the operational aspect and research interest in building resilient communities through the BRACED program. The purpose is to provide the knowledge and capacities needed by rural communities to efficiently manage groundwater resources as part of building their resilience. More specifically, it will examine the vulnerability of communities in relation to the seasonal nature of the use and availability of groundwater resources in order to provide advice in the management of this resource, making use of the newly developed vulnerability indices and the RAINWATCH platform in Burkina Faso.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description 2016 BRAVE Communities / Practitioners Training
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description 2016 BRAVE Stakeholders (government and practitioners)
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Additions introduced to next 5 year IWRM Plan to include groundwater and not just surface water after participation in Volta Basin Planning meeting
 
Description 2016 BRAVE Stakeholders (researchers and practitioners)
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description 2016 Volta Basin Authority
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Participation (Ros Cornforth, PI) at the 2016 Volta Basin Authority 5 year Planning Meeting. Other additions to plan include changes to wording around communication, introducing knowledge exchange as a concept.
 
Description BRAVE Vulnerability Index Training for Reseau Marp and Christian Aid practitioners in Burkina Faso in 2017 - based on new indicators developed through BRAVE research in Ghana and Burkina Faso in 2015/16. Will be used for monitoring community use of groundwater through the rainy season in 2018
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Learning Platforms: Mindful of the governance challenges and need to strengthen capacity at national level and local levels and bring the two together, we are working together with IRC, to strengthen a Regional Learning Alliance Platform and set up 2 District level learning alliance platforms (East Mamprusi - N/R & Garu Tempane -UER) in Northern Ghana. These initiatives will together facilitate a greater understanding of climate and water resource information needs of communities and better management of the information by decision makers for the poorest communities, as well as provide the pull through to policy of BRAVE's research findings.
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Two policy round tables (June 2018) in Burkina Faso with national/municipal government and the second with municipal/NGOs/HEIs
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Two policy round tables (May 2018) in Ghana with national/municipal government and the second with municipal/NGOs/HEIs -
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description multi-stakeholder groups, agri-educational radio programming addresses the training needs of smallholders by establishing a dialogue directly with rural farming populations, delivering live, relevant and real-time updates on issues affecting their crops and livelihoods. In June 2017, the Lorna Young Foundation conducted radio extension training with CARE and Christian Aid Sahel to launch BRAVE's radio extension program. The aim of this radio extension program is to improve the resilience of farming communities to weather shocks, lack of access to good quality water and to support conservation of resources.
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL http://www.walker.ac.uk/news-events/brave-lorna-young-foundation-radio-extension-project-in-ghana-an...
 
Description BRACED
Amount £22,902 (GBP)
Organisation Christian Aid 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 12/2017
 
Description NERC doctoral training grant
Amount £103,915 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/R005478/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description University of Reading BOISP Impact Funding
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Reading 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 07/2018
 
Title Groundwater Vulnerability Indicators 
Description Reveal locally perceived livelihood vulnerabilities to the impacts of climate change and variability, and interactions with exacerbating socioeconomic factors, with a particular focus on risks to water for agriculture; Establish local priorities and existing livelihood coping strategies of rural households to manage water for agriculture; Identify perceived effectiveness of groundwater supply and use in the communities, particularly for agricultural irrigation. Examine the existing governance arrangements for groundwater distribution and access.The development of the new vulnerability indicators over the last 18 months in BRAVE have created an opportunity to develop an operational partnership with the BRACED Zaman Lebidi project in Burkina Faso. On one hand, BRACED intervenes to Building the Resilience and Adaption of communities to Climate Extremes and Disasters; on the other hand BRAVE intervenes to Bridging science-practice-policy to build livelihoods resilient to drought. These two approaches present many common points of interest which have instigated a joint action supported both by the scientific and technical expertise of the BRAVE project, as well as by the operational aspect and research interest in building resilient communities through the BRACED program. The purpose is to provide the knowledge and capacities needed by rural communities to efficiently manage groundwater resources as part of building their resilience. More specifically, it will examine the vulnerability of communities in relation to the seasonal nature of the use and availability of groundwater resources in order to provide advice in the management of this resource, making use of the newly developed vulnerability indices and the RAINWATCH platform in Burkina Faso. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Increasingly erratic rainfall is perceived as main driver of agricultural water insecurity and associated with groundwater availability in the communities. Perceptions of shorter rainy seasons with seasonal drying of wells influencing local perceptions about the contribution of groundwater to irrigate crops (e.g. the intensification of gardening activities in good rainfall year - 37% hhs in Burkina increasing their frequency of watering in good rainfall year against 16% in Ghana). Initiatives to explore dry season farming very limited in some locations due to perceived drought risks.What variables shape effective water use for agriculture? In Burkina, more households own livestock and groundwater key to year round water access (94% own livestock in Tomo and 97% for the other communities. In Ghana, the use of water for irrigation correlated to household demography and wealth (e.g. in Jawani and Samini fewer own their house compared to Tariganga and Akara; larger households with more children in Jawani and Samini). This could be expected since maintaining shallow wells and irrigation requires labour inputs and is privately managed. Role of different local governance approaches, livelihood and local expectations from national policy 
 
Description BRACED-BRAVE Partnership 
Organisation Christian Aid
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution BRACED Project Team (led by Christian Aid Sahel in Burkina Faso)
Collaborator Contribution Supporting joint operational groundwater research linking BRACED pilot communities in with BRAVE pilot communities
Impact Supporting joint operational groundwater research linking BRACED pilot communities in with BRAVE pilot communities
Start Year 2016
 
Description BRAVE La Direction des Etudes et de l'Information sur l'Eau (DEIE) 
Organisation Ministry of Water Affairs
Department Department of Water Studies and Information
Country Burkina Faso 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Support for analysis of historical water records
Collaborator Contribution Provision of historical data Influencing other key stakeholders
Impact MoU in process
Start Year 2015
 
Description BRAVE Reseau Marp 
Organisation Réseau MARP Burkina
Country Burkina Faso 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Supporting Reseau Marp communities with better understanding of groundwater
Collaborator Contribution Contributions to BRAVE scoping visits Agreement to support the community monitoring via Christian Aid Sahel for the next 4 years
Impact multi-disciplinary hydrology meteorology social science knowledge exchange
Start Year 2015
 
Description BRAVE Volta Basin Authority 
Organisation Volta Basin Authority
Country Burkina Faso 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Technical support to the development of the IWRM planning processes
Collaborator Contribution Invited participation to high level VBA WG developing integrated water resource management for Ghana and Burkina Faso Formal openings of BRAVE workshops Leveraging other key stakeholders
Impact Revisions to next 5 year IWRM plan for the VBA Hydrology Meteorology Social Science Knowledge Exchange
Start Year 2015
 
Description Direction Générale des Ressources en Eaux (DGRE/DEIE) 
Organisation Directorate General of Water Resources
PI Contribution Strengthening collaborative work with Direction Générale des Ressources en Eaux (DGRE) to help them make best use of water-related data for water resource planning. BRAVE will explore methods to analyse the data and use models calibrated from the data to examine groundwater resource status under environmental change. BRAVE will train DEIE in these methods and co-develop approaches for using the outputs to underpin WRM decision-making.
Collaborator Contribution BRAVE has been given access to their groundwater level monitoring data, some of which is over 30 years. Participation and support in/to BRAVE wider meetings.
Impact An MOU has been signed with Burkina Faso DEIE (Dept for Water Information), UoR and BGS.
Start Year 2016
 
Description WASCAL, Burkina Faso & Ghana 
Organisation West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use
Country Burkina Faso 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Technical support and supervision for funded PhD student (Co-PI MacDonald, Co-I Verhoef)
Collaborator Contribution WASCAL-funded PhD student in place (Isaac Larbi) whose project is strongly linked with BRAVE
Impact starts in April
Start Year 2016
 
Description Water Aid 
Organisation WaterAid
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Monitoring of rainfall, groundwater levels and groundwater abstraction for small scale irrigation continues at our community study sites. We have consolidated links with WaterAid and opportunities are being explored for cross-learning and mutual dissemination of approaches.
Collaborator Contribution Sharing learning from vulnerability measurements and community support used by WaterAid in similar communities in Ghana
Impact New guidelines being produced for community use of groundwater - will be shared with Water Aid with a view to scale dissemination
Start Year 2015
 
Title Groundwater Vulnerability Indices 
Description Reveal locally perceived livelihood vulnerabilities to the impacts of climate change and variability, and interactions with exacerbating socioeconomic factors, with a particular focus on risks to water for agriculture; Establish local priorities and existing livelihood coping strategies of rural households to manage water for agriculture; Identify perceived effectiveness of groundwater supply and use in the communities, particularly for agricultural irrigation. Examine the existing governance arrangements for groundwater distribution and access.The development of the new vulnerability indicators over the last 18 months in BRAVE have created an opportunity to develop an operational partnership with the BRACED Zaman Lebidi project in Burkina Faso. On one hand, BRACED intervenes to Building the Resilience and Adaption of communities to Climate Extremes and Disasters; on the other hand BRAVE intervenes to Bridging science-practice-policy to build livelihoods resilient to drought. These two approaches present many common points of interest which have instigated a joint action supported both by the scientific and technical expertise of the BRAVE project, as well as by the operational aspect and research interest in building resilient communities through the BRACED program. The purpose is to provide the knowledge and capacities needed by rural communities to efficiently manage groundwater resources as part of building their resilience. More specifically, it will examine the vulnerability of communities in relation to the seasonal nature of the use and availability of groundwater resources in order to provide advice in the management of this resource, making use of the newly developed vulnerability indices and the RAINWATCH platform in Burkina Faso. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact Increasingly erratic rainfall is perceived as main driver of agricultural water insecurity and associated with groundwater availability in the communities. Perceptions of shorter rainy seasons with seasonal drying of wells influencing local perceptions about the contribution of groundwater to irrigate crops (e.g. the intensification of gardening activities in good rainfall year - 37% hhs in Burkina increasing their frequency of watering in good rainfall year against 16% in Ghana). Initiatives to explore dry season farming very limited in some locations due to perceived drought risks.What variables shape effective water use for agriculture? In Burkina, more households own livestock and groundwater key to year round water access (94% own livestock in Tomo and 97% for the other communities. In Ghana, the use of water for irrigation correlated to household demography and wealth (e.g. in Jawani and Samini fewer own their house compared to Tariganga and Akara; larger households with more children in Jawani and Samini). This could be expected since maintaining shallow wells and irrigation requires labour inputs and is privately managed. Role of different local governance approaches, livelihood and local expectations from national policymakers. 
 
Description BRAVE 2017 AGM 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Participatory workshop co-organised by Water Resource Commission (WRC), Accra, Ghana.To present scientific results, including the new methodologies; engage stakeholders; and finalise 2017 / 2018 project plans
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BRAVE Blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Promote activities of the UPGRo programme and flag the new BRAVE project to a wider audience
Sparked tweets on twitter
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://blogs.reading.ac.uk/walker-institute-climate-news/
 
Description BRAVE Launch and AGM in Ghana 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 30-40 people participated in the BRAVE launch workshop and AGM in ACCRA to discuss groundwater issues for sustainable development in the White Volta Basin and how the BRAVE research could support policy decisions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://upgro.org/2015/11/20/brave-project-holds-workshop-on-groundwater-for-the-poor/
 
Description BRAVE Presentation (Peter Cook, BRAVE UK PDRA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation about BRAVE coupled modelling to support advancement of soil and subsurface processes in climate models
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BRAVE UNISDR Science and Technology Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact BRAVE poster accepted for the UNISDR Science and Technology Conference, Geneva, 27-29 Jan, entitled "Mitigating drought risk through better seasonal management of groundwater supplies from low storage aquifers in Africa"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.preventionweb.net/files/45270_unisdrscienceandtechnologyconferenc%5B3%5D.pdf
 
Description Brave project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Knowledge Exchange
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.braveupgro.org
 
Description Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Share information about the BRAVE project with the UK-research community
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Celebration DRR, Burkina Faso 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation by Burkinabe ECR, Narcisse Gahi to highlight BRAVE project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference - 5th International Conference on Climate Services, Cape Town, S. Africa. March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 50 people attended presentation (Ros Cornforth, Galine Yanon) showcasing Rainwatch and its application to monitoring climate variability in West africa/ Ghana and the addition of groundwater at the 5th International Conference on Climate Services, Cape Town, S. Africa (28 Feb - 2 March 2017).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Co-I Anne Verhoef and Co-PI David Macdonald presented "Current and future groundwater recharge in West Africa as estimated from a range of coupled climate model outputs"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description GEWEX-SoilWat initiativeA in Climate Models, Leipzig 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation about BRAVE coupled modelling to support advancement of soil and subsurface processes in climate models To influence first planning workshop for scoping and interactions of GEWEX-SoilWat
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description GHANA presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented BRAVE and the current activities being implemented, exploring how these can increase the water policy in terms of monitoring GW in Ghana
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Ghana Stakeholder Consultation Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Ghana Stakeholder Consultation Workshop for BRAVE Project, Accra, 26th September 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.lyf.org.uk/2015/12/community-groundwater-resources-in-ghana-and-burkina-faso/
 
Description High Impact Weather and Climate - BRAVE Presentation (Peter Cook, BRAVE UK PDRA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation about BRAVE coupled modelling to support advancement of soil and subsurface processes in climate models
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Joint Assembly 2017 IAPSO-IAMAS-IAGA (29 Aug-1 September 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation by Peter Cook - Modelling changes in the West African Monsoon (2000 to. 2100) from BRAVE project in international conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Learning Platform for Rainwatch Alliance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Aim to bring the participating met services together to update on Rainwatch platform; to co-develop new technical specification; to discuss governance and transfer ownership of the platform; to work with Senegalese and GFCS users of climate information - both to help train the Rainwatch Alliance partners and engage key regional users Transfer of ownership. Set up of MoUs with each Met Service. Discussions with GFCS Regional Coordinator encouraged early engagement with GFCS National Action Plans and Met Services extending National Action Plans to nominate Rainwatch platform as a "GFCS tool of choice" for participating met services. POsitive policy influence. Chad Met Service made comment "Come on Rainwatch Alliance, this is our African platform, what shall we do next?"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description MOLE Workshop, Ghana 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of BRAVE project at annual water forum in Ghana
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Ninth International Conference on Climate Change: Impacts & Responses; Cambridge (1 April 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact ECR, Galine Yanon presented findings from BRAVE community studies and new vulnerability indicators. Paper in production "Local governance of groundwater for agricultural livelihoods: Managing climate change impacts in West Africa"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description PRESASS 17, Accra, Ghana (10-15 May 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the regional climate outlook forum Rainwatch Alliance - Ongoing Developments
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation ( Burkina Faso) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact To understand what kind of  collaboration is needed for the beneficits of stakeholders etc. To develop capacity of Burkinabe PDRA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Stakeholder Consultation Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Burkina Faso Stakeholder Consultation Workshop for BRAVE Project, Ouagadougou, 21st January 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.lyf.org.uk/2015/12/community-groundwater-resources-in-ghana-and-burkina-faso/
 
Description UNISDR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation exploring how local capacity and user perceptions of vulnerability to water insecurity in the Sahel are shaped supports future groundwater
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Use of Radio for Rural Water Supplies (BRAVE Co-I Cristina Talens, Lorna Young Foundation) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Webinar to enage wider international audience in groundwater issues
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://vimeo.com/118014541