Sustainable Oceans, Livelihoods and food Security Through Increased Capacity in Ecosystem research in the Western Indian Ocean (SOLSTICE-WIO)

Lead Research Organisation: National Oceanography Centre
Department Name: Science and Technology

Abstract

Ten percent of the world's population depend on the ocean for a readily accessible source of protein and employment, with the majority (95%) living in developing countries. Poor coastal communities are at the frontier for climate change impacts, compounded by population growth and food demand, but are among the least resilient to the challenges of the future.

SOLSTICE-WIO will focus on coastal communities in nine developing countries and island states in eastern Africa, interlinked culturally and ecologically and collectively known as the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region. All nine (South Africa, Mauritius, Seychelles, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Somalia, Madagascar, Comoros) are on the list of Official Development Aid recipients, with five identified as Least Developed Countries.

In the WIO over 100 million people live within 100 km of the ocean, with a significant proportion employed in local fisheries. This leaves the region highly dependent on the ocean for economic stability, food security, and social cohesion. These coastal communities have limited adaptive capacity to cope with dramatic reductions in fish stocks caused by overfishing, habitat destruction, and increasing environmental pressures - all aggravated by climate change. The decline of WIO fisheries has had profound socio-political ramifications, from the rise of piracy to general political instability.

A clear example of the devastating effect of a fish stock reduction is the collapse of the Chokka Squid fishery in South Africa. SOLSTICE-WIO will use this as a case study to demonstrate the strengths of a holistic approach to human-ecosystem-fisheries research and the potential solutions this can offer. The squid fishery was the 4th most valuable fishery in South Africa, bringing foreign currency into one of the poorest provinces. It was directly employing 5000 fishermen with 30,000 dependents. The 2013 crash had a devastating effect on the Eastern Cape, yet the underlying reasons are unknown: local fishermen believe the collapse was caused by environmental change. Until the mechanisms behind the collapse are understood, there is little potential for aiding recovery or guiding adaptation. SOLSTICE-WIO will provide this urgently needed understanding to help inform the fishery and Government as to the fate of the local ecosystem, whether it will recover, and whether the crash could have been predicted or prevented.

How will SOLSTICE achieve this?
The key to stability of living marine resources lies in an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF), which sees human-natural systems as a whole, integrated entity rather than separately considering individual target species. Simply put: you cannot manage something you don't understand, nor can you adapt to change through management improvements unless you can describe, measure and understand the changes. The core strength of SOLSTICE-WIO lies in its integral approach to food security, drawing on UK expertise in physical oceanography, marine ecology, autonomous observations, environmental economics and the human dimension,and WIO expertise in fisheries, the marine economy and regional policy development.

SOLSTICE will provide the region with the state-of-the-art technology to deliver cost-effective marine research and provide the information needed to achieve maximum potential from the region's living marine resources. In the UK marine robotics, ocean models and novel data products from satellite observations have developed rapidly in the last decade, and now underpin Blue Economies and Ocean Governance in Europe. These technologies are highly agile and ready to be applied in the developing world as cost-effective ways to maximise understanding and sustainable exploitation of living marine resources. Such "technology leapfrogging" can overcome the severe lack of research ships in the WIO and save decades of effort in developing predictive modelling systems from scratch.

Planned Impact

Western Indian Ocean (WIO) countries recognise that the welfare and livelihoods of their coastal populations are intimately linked to goods and services provided by the region's Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). While the WIO supports 4 million tons of fish catches annually yielding $943 million in revenues and employment, most fishers in the region are among the poorest in society.
FAO figures show that seafood exports from developing countries reach over $25 billion a year, higher than other agricultural commodities. Nevertheless marine capture fisheries are an underperforming global asset. Unlocking this economic potential for the WIO means tackling the challenge of decreasing catches due to over-exploitation, habitat degradation and climate change impacts which combine with increasing coastal populations to make food security an urgent issue. Fundamental to this is the WIO-wide adoption of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) firmly recommended by the UNDP/GEF Strategic Action Plan (SAP) for Sustainable Management of the Western Indian Ocean LMEs, adopted and signed by Ministers from the nine WIO countries in 2015. The SAP has a mandate to build partnership for promoting sustainable management and shared governance of WIO ecosystems for present and future generations. However, its ability to deliver is limited by low scientific capacity, inadequate monitoring programmes, and poor integration of marine science into fisheries policies and management practices.
SOLSTICE will deliver impact by increasing regional capacity to support EAF by applying modern technologies to monitor marine environments and their societal impact and provide evidence-based information for decision support. Thus the project will make a substantial contribution to the implementation of the SAP by creating a step-change in the ability to manage and optimally exploit local fisheries.
The primary beneficiaries are policy makers and resource managers tasked with delivering sustainable management of marine living resources and climate adaptation options. They will benefit from an increased capability or the region's marine research bodies to deliver up-to-date environmental and socio-economic information relevant to their needs and in forms that meet their requirements. Increased regional capability to access outputs from global climate models, assess their reliability for regional and local environments, and interpret projections in the light of local information and knowledge will enable developing evidence-based adaptation options for consideration by policy makers.

Ultimate beneficiaries include:
- Commercial and artisanal fishers and their families will benefit from better yields and greater stability of sustainably managed fisheries, or from guidance on alternatives where existing practices are unsustainable.
- Enterprises engaged in processing, marketing, distributing and exporting seafood will benefit from higher yields and greater stability of optimally managed fisheries due to improvements in fishing practices arising from research recommendations.
- The tourism sector, dependent on attractive, ecologically sound natural environments and a culinary culture where seafood figures prominently, will benefit from their continued availability.
- Fishers, their families and the general public will benefit from a better understanding of the marine environment and the services provided by healthy marine ecosystems.
In the UK, DFID and NGOs engaged in supporting sustainable development will benefit from improved capacity of WIO marine research to deliver evidence-based guidance to decision makers. UK industries in the marine robotics and under-water sensing technology sector will benefit from improved links to WIO organisations engaged in marine environmental monitoring and research.

Engagement with these stakeholders to ensure they benefit are described in Pathways to Impact, as are plans for monitoring and evaluation of the impacts.

People

ORCID iD

Michael John Roberts (Principal Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3231-180X
Andrew Yool (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9879-2776
Razack Lokina (Co-Investigator)
Stuart Carl Painter (Co-Investigator)
Charles Magori (Co-Investigator)
Jose Fernandes (Co-Investigator)
Tim Le Bas (Co-Investigator)
Stephanie Anne Henson (Co-Investigator)
Joseph Nyingi Kamau (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4053-4210
Stephen Hall (Co-Investigator)
Tammy Horton (Co-Investigator)
Ekaterina Popova (Co-Investigator)
David Alexander Smeed (Co-Investigator)
Narriman Saleh Jiddawi (Co-Investigator)
David Christopher Obare Obura (Co-Investigator)
Dionysios Raitsos-Exarchopoulos (Co-Investigator)
ROBERT JOHN BREWIN (Co-Investigator)
Margareth Kyewalyanga (Co-Investigator)
Brian James Bett (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4977-9361
Lucy Scott (Co-Investigator)
Shigalla Mahongo (Co-Investigator)
Eleni Papathanasopoulou (Co-Investigator)
Ana De Moura Queiros (Co-Investigator)
Harrison Ochieng Ong'anda (Co-Investigator)
Icarus Allen (Co-Investigator)
Daniel J Mayor (Co-Investigator)
Julius Francis (Co-Investigator)
Alan John Evans (Co-Investigator)
Paolo Cipollini (Co-Investigator)
Christopher John Banks (Co-Investigator)
Henry Ruhl (Co-Investigator)
Baraka Sekadende (Co-Investigator)
Margaux Alienor Noyon (Co-Investigator)
Helen Mary Snaith (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7751-2985
Alex Poulton (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5149-6961
Russell Barry Wynn (Co-Investigator)
Shankar Aswani (Co-Investigator)
Christine Pascale Gommenginger (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6941-1671
Valborg Byfield (Co-Investigator)
Veerle Ann Huvenne (Co-Investigator)

Publications

10 25 50

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Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
NE/P021050/1 01/10/2017 31/10/2019 £6,934,488
NE/P021050/2 Transfer NE/P021050/1 01/11/2019 31/12/2021 £3,911,197
 
Description North Kenyan Bank Case Study:

Using modelling and remote sensing data we analysed the 1997-98 shift of upwelling patterns along the east African coast and its documented consequences. We found that the position of the confluence zone is the critical oceanographic feature controlling ecosystem productivity patterns along the coastline of Kenya and Tanzania. Understanding its natural variability and future dynamics under the climate change should be the key priority for the evaluation of the fisheries potential along the Kenyan and Tanzanian coastline.

Pemba Channel Case Study:

Small pelagic fisheries provide food security, livelihood support and economic stability for East African coastal communities ? a region of least developed countries. Using remotely-sensed and field observations together with modelling, we address the biophysical drivers of this important resource. We show that annual variations in phytoplankton biomass and fisheries yield are strongly associated. While enhanced phytoplankton biomass during the Northeast monsoon is triggered by wind-driven upwelling, during the Southeast monsoon, it is driven by two current induced mechanisms: coastal "dynamic uplift" upwelling; and westward advection of nutrients. This biological response to the Southeast monsoon is greater than that to the Northeast monsoon. For years unaffected by strong El-Niño / La-Niña events, the Southeast monsoon wind strength over the south tropical Indian Ocean is the main driver of year-to-year variability. This has important implications for the predictability of fisheries yield, its response to climate change, policy and resource management.


South African Case Study:

Too early to report

Wider WIO/Global:

We reviewed the scientific evidence that demonstrates ecological connectivity between Areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) and the coastal zones with a focus on the least developed countries (LDCs). We used ocean modelling to develop a number of metrics and spatial maps that serve to quantify the connectivity of the ABNJ to the coastal zone. We find that the level of exposure to the ABNJ influences varies strongly between countries, with Tanzania and Kenya being some of the most ABNJ connected countries in the world. Similarly, not all areas of the ABNJ are equal in their impacts on the coastline. Using this method, we identify the areas of the ABNJ that are in the most urgent need of protection on the grounds of the strength of their potential downstream impacts on the coastal populations of LDCs. We argue that indirect negative impacts of the ABNJ fishing, industrialisation and pollution, communicated via oceanographic, cultural and ecological connectivity to the coastal waters of the developing countries should be of concern. The conclusions have strong influence on the ongoing negotiations to establish an international, legally-binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity within Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction.

Coastal ecosystems and the communities that rely upon them are facing extreme challenges of increases in ocean pollution, loss of habitat, ocean warming, and changes in ocean productivity. With the whole system under mounting pressure, governments need to scale down food security analyses to the coastal community level to avoid overseeing rising levels of food insecurity. We developed an alternative view and analysis of food security at both a national and community level taking into account these marginalised communities. The results propose a refined definition of marine food security and new quantitative methods to measuring direct and indirect reliance on fish within developing countries. Application of this concept and methods reveals that aggregated national statistics mask the extreme levels of dependence on fish for food security in coastal communities within Kenya and Madagascar. The Comoros, Mauritius, Mozambique, and Somalia appear to be the most vulnerable to increasing sea surface temperature, population, and fluctuation in total catch and will be severely affected by a changing Western Indian Ocean from a national, community, and individual perspective. Overall, the study highlights that governments need to disaggregate fisheries data and redefine measurements of food security to more accurately reveal the severity of the potential marine food insecurity crisis at hand.
Exploitation Route Our findings on connectivity between the coastal zones and ABNJ are informing UNCLOS negotiations on the governance of biodiversity in the areas beyond national jurisdictions
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy

URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19300764#appsec1
 
Description 1. South African Case Study SOLSTICE-WIO will have three major impacts in this case study: 1.1. Low squid catch Early Warning System. The collapse of the chokka squid fishery in 2013 had a devastating effect on the Eastern Cape, one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. The reasons for the collapse were unknown, although local fishermen believed environmental change was responsible. SOLSTICE therefore investigates the key environmental and anthropogenic factors controlling the ecosystem dynamics of the Agulhas Bank. Early results appear to explain why the fishery collapsed, and moreover, have the potential to produce an early warning system that predicts low catch years with medium to high confidence, 10-12 months in advance. This allows steps to be taken by management that lessen socio-economic hardship ? namely the establishment of a pension fund, alternative occupations in the fruit and construction industry, unemployment insurance fund, and the issuing of multi species fishing licences. The project is currently preparing a summary for the Squid Working Group (SWG) (to be delivered on 1 June 2020) on the feasible use of such a warning system, as well as highlighting the remaining research gaps. The SWG is responsible for the sustainable management of the squid fishery, and resides within the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). 1.2. PhD training program in marine ecosystem shifts and food security. The GCRF-funded SOLSTICE-WIO project set up a PhD training programme at the Nelson Mandela University's new Ocean Science Campus (OSC), designed to build skills in marine ecosystem functioning with special emphasis on the detection of regime shifts and consequences for food security. Eight SOLSTICE PhD candidates, seven of whom are women, were enrolled at the OSC in 2018. Research topics were strategically planned to fit into the SOLSTICE research plan which focuses on the Agulhas Bank ecosystem. These included ocean physics, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic nepheloid layer (BNL) dynamics, fisheries modelling, social dynamics, and food security. The students are co-supervised by senior research scientists at NMU in South Africa and the National Oceanography Centre (NOC), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and Heriot-Watt University in the UK. Initial training was given at the NOC, with subsequent visits during their studies. A senior engineer was employed by SOLSTICE to provide support for the student projects. This PhD program will be expanded into a 30-50-strong postgraduate training in 2021 with the assistance of the UK Newton Fund and the SA Government. 1.3. Establishment of a Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems at Nelson Mandela University Through the transfer of core, high-end technologies ? the GCRF-funded SOLSTICE project initiated a Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems (AMOS) at the new Ocean Science Campus (OSC) at Nelson Mandela University (NMU). With strong local logistical, faculty and Government support, the new OSC has been chosen to be the hub for marine robotics in the UK-SA-WIO wide research network presently being established by SOLSTICE. The WIO-AMOS Centre, operating under the NMU Faculty of Engineering, will perform two functions: (1) Support WIO-wide research through the deployment and operation of 'off-the-shelf' robotics such as gliders. The Centre will host and maintain the robotics equipment with dedicated engineers who will also execute data collection missions. (2) Stimulate innovation in marine robotics, i.e. design and build new robots to support the ocean sciences, in collaboration with the National Oceanography Centre, UK. The Centre will have a strong training component involving postgraduate students from both institutions and the wider WIO. In preparation for WIO-AMOS, the Dean of Engineering, Prof Ossie Franks ? accompanied by two NMU engineers and postgraduate students ? visited the NOC MARS facility in May 2018 to learn of the latest developments in this field. On their return, NMU was awarded $850,000 over three years by the merSETA1 to initiate the new facility. Further funding from the South African Government to purchase a small fleet of robots and secure several jobs will be received on 1 April 2020. This is to be followed with a third grant in 2020, and facilitated by a 5-year appointment of a Chair in Marine Robotics. 2. Tanzanian Case Study 2.1. Partners from the Tanzanian Institute of Marine Studies and the UK National Oceanography Centre deployed a series of user-developed satellite-tracked ocean drifters in the Pemba Channel (West Indian Ocean) in July 2018 in a de-risking exercise ahead of experiments with ocean robots in 2019. Development of the affordable ocean drifters to investigate the sustainability of local fisheries is a part of the Technology transfer activities in the area of marine robotics. 2.2. Identifying key climate change impacts on the marine environment of Tanzania Small pelagic fisheries play a major role in food security in Tanzania, including Zanzibar, and in addition employ some 15 000 people. Aimed at sustainability, the Tanzanian Government has developed the Small Pelagic Fisheries Management Plan, but this does not yet provide strategies on likely impacts of Climate Change. Research produced by SOLSTICE has now provided information that can address this missing knowledge gap. In addition, SOLSTICE is also contributing materials to the revision of the Government's 2012 National Climate Change Strategy which similarly lacks information on likely climate change impacts on the marine environment. Coordination and implementation of this Strategy is guided by the National Climate Change Technical Committee (NCCTC) and National Climate Change Steering Committee (NCCSC). Similar to the Kenya case study, the successful application of SOLSTICE core technologies ? ocean modelling, satellite observations and marine robotics ? coupled with ground-thruthing field campaigns, has enabled correlations between environmental parameters, drivers and fishery catches (biomass) to be elucidated that provide a powerful means of projecting ecosystem regime shifts with likely small pelagic catch responses. 3. Kenyan Case Study 3.1. Assessment of ecosystem shifts (climate change) and repercussions for fisheries on the North Kenyan Bank (NKB) The Government of Kenya has identified the NKBs as a new frontier for both growing the Blue Economy and food security. Support at national and local levels is currently being given to develop a fishery here for both local consumption and export. Little, however, is known of the region, its complex oceanography and resources ? and importantly the future given the rapid ocean warming presently being experienced in the WIO. SOLSTICE was designed to strongly support the Kenya Marine Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) in addressing these knowledge gaps needed to advance policy. Through collaboration in cruise planning, skills development at NOC, and the application of SOLSTICE core technologies of ocean modelling and satellite observations ? advancements have now been made which include a special issue of scientific publications, contribution to the revision of the National Climate Change Action Plan 2018-2022, and a forecast capability for ecosystem regime shifts. These will inform the proposed action plan that seeks to increase the offshore fishing fleet that aims to harvest the high productivity of the NKBs. They also assist the Kenya Government in developing the newly emerging management practice of 'Ocean Accounts' required for successful Blue Economy expansion. 4. Global influence. Impact on the UNCLOS negotiations of the legally-binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity within Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). The UN General Assembly has made a unanimous decision to start negotiations to establish an international, legally-binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity within Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). However, there has of yet been little discussion on the importance of this move to the ecosystem services provided by coastal zones in their downstream zone of influence. SOLSTICE conducted a critical study on the evidence of connectivity between the ABNJ and the coastal zone of the least developed countries. On the basis of these results a number of policy briefs were written for the project negotiators. The project has provided technical and strategic advice to the negotiators of the treaty. An information side event has been run during the negotiations in New York in April 2019. 5. Gender equality 5.1. Gender equality of the research team Although the team composition naturally changes from year to year due to career changes and movement of staff, SOLSTICE has approximately 65-35% split of female to male researchers including at senior level. In the early career research category, we have 80-20 ratio of female to male researchers, including marine technologies. 5.2. Gender equality of research beneficiaries The WIO is highly dependent on the ocean for social cohesion (45% of the fisheries workforce, including supply chains) is female) (RSCR-WIO, 2015). In Tanzania, the fishers are predominantly male, however the supply chain and associated services (markets) are predominantly female. Implementing gender equality has been a severe challenge in the South African fishery. This is primarily due to the small size of the squid fishing boats and that all fishers on-board share one very small and cramped sleeping cabin. Ablutions are very rudimentary and meals are eaten on deck. These harsh conditions are unacceptable for women. Additionally, isiXhosa cultural forbids women from doing a man's job. Woman are confined to house work, bringing children up and cooking. Nonetheless, the industry has been successful in bringing women into land-based factory operations where the squid are processed, packed and exported. In fact, nearly all factory workers are women, totalling about 300. Women are gradually also becoming involved in SMME administration.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Citation in agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact United Nations member states are negotiating a new International Legally Binding Instrument on the conservation and sustainable management of marine biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). These waters do not exist in isolation: marine ecosystems are interconnected by ocean currents and the movement of migratory species. What happens in ABNJ can therefore cause impacts in territorial waters. Many Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS) depend heavily on marine resources, but the benefits from conservation and management measures in ABNJ will not be evenly distributed. By highlighting which regions of ABNJ are most connected to coastal LDCs and other developing coastal states via ocean currents, the project helped the parties ensure that area-based management regimes in ABNJ protect these countries' interests and rights. We have run a side event at the UNCLOS negotiations in March 2019, based on the project publication (Popova et al., 2019) and the policy briefs (as listed in research fish with the key word ABNJ) The approach brought concrete results: the latest draft of the negotiating text was updated to recognise that the treaty must protect the many millions of people who depend on the high seas.
URL https://www.un.org/bbnj/sites/www.un.org.bbnj/files/draft_text_a.conf_.232.2019.6_advanced_unedited_...
 
Description Comoros: Connectivity between Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction and the coastal zones (Country Profile)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact UN member states negotiating a legally binding instrument governing ABNJ must include provisions to ensure that all future management regimes are informed by their potential impacts on territorial waters - particularly in Least Developed Countries. Vigorous and seasonally reversing circulation of the WIO make East African coastal countries highly vulnerable to negative impacts of the fishing and extraction activities in the ABNJ The coastline of the Comoros is well connected to ABNJ indicating enhanced socio-economic vulnerability to the activities in the ABNJ. The project provided a detailed policy brief describing vulnerability of the coastal zone of Comoros to the activities in ABNJ and advocated explicit inclusion of the downstream connectivity to the treaty. The approach brought concrete results: the latest draft of the negotiating text was updated to recognise that the treaty must protect the many millions of people who depend on the high seas. The advice aims to ensure that: The criteria for establishing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and other area-based management tools in ABNJ must include the potential socioeconomic benefits for vulnerable coastal communities, as well as the ecological or biological significance of the area in question. Governments must ensure that management systems in ABNJ are adaptive and dynamic, and share the technology, data capacity and investment needed to rapidly respond to shifts in species distribution or ocean circulation caused by climate change. Uncertainty around future climate change and impacts on connectivity necessitate a precautionary approach to ABNJ governance.
URL https://www.solstice-wio.org/outputs/policy-briefs
 
Description Kenya: Connectivity between Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction and the coastal zones (Country Profile)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact UN member states negotiating a legally binding instrument governing ABNJ must include provisions to ensure that all future management regimes are informed by their potential impacts on territorial waters - particularly in Least Developed Countries. Vigorous and seasonally reversing circulation of the WIO make East African coastal countries highly vulnerable to negative impacts of the fishing and extraction activities in the ABNJ The coastline of Kenya is one of most ABNJ-connected coastlines in the world indicating enhanced socio-economic vulnerability to the activities in the ABNJ. The project provided a detailed policy brief describing vulnerability of the coastal zone of Kenya to the activities in ABNJ and advocated explicit inclusion of the downstream connectivity to the treaty. The approach brought concrete results: the latest draft of the negotiating text was updated to recognise that the treaty must protect the many millions of people who depend on the high seas. The advice aims to ensure that: The criteria for establishing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and other area-based management tools in ABNJ must include the potential socioeconomic benefits for vulnerable coastal communities, as well as the ecological or biological significance of the area in question. Governments must ensure that management systems in ABNJ are adaptive and dynamic, and share the technology, data capacity and investment needed to rapidly respond to shifts in species distribution or ocean circulation caused by climate change. Uncertainty around future climate change and impacts on connectivity necessitate a precautionary approach to ABNJ governance.
URL https://www.solstice-wio.org/outputs/policy-briefs
 
Description Madagascar: Connectivity between Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction and the coastal zones (Country Profile)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact UN member states negotiating a legally binding instrument governing ABNJ must include provisions to ensure that all future management regimes are informed by their potential impacts on territorial waters - particularly in Least Developed Countries. Vigorous and seasonally reversing circulation of the WIO make East African coastal countries highly vulnerable to negative impacts of the fishing and extraction activities in the ABNJ The coastline of Madagascar is one of most ABNJ-connected coastlines in the world indicating enhanced socio-economic vulnerability to the activities in the ABNJ. The project provided a detailed policy brief describing vulnerability of the coastal zone of Madagascar to the activities in ABNJ and advocated explicit inclusion of the downstream connectivity to the treaty. The approach brought concrete results: the latest draft of the negotiating text was updated to recognise that the treaty must protect the many millions of people who depend on the high seas. The advice aims to ensure that: The criteria for establishing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and other area-based management tools in ABNJ must include the potential socioeconomic benefits for vulnerable coastal communities, as well as the ecological or biological significance of the area in question. Governments must ensure that management systems in ABNJ are adaptive and dynamic, and share the technology, data capacity and investment needed to rapidly respond to shifts in species distribution or ocean circulation caused by climate change. Uncertainty around future climate change and impacts on connectivity necessitate a precautionary approach to ABNJ governance.
URL https://www.solstice-wio.org/outputs/policy-briefs
 
Description Mozambique: Connectivity between Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction and the coastal zones (Country Profile)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact UN member states are negotiating a legally binding instrument governing ABNJ must include provisions to ensure that all future management regimes are informed by their potential impacts on territorial waters - particularly in Least Developed Countries. Vigorous and seasonally reversing circulation of the WIO make East African coastal countries highly vulnerable to negative impacts of the fishing and extraction activities in the ABNJ The coastline of Mozambique is one of most ABNJ-connected coastlines in the world indicating enhanced socio-economic vulnerability to the activities in the ABNJ. The project provided a detailed policy brief describing vulnerability of the coastal zone of Mozambique to the activities in ABNJ and advocated explicit inclusion of the downstream connectivity to the treaty. The approach brought concrete results: the latest draft of the negotiating text was updated to recognise that the treaty must protect the many millions of people who depend on the high seas. The advice aims to ensure that: The criteria for establishing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and other area-based management tools in ABNJ must include the potential socioeconomic benefits for vulnerable coastal communities, as well as the ecological or biological significance of the area in question. Governments must ensure that management systems in ABNJ are adaptive and dynamic, and share the technology, data capacity and investment needed to rapidly respond to shifts in species distribution or ocean circulation caused by climate change. Uncertainty around future climate change and impacts on connectivity necessitate a precautionary approach to ABNJ governance.
URL https://www.solstice-wio.org/outputs/policy-briefs
 
Description Side event at the United Nations Law of The Sea negotiations: So far yet so close: Why the High Seas matter to vulnerable coastal communities
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact The project has provided a review of evince for the connectivity between the ABNJ and vulnerable coastal communities around the world (Popova et al., 2019) and produced a number of policy briefs aiming at negotiators of the UNCLOS ABNJ treaty. Using this material, we run a side event during the ABNJ negotiations at UN in New York in March 2019 entitled "So far yet so close: Why the High Seas matter to vulnerable coastal communities". Around 60 negotiators and participants were present. The approach brought concrete results: the latest draft of the negotiating text was updated to recognise that the treaty must protect the many millions of people who depend on the high seas.
URL https://www.un.org/bbnj/sites/www.un.org.bbnj/files/draft_text_a.conf_.232.2019.6_advanced_unedited_...
 
Description Somalia: Connectivity between Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction and the coastal zones (Country Profile)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact UN member states negotiating a legally binding instrument governing ABNJ must include provisions to ensure that all future management regimes are informed by their potential impacts on territorial waters - particularly in Least Developed Countries. Vigorous and seasonally reversing circulation of the WIO make East African coastal countries highly vulnerable to negative impacts of the fishing and extraction activities in the ABNJ The coastline of Somalia is one of most ABNJ-connected coastlines in the world indicating enhanced socio-economic vulnerability to the activities in the ABNJ. The project provided a detailed policy brief describing vulnerability of the coastal zone of Somalia to the activities in ABNJ and advocated explicit inclusion of the downstream connectivity to the treaty. The approach brought concrete results: the latest draft of the negotiating text was updated to recognise that the treaty must protect the many millions of people who depend on the high seas. The advice aims to ensure that: The criteria for establishing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and other area-based management tools in ABNJ must include the potential socioeconomic benefits for vulnerable coastal communities, as well as the ecological or biological significance of the area in question. Governments must ensure that management systems in ABNJ are adaptive and dynamic, and share the technology, data capacity and investment needed to rapidly respond to shifts in species distribution or ocean circulation caused by climate change. Uncertainty around future climate change and impacts on connectivity necessitate a precautionary approach to ABNJ governance.
URL https://www.solstice-wio.org/outputs/policy-briefs
 
Description Tanzania: Connectivity between Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction and the coastal zones (Country Profile)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact UN member states negotiating a legally binding instrument governing ABNJ must include provisions to ensure that all future management regimes are informed by their potential impacts on territorial waters - particularly in Least Developed Countries. Vigorous and seasonally reversing circulation of the WIO make East African coastal countries highly vulnerable to negative impacts of the fishing and extraction activities in the ABNJ The coastline of Tanzania is one of most ABNJ-connected coastlines in the world indicating enhanced socio-economic vulnerability to the activities in the ABNJ. The project provided a detailed policy brief describing vulnerability of the coastal zone of Tanzania to the activities in ABNJ and advocated explicit inclusion of the downstream connectivity to the treaty. The approach brought concrete results: the latest draft of the negotiating text was updated to recognise that the treaty must protect the many millions of people who depend on the high seas. The advice aims to ensure that: The criteria for establishing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and other area-based management tools in ABNJ must include the potential socioeconomic benefits for vulnerable coastal communities, as well as the ecological or biological significance of the area in question. Governments must ensure that management systems in ABNJ are adaptive and dynamic, and share the technology, data capacity and investment needed to rapidly respond to shifts in species distribution or ocean circulation caused by climate change. Uncertainty around future climate change and impacts on connectivity necessitate a precautionary approach to ABNJ governance.
URL https://www.solstice-wio.org/outputs/policy-briefs
 
Description Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting - Marine Science
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 04/2018
 
Description Connectivity between the Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction and the coastline of developing countries.
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 01/2019
 
Description Enabling Sustainable Exploitation of the Coastal Tuna Species (Kawakawa and Skipjack ) in the Western Indian Ocean
Amount $500,000 (USD)
Organisation Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Tanzania, United Republic of
Start 03/2019 
End 12/2021
 
Description Marine Robotics Stakeholder Engagement Workshop - Zanzibar
Amount £16,500 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 04/2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Tanzania Case study: understanding living marine resources and impacts of climate change
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 03/2019
 
Description SOLSTICE-WIO Kenya Case Study: new frontiers for food security and economic growth
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 03/2019
 
Description SOLSTICE-WIO: Marine Ecosystem Observations - Physical dynamics of Pemba Channel
Amount £7,250 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 04/2018
 
Description Sustainable Oceans, Livelihoods and food Security Through Increased Capacity in Ecosystem research in the Western Indian Ocean (SOLSTICE-WIO)
Amount £6,934,488 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P021050/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 10/2019
 
Description Understanding structure and transport of the East Africa Coastal Current, and its influence on WIO large marine ecosystems
Amount $200,000 (USD)
Organisation United Nations (UN) 
Department United Nations Development Programme
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 03/2019 
End 12/2019
 
Title South African Interdisciplinary data set 
Description In January 2019, SOLSTICE has completed a major interdisciplinary field campaign covering the coastal zones and shelf waters of Agulhas Bank, South Africa. The resulting data set includes physical, biogeochemical, biological and socio-economic data collected in the coastal regions and the shelf waters. In addition to ship-based fieldwork at the Agulhas Bank, three key, cost-effective, mature technologies were used to complement the traditional observation techniques. Namely, satellite remote sensing, numerical ocean models and autonomous robotic technologies efficiently delivered near real-time environmental data to support the ship effort. Fieldwork on land documented the coastal socioeconomic and local knowledge systems of the squid fishing communities to understand local responses to social, economic, political, and ecological changes. This data set is being extensively analysed by the SOLSTICE project partners in the preparation for the forthcoming Special Issue of the Deep Sea Research dedicated to the collapse of the squid fishery. The data are being archived in the British Oceanographic Data Centre and will become freely available after the end of the project. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The collapse of the chokka squid fishery in 2013 had a devastating effect on the Eastern Cape, one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. The reasons for the collapse were unknown, although local fishermen believed environmental change was responsible. SOLSTICE data base provides a unique information on the key environmental and anthropogenic factors controlling the ecosystem dynamics of the Agulhas Bank. Early results appear to explain why the fishery collapsed, and moreover, have the potential to produce an early warning system that predicts low catch years with medium to high confidence, 10-12 months in advance. This allows steps to be taken by management that lessen socio-economic hardship ? namely the establishment of a pension fund, alternative occupations in the fruit and construction industry, unemployment insurance fund, and the issuing of multi species fishing licences. 
 
Title Tanzanian interdisciplinary dataset 
Description In July 2019, SOLSTICE has completed a major interdisciplinary field campaign covering the coastal zones and shelf waters of Tanzania. The resulting data set includes physical, biogeochemical, biological and socio-economic data collected in the Tanzanian coastal regions (mainland and islands) and the shelf waters. In addition to ship-based fieldwork in the Pemba Channel, three key, cost-effective, mature technologies were used to complement the traditional observation techniques. Namely, satellite remote sensing, numerical ocean models and autonomous robotic technologies efficiently delivered near real-time environmental data to support the ship effort. Fieldwork on land documented the coastal socioeconomic, governance, and local knowledge systems of the fishing communities of the Unguja, Pemba and Mafia islands and the mainland Tanga to understand local resource-use patterns and local responses to social, economic, political, and ecological changes. This data set is being extensively analysed by the SOLSTICE project partners in the preparation for the forthcoming Special Issue of the Ocean and Coastal Management ("East African Coastal Current ecosystems: at the frontier of climate change and food security"). The data are being archived in the British Oceanographic Data Centre and will become freely available after the end of the project. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Small pelagic fisheries play a major role in food security in Tanzania, including Zanzibar, and in addition employ some 15 000 people. In this data poor area, fisheries management is critically dependent on the understanding of the variability and stability of the marine environment. This data set has provided a unique view of the system and is being extensively analysed by the SOLSTICE project partners in the preparation for the forthcoming Special Issue of the Ocean and Coastal Management ("East African Coastal Current ecosystems: at the frontier of climate change and food security"). The data form a baseline of the state of the marine environment and will be extensively used by the local and international researchers. The data are being archived in the British Oceanographic Data Centre and will become freely available after the end of the project. 
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation Bayworld Centre for Research and Education
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation Coastal Oceans Research and Development in the Indian Ocean
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation Heriot-Watt University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation Nelson Mandela University
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation Rhodes University
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation South African National Research Foundation (NRF)
Department South African Environmental Observation Network
Country South Africa 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation University of Cape Town
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation University of Dar es Salaam
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation University of Dar es Salaam
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description SOLSTICE Partners 
Organisation Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution To be confirmed
Collaborator Contribution To be confirmed
Impact To be confirmed
Start Year 2018
 
Description 10th WIOMSA Scientific Symposium - Dar es Salaam 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact SOLSTICE was launched on the 1st of October 2017 and attended first large international event to announce the launch and host stakeholder engagement opportunities during the 10th Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association (WIOMSA) Scientific Symposium, that was held from 30th October to 4th November 2017 in the
Julius Nyerere International Convention Centre (JNICC) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. This Symposium was organized jointly by the Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute (TAFIRI), the Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association (WIOMSA), the Institute of Marine Science (IMS) and the Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries (DASF) both of the University of Dar es Salaam, and the Nairobi Convention of the UN Environment.
The Symposium brought together social and natural scientists, practitioners as well as decision-makers to share expertise, experience and solutions to aspects related to the theme of the Symposium. The specific objectives of the Symposium were to present current knowledge on disciplines related to the theme of the symposium and to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of information and experiences on coastal and marine science issues in the western Indian Ocean region. The theme of the 10th WIOMSA Symposium was "The role of marine and coastal systems in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals for human prosperity".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.wiomsa.org/wiomsa-symposium-2017-day-1-2/
 
Description 11th WIOMSA Scientific Symposium - Mauritius 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The 11th Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association (WIOMSA) Scientific Symposium was held in Mauritius from 1-6 July 2019. The Symposium was jointly hosted by WIOMSA, the University of Mauritius, and the Nairobi Convention with the theme of "People, Coasts and Oceans: Opportunities for a changing future".
The Symposium will brought together practitioners, academics, researchers and students to share knowledge, experience and solutions to the challenges experienced in the WIO coastal and marine environment.
The specific objectives of the symposium are to:
- Present current knowledge on disciplines related to the theme of the symposium, as detailed in the General Guidelines for Abstract Submission;
- Provide a forum for discussion, exchange of information and experiences on coastal and marine science issues in the Western Indian Ocean region;
- Promote interaction among social and natural scientists in order to strengthen multi and trans-disciplinary research for sustainable management of the coastal and marine
environment;
- Identify gaps and priority research areas for improved management of the coastal and marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean region.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.wiomsa.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/First-announcement-and-call-for-abstracts-D31.pdf
 
Description Co-design of the Kenyan case study with the stakeholders 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We carried out a formal workshop with Kenyan stakeholders in July 2017 to co-design Kenyan Case Study. The workshop was carried out at the Kenyan Fisheries Research Institute and involved KMFRI and CORDIO.
Kenya Case Study has been selected: Emerging fishery of the North Kenya Bank, an opportunity for coastal populations
The North Kenya Bank fishery is expected to spur economic growth for local communities. If well managed, it could help achieve national development goals, including poverty alleviation and wealth creation. Sustainability requires informed management interventions, but there is only scant information on the ecological status and drivers of the fishery.

Using modelling, remote sensing, field observations and socio-economic studies, SOLSTICE will explore processes related to productivity and resilience of the ecosystems supporting the fishery, identify the main drivers of variability and change, and advise the fishery and government on how to optimise use of this important resource.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Co-design of the South African case study with the Squid Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The SWG is responsible for the sustainable management of the squid fishery, and resides within the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and includes government and the squid industry representatives. The engagement activity was dedicated to the co-design of the project and identifying which research gaps necessary to fill for improvement of the fishery management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Co-design of the Tanzanian case study with stakeholders 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In July 2017 we carried out a formal workshop to select and co-design Tanzanian case study. The workshop involved Institute of Marine Science (Zanzibar), Tanzanian Fisheries research Institute, Western Indian Ocean Association of Marine Science.

The following Case Study has been selected for Tanzania: Pemba Channel small pelagic fishery under climate threat
The small pelagic fishery is important for local communities in Zanzibar and mainland Tanzania as a source of food security, nutrition and livelihood support. This diverse group includes mackerel, sardines and anchovies - found in schools over the continental shelf, in bays and deep lagoons with nutrient rich waters. They are more abundant during the southeast monsoon, when stronger winds drive upwelling that brings nutrient rich water to the surface.

Despite its importance for coastal economies, there is a lack of data and information about the fishery, which hampers effective management. Using robotics, modelling, remote sensing, field observations and socio-economic studies, SOLSTICE will identify key environmental and anthropogenic drivers of the main species and address climatic pressures on this fishery.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Commonwealth Marine Science Showcase 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact As part of a series of Commonwealth Heads of Government events held in 2018, the Commonwealth Marine Showcase was be held on 9th April 2018, at the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. This event was dedicated to the Blue Economies, Marine Science and Sustainability. Attended by Commissioners and Commonwealth Heads of State this showcase was a celebration of world-class marine science conducted across the Commonwealth Member States. Furthermore, there was a focus on the early career scientists 'Bringing up a new generation of Marine Scientists' and 'Women in Science'. Key UK marine institutions were in attendance, with invitations to delegates from various institutions from Commonwealth nations. There was a strong political drive to ensure that collaborative research projects between UK and the Commonwealth countries were brought to the forefront during these events. The SOLSTICE-WIO project was as such flagged as one of the key projects to be strongly represented.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Expert panel on connectivity between ABNJ and coastal zones: evidence review for UNCLOS negotiations 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In April 2017, on request from some of the UNCLOS negotiators we carried out a Panel review of scientific evidence on connectivity between ABNJ and coastal zones. The panel was convened in Seychelles and included some of the UNCLOS negotiators, NGOs and scientists.

The UN General Assembly passed a unanimous decision to start an intergovernmental conference (negotiations) to establish an international legally binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction on 24th of December 2017.

However, the sheer absence of developing countries in general and the least developed countries (LDCs) in particular in the prepcoms has been a matter of big concern to many. It is in the interest of all stakeholders or interest groups that all countries are able to participate fully in formulating a possible new legally binding instrument.

One of the critical knowledge gaps in the negotiation process is on the ecological connectivity between costal (territorial) waters and the high seas or areas beyond national jurisdiction. Despite such traditional and uninformed disconnect between coastal waters and the high seas, studies are emerging that suggest that the high seas is a 'fish bank' that replenishes coastal fisheries in multiple ways.

Providing scientific evidence that demonstrates ecological connectivity between these territories will tremendously help low-income countries to make a scientifically-backed argument for the reconsideration of both distributional outcomes of high seas management regimes and their implications for poor coastal communities - particularly small-scale fishers.

The timeliness of the workshop was very critical. In September of the same year, member states of the UN had assembles to officially start the first round of negotiations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Marine Regions Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr.Popova was invited to provide evidence for marine connectivity of the Western Indian Ocean and its relevance for the proposed Deep Sea Mining at the Marine Regions Forum in October 2019.

The Marine Regions Forum supports the transition towards integrated ocean governance by developing and implementing a new format for solution-oriented learning and exchange among different marine regions at the interface of science and marine policy.

The Marine Regions Forum is a unique dialogue platform that:

engages a broad range of stakeholders groups from non-governmental organisations and industry (such as fisheries, environment, tourism, shipping, energy and oil), to scientists and decision-makers;
focuses explicitly at the regional level and aims to strengthen regional ocean governance;
facilitates the joint development of new scalable solutions to current ocean sustainability challenges;
is a knowledge-driven conference developed by independent research institutes and think-tanks together with a broad network of experts and in dialogue with decision-makers and civil society; and
provides a space outside of formal governance arrangements where stakeholders engage in discussion as individual experts and where different types of knowledge can be brought together on an equal footing.

A dedicated team composed of ocean governance experts based at the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI), and TMG - Think Tank for Sustainability is developing and hosting the Marine Regions Forum together with the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, the European Commission and renowned international experts, many of which are part of the Advisory Board and Steering Group of the Marine Regions Forum.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.prog-ocean.org/marine-regions-forum/
 
Description NMU Marine Robotics Showcase at IIOE-2 (2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The aim was to showcase in water the new UK-developed Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) called Ecosubµ5 and Ecosubm5. This event was scheduled during the Indian Ocean International Expedition 2 annual science conference between 11 and 15 March 2019 at the Nelson Mandela University. Over 130 international delegates attend the meeting ranging from researchers, students, science and policy managers. The mini AUVs are designed and manufactured by EcoSUB Robotics UK, and hold a very special niche in the marine robotic international market as they are small, have low maintenance requirements and are very easy to use ? making them ideal for research institutions in WIO developing countries.
The hour-long event was held at the indoor NMU Olympic swimming pool facility, making it very convenient for the owners to display the various features of these robots, and to field questions from the audience. The audience was also able to operate the vehicles themselves. A SOLSTICE-led half-day workshop on developing a WIO-wide marine robotics capability was held the day. The showcase event supported this endeavour highlighting a possible means of establishing this.
The combination of the workshop and the showcase event strongly assists SOLSTICE in transferring one of the three core technologies ? ocean modelling, satellite observations and marine robotics. Already, NMU has formed an AMOS unit, which has received funding to purchase equipment and employ staff.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at EU Ocean Day at the EU pavilion, during the United Nations Climate Change Conference, of the 25th Conference of Parties (COP25): Climate ready marine spatial plans: end-use demonstrator usingmodelling data 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave this presentation at the EU Ocean's day during COP25, in the opening session entitled: Oceans and Climate: from science to policy, which was an event hosted EU Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Commission department, organised and chaired by Plymouth Marine Laboratory and the Association of the Overseas Countries and Territories of the European Union. The event was opened by Veronika Veits, the Director of International Ocean Governance and Sustainable Fisheries, of the Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of the European Commission; and by Prof. Biliana Cicin-Sain, President of the Global Ocean Forum. The other speakers included Porf Hans-Otto Pörtner, Co Chair IPCC WGII & the Alfred Wagner Institute, GER; Prof Manuel Barange, Director of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy and Resources Division of the UNited Nation's Food and Agricultural Organisation; Faisal Dilrosun, Expert on Oceans, for the Curaçao government; Pablo Lopez-Herrerias, Coordinator of the OCTA secretariat); Sebastien Soleille , Head of Energy Transition at BNP Paribas; Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Research Director of the Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, CNRS, Sorbonne Université and Iddri, France; and Dr Loreley Picourt, of the NGO Ocean and Climate Platform. The event was attended by circa 70 people, with an audience varying between research, policy makers, NGOs, business, and civil society. The talk given was intended to highlight UK based development of decision support tools for the assessment of the emergence of the climate signal, whcih I have led, to facilitate the development of climate ready marine spatial planning strategies around the globe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/calendar/0138/calendar_en.htm#schedule
 
Description Review of the potential case studies with Western Indian Ocean stakeholders 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In March 2017, we carried out a Western Indian Ocean stakeholder engagement workshop which included fisheriy management organisations, marine park and MPA practitioners, environmental NGOs, regional marine associations, government departments and fishery research bodies. The workshop was dedicated to the review of the possible case studies to address during the project. The workshop was run in Zanzibar.

The case studies have been selected with the following criteria in mind:

benefit to low-income communities with high dependence on living marine resources,
strong socio-economic significance of the issues being addressed,
novel and previously unexploited research aspects that can benefit from new research technologies,
availability of relevant environmental and socio-economic data to ensure early progress of research and capacity-building activities,
capacity of local partners to work as centres of excellence employing the research methods beyond the duration of the project, and
access and provision of logistical support for SOLSTICE activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SOLSTICE Marine Robotics Exhibition - Zanzibar, July 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact SOLSTICE presented an exhibition of the recently completed marine robotics mission in the Pemba Channel conducted by scientists from the Institute of Marine Science (Zanzibar), Tanzanian Fisheries Research Institute (Dar es Salaam), Nelson Mandela University (South Africa) and National Oceanography Centre (UK).
• Video footage of the marine robotics mission and surveys in the Pemba Channel
• Live beach-front demonstration of the low cost mini-sub conducted by the Ocean Planet LTD
• Display of robotic technologies including the Ocean Gliders that completed the Pemba Channel mission
• Launch of the Massive Online Open Course "Ocean Science in Action. Addressing marine ecosystems and food security in the Western Indian Ocean" co-developed by the SOLSTICE partners
• Contribution of SOLSTICE to the key Climate Change Adaptation policies and actions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description SOLSTICE Stakeholder Engagement with Pemba Channel Conservation Area Committee - June 219 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact For coastal nations, the ocean provides opportunities for sustainable economic growth through resource exploitation, livelihood diversification and in support of food security. At the same time, coastal ecosystems and the services they provide are vulnerable if those activities are not managed in an integrated way. The vulnerabilities are worsened by the challenge of climate change. Tackling these Grand Challenges for food security in Tanzania requires enhanced research capability ? in particular better ways of making in situ measurements. The SOLSTICE project will be conducting a 3 mission a collaborative environmental survey of the Pemba Channel to better understand the linkages between the local marine environment, ecosystem variability, and how these influence local fisheries.

The focus of this workshop is to inform PECCA representatives of the fieldwork campaigns that will be undertaken in June and July 2019 by IMS and TAFIRI in collaboration with international partners from the UK, South Africa and Kenya, and to help disseminate the information further to fisher communities across Pemba Island.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://twitter.com/SolsticeWio/status/1139998962532978689
 
Description Science into policy working group In Tanzania and Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The main objective of the Science into Policy Working Group is to maximise uptake of SOLSTICE research outcomes in policies and management plans at three levels: regional, country and transboundary in three SOLSTICE Case Studies. One of the key challenges facing the Working Group is the short (4 year) duration of the project which involves a substantial amount of primary research. Thus research and science into policy activities will have to be run in parallel rather than sequentially. To meet this challenge, WG's specific objectives include:
• Early reviews of likely scientific outcomes of potential relevance to policy and management plans
• Early identification of existing/planned policies, management plans and issues to which SOLSTICE outputs can contribute to
• Consultations with relevant stakeholders to ensure that relevant research outputs (peer reviewed publications) are aligned with identified issues
• Production of non-academic material translating project scientific outcome into policy-optimal format
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Tanga Stakeholder Engagement, May 2019 for SOLSTICE 2019 Fieldwork Campaign 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact SOLSTICE hosted a Stakeholder Engagement and Community Outreach workshop in May 2019 to inform local fisheries managers and local community leaders of the three research fieldwork campaigns that were going to be undertaken in the Pemba Channel during June/July 2019.
This workshop was part of the 2019 SOLSTICE information campaign to explain the purpose of SOLSTICE research, what gliders and other underwater autonomous vehicles (AUVs) do, and how the information they collect may ultimately benefit coastal communities in Tanzania is therefore essential. We presented the planned research in ways that was easily understood by the target audience, and included information on what to do /not do if they should encounter a glider or AUV.

SOLSTICE presented outlined plans for each of the campaign, and participants from Regional Coastal Municipalities on mainland Tanzania were given information which they could disseminate to their respective regional fisher communities about marine robotics and plans for these scientific campaigns.

The workshop was hosted jointly by TAFIRI and the National Oceanography Centre.

In total there were 43 attendees representing:

1) SOLSTICE: TAFIRI, NOC

2) Regional and National Stakeholders, which included:
• MP: Secretary-General of Tanzania Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
• District Fisheries Officers from: Tanga, Pangani, Mkinga, Muheza, Bagamoyo, Mafia
• Beach Management Unit officers from Tanga, Pangani, Mkinga, Muheza, Kigombe, Mvuvi, Rangani, Katibu
• Fishermen from local coastal communities including, Mkinga, Muheza, Kigombe, Mvuvi, Pangani
• Tanga City Council
• Tanga Department of Education
NGOs:
• WWF Tanzania
• SNV - Senior Economic Development Advisor
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Tanzania Fishery Communities Stakeholder Workshop for SOLSTICE Marine Robotics Fieldwork Campaigns (March 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Tanzania Fishery Communities Stakeholder 2 day Workshop was held in Stonetown, Zanzibar on the 19th and 20th of March 2018. It brought together fisheries officers, MPA managers, journalists with staff from SOLSTICE partners from the UK and Tanzania. Their task was to plan community engagement activities that would have to take place in preparation for the marine robotics fieldwork in the Pemba Channel, scheduled for June-July 2019. Local groups who may encounter gliders and other marine 'robots' during the Tanzania field campaign include fishers, dive operators and other tour operators and guides. Most will never have seen a glider, and may not even know the meaning of the word 'robotics', let alone be in a position to understand why this equipment is being used in the Pemba Channel. An information campaign to explain the purpose of the research, what gliders and other underwater autonomous vehicles (AUVs) do, and how the information they collect may ultimately benefit coastal communities in Tanzania is therefore essential. It is important that this presents the planned research in ways that are easily understood by the target audience, and includes information on what to do /not do if they should encounter a glider or AUV. The overall aim of the workshop was to develop recommendations on how to conduct this information campaign. NOC staff presented outline plans for the campaign, and participants from Tanzania described existing community engagement initiatives, with which SOLSTICE could engage in order to inform people about marine robotics and plans for the campaign. Group discussions focused on developing a timeline of community engagement activities and developing a 'wish-list' of communication resources that could be used to support these activities. As part of the environmental research in the SOLSTICE project, environmental measurements were planned in the Pemba Channel for June-July 2019, using marine robots called 'gliders' and an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) called 'Gavia'. These offer a relatively low-cost method of making extensive measurements without the need for large research ships, and could be useful for monitoring Tanzania's marine environment in the future.

The workshop was hosted jointly by regional SOLSTICE partners: the Institute of Marine Sciences and the Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute, with presentations from their Principal Scientists as well as UK experts from the National Oceanography Centre and Plymouth Marine Laboratory.

In total there were 30 attendees representing:

1) SOLSTICE: IMS, TAFIRI, NOC, PML

2) Regional Stakeholders, which included:
- Tanga Regional Fisheries Officer
- District Fisheries Officers for Tanga and Mkinga Municipalities
- Wardens from both the Tanga Coelacanth Park and the Pemba Channel Marine Park
- Pemba Island Fisheries Officers from Chakechake & Micheweni Districts
- the Pemba Regional Fisheries Officer and Chair of Pemba Channel Conservation Area (PECCA)
- Fisheries specialists from the State University of Zanzibar and University of Dar es Salaam
- NGO representatives from WWF Tanzania, and Mwambao
- Regional Media and Journalists from ITV Tanga and ITV Zanzibar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Regional Ocean Governance Workshop for the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) Region 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Nairobi Convention (UNDP) is executing the project on 'Strategic Action Programme Policy Harmonization and Institutional Reforms' (SAPPHIRE), and has organized a Regional Ocean Governance workshop for the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region during 04-05 September 2019 in Seychelles. E.Popova and M.Roberts were invited to present evidence towards strong connectivity between ABNJ and coastal zones.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description WIO-AMOS & NOC MARS stakeholder engagement - May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In preparation of the launch of the WIO Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems (AMOS) at Nelson Mandela University (NMU), the Dean of Engineering, Prof Ossie Franks, accompanied by two NMU engineers visited the NOC Marine Autonomy and Robotics Systems facility in May 2018 to learn of the latest development in MAS. On their return back to South Africa, NMU was awarded $800,000 USD over 3 years by the merSETA to initiate the new AMOS facility. Core funding from the South African Government to purchase a small fleet of robots is now being pursued. Full growth of WIO-AMOS will be facilitated by a 5-year appointment of the Chair in Marine Robotics.
The WIO-AMOS Centre operating under the NMU Faculty of Engineering will perform the following functions:
1) It will support WIO-wide research through the deployment and operation of off-the-shelf robotics, such as gliders
2) The Centre will host and maintain marine robotics equipment with dedicated engineers who will also execute data collection missions.
3) Stimulate innovation in marine robotics, ie design and build new marine robots to support WIO ocean sciences in collaboration with the UK's National Oceanography Centre.
4) The Centre will have a strong training component involving postgraduate students from both institutions and the wider WIO.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Zanzibar Archipelago Stakeholder Engagement, May 2019 for SOLSTICE 2019 Fieldwork Campaign 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact SOLSTICE hosted a Stakeholder Engagement and Community Outreach workshop in May 2019 to inform local fisheries managers, and local community leaders of the three research fieldwork campaigns that were going to be undertaken in the Pemba Channel during June/July 2019.
This workshop was part of the 2019 SOLSTICE information campaign to explain the purpose of SOLSTICE research, what gliders and other underwater autonomous vehicles (AUVs) do, and how the information they collect may ultimately benefit coastal communities in Tanzania is therefore essential. We presented the planned research in ways that was easily understood by the target audience, and included information on what to do /not do if they should encounter a glider or AUV.

SOLSTICE presented outlined plans for each of the campaign, and participants from Zanzibar Archipelago (Uguja and Pemba Islands) were given information which they could disseminate to their respective regional fisher communities about marine robotics and plans for these scientific campaigns. G

The workshop was hosted jointly by the Institute of Marine Sciences and the National Oceanography Centre.

In total there were 20 attendees representing:

1) SOLSTICE: IMS, NOC, WIOMSA

2) Regional Stakeholders, which included:
• Department of Fisheries Development (DFD), Unguja
• District Fisheries Officers from Mkoani, Chake Chake, Micheweni, Wete Districts on Pemba Island
• Pemba Channel Conservation Area (PECCA)
• Zanzibar Fisheries Research Institute (ZAFIRI)
• Zanzibar Maritime Authority (ZMA)
• Tanzania Meteorological Agency (TMA)
• KMKM, Zanzibar Navy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019