High Radiation Tolerant, High Yield, Silicon Detector Designs for Large Volume Trackers at the Super-LHC

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

Detectors needed by particle physics experiments have to withstand huge radiation doses and work for many years. As accelerators become able to reach higher energies and create more and more collisions per second, the requirements for detectors to survive inside the experiments becomes highly challenging. At the moment, the best option for high speed, radiation hard position sensitive detectors is to use segmented silicon. For the volume of the experiment where charged tracks need to be reconstructed as they bend in a high magnetic field, large areas of detectors measuring the particle trajectories to hundredth of a millimeter precision are needed. While we know how to do this with silicon and the LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS have silicon trackers of 60m2 and 200m2 area respectively, we do not know how to build arrays of these areas suitable for ten times the expected dose at the LHC. This is exactly the requirement of the Super-LHC which will operate with an average collision rate ten times that of the LHC. The proposal is a novel approach to building detectors affordably that can meet these demands. It builds on experience at Liverpool in making smaller detector systems able to cope with these very high doses and proposes to explore processing tricks developed for other radiation environments by e2v to come up with a robust method for making the large quantities of silicon microstrip detectors required for the SLHC. Please note: We have tried to put in a joint proposal specifying that e2v are the lead institute. However, since e2v will not input using the JeS system, this seems not to be accepted. This has been reported to JeS (RE: Possible technical difficulties with industry let join bids - HA207389) and they confirmed the system does not allow this. Therefore, we want to make sure STFC understand this is an e2v led bid despite the way this has to be input to JeS so that the electronic system will accept the application.

Publications

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Aad G (2010) The ATLAS Inner Detector commissioning and calibration in The European Physical Journal C

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Abelleira Fernandez J (2012) A Large Hadron Electron Collider at CERN Report on the Physics and Design Concepts for Machine and Detector in Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics

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Affolder A (2009) Studies of charge collection efficiencies of planar silicon detectors after doses up to and the effect of varying diode configurations and substrate types in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

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Affolder A (2011) Silicon detectors for the sLHC in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

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Affolder A. (2011) Silicon detectors for the sLHC in NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

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Affolder Anthony (2010) Charge collection efficiencies of planar silicon detectors after reactor neutron and proton doses up to 1.6 x 10(16) n(eq) cm(-2) in NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

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Affolder Anthony (2010) Collected charge of planar silicon detectors after pion and proton irradiations Up to 2.2 x 10(16) n(eq) cm(-2) in NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT

 
Description Radioation-hard silicon detectors
Exploitation Route Use for proton therapy and possibly for nuclear industry
Sectors Education,Energy,Healthcare

URL https://indico.cern.ch/event/315626/
 
Description Radiation-hard silicon used for Wellcome Trust funded proton therapy development prgoramme
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Education,Electronics,Energy,Healthcare
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Micron 
Organisation Micron Semiconductor
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution CASE Studentship
Collaborator Contribution Silicon Strip Detectors for Proton Therapy and Pixels for ATLAS
Impact Publications, new grants, PRaVDA sensors
 
Description PRAVDA 
Organisation The Proton Radiotherapy Verification and Dosimetry Applications Consortium
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Tracking detectors
Collaborator Contribution DAQ and Range Telescope
Impact Wellcome Trust Supported Collaboration for Proton Therapy
Start Year 2013
 
Description PRAVDA 
Organisation University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Tracking detectors
Collaborator Contribution DAQ and Range Telescope
Impact Wellcome Trust Supported Collaboration for Proton Therapy
Start Year 2013
 
Description PRAVDA 
Organisation University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Tracking detectors
Collaborator Contribution DAQ and Range Telescope
Impact Wellcome Trust Supported Collaboration for Proton Therapy
Start Year 2013
 
Description PRAVDA 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Tracking detectors
Collaborator Contribution DAQ and Range Telescope
Impact Wellcome Trust Supported Collaboration for Proton Therapy
Start Year 2013
 
Description PRAVDA 
Organisation University of Lincoln
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Tracking detectors
Collaborator Contribution DAQ and Range Telescope
Impact Wellcome Trust Supported Collaboration for Proton Therapy
Start Year 2013
 
Description PRAVDA 
Organisation University of Surrey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Tracking detectors
Collaborator Contribution DAQ and Range Telescope
Impact Wellcome Trust Supported Collaboration for Proton Therapy
Start Year 2013
 
Description Proton Therapy 
Organisation The Christie NHS Foundation Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Proton Tracking
Collaborator Contribution Proton Facilities and Planned Proton Therapy Facilities
Impact STFC Awards
Start Year 2013
 
Description Proton Therapy 
Organisation The Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHS Foundation Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Proton Tracking
Collaborator Contribution Proton Facilities and Planned Proton Therapy Facilities
Impact STFC Awards
Start Year 2013
 
Title Pixel 
Description Developments extreme radiation hard pixel systems and development of HVCMOS for the highest doses at HL-LHC also relevant to our proton-therapy applications. Radiation hard detectors 
Type Of Technology Detection Devices 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Wellcome funded PRaVDA project for proton therapy and imaging 
 
Title Proton tracking for cancer treatment 
Description Ultra-fast read-out crossed strip tracking system for individual proton trajectory measurement Radiation hard detectors 
Type Of Technology Detection Devices 
Year Produced 2013 
Impact Crossed-strip developed with Micron Semiconductor (UK) Ltd for use in proton therapy facilities and testing of detectors at the UK's only existing facility, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology 
 
Title n-in-p 
Description Researchers at Liverpool were amoung the first to propose n-implant read-out to achieve greater radiation hardness in silicon strip detectors (See for example P.P. Allport et al. "Radiation tests of ATLAS full-sized n-in-n prototype detectors." Nucl.Instrum. Meth. A418 (1998) 110-119). Through the PhD thesis project of a CASE student (Moshe Hanlon, 1999) with Micron Semiconductor (UK) Ltd, we explored the possibility of producing such sensors with single-sided processing by starting with a p-type substrate (up to this point the detectors provided to nuclear physics, particle physics, space science, astrophysics and medical physics had all been based on very high resistivity n-type silicon substrates). This work has continued to 2012 with the Liverpool Semiconductor Detector Centre (funded by STFC). We continue to play a leading role in the development of this technology with refinement of p-type structure and understanding of the fundamental device physics leading to the recognition of the reasons for the device radiation hardness (30 publications). As part of our recognition for developing this technology, one of our team members (Dr Gianluigi Casse) currently leads the RD50 collaboration (Radiation Hard Sensors for the LHC) at CERN of over 300 scientists, while another, Professor Phil Allport, is Upgrade Coordinator of the 3000 strong ATLAS Experiment. This research has led the two main LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS to adopt n+p (the world?s largest scientific experiments) as their baseline technology for the LHC Upgrades. The Liverpool group also built the first full size LHC prototype sensors for ATLAS Upgrade and in 2012 completed the build of an entire n+p Vertex Detector for LHCb (the first complete detector system of its kind in the world). Our contribution to developing and modelling the intrinsic devices have made them cheap, stable and a reliable commercial technology. The number of international companies and research facilities now able to offer p-type sensors for high radiation environments has grown to 8 including the world's largest supplier Hamamatsu Photonics (Japan) and now 2 UK companies (Micron and e2v Technologies Ltd). From 2008 onwards this research was conducted as part of the STFC Rolling Grant. Radiation hard detectors 
Type Of Technology Detection Devices 
Year Produced 2011 
Impact Suppliers such as Micron (http://www.micronsemiconductor.co.uk/medical_physics.asp?statictextid=8) and e2v (http://www.e2v.com/about-us/) supply to many markets from medical applications to space, and defence but often the new product lines are first deve 
 
Description CERN Courier 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact January 2014 CERN Courier

Journal
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Intelligent Front-End Signal Processing for Frontier Exploitation in Research and Industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Leaders in particle physics talking mostly to students and post-docs working in instrumentation applications

Web pages
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Neston High School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Around 15-20 students per year taken to CERN

Media coverage and one student addressed the Science and Technology Select Committee. (Neston MP is Andre Miller)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2007,2008,
 
Description Royal Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Open workshop organized by Royal society on Particle Physics after the Higgs discovery

recording
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description liverpool Leader 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Paper Presentation
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A full glossy pull-out in the Liverpool Post identified a number of people as "Liverpool Leaders (Knowledge)" in 2013.

Glossy pull-out distributed with Liverpool Post (main regional paper for Liverpool)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013