Proposal for continuation of UK participation in the International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: School of Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

Neutrinos are three different but related particles; their ability to turn into each other has given physicists their first glimpse of the physics which they know must lay beyond the Standard Model. Investigation of the physics which underlies their properties will: deepen our understanding of how the Universe developed after the Big Bang; how the current asymmetry between matter and anti-matter developed from a situation where they were created in equal amounts in the Big Bang; and help us to understand what happens when a supernova explodes showering the cosmos with the heavy elements necessary for planets and life itself to form.
In order to understand their properties, we must build an accelerator capable of creating neutrinos in immense numbers. They must have energy between well-defined limits and the mixture of different types must be very precisely known. Such a facility, known as the Neutrino Factory, would be revolutionary and to build one is a challenging project, both from the point of view of the particle detectors which must be built, and the engineering problems which must be overcome. This programme needs a world-wide collaboration, but it is one in which physicists and engineers from the UK are playing a leading role.

Neutrinos are created from a beam of muons and the muons themselves are produced from the decay of pions produced by the collision of protons with a metal target. A machine to make an intense beam of neutrinos needs to take the beam of muons, which is large and diverges rapidly, and reduce its size and divergence. The resulting beam can be accelerated, stored and when it decays produces an intense beam of neutrinos. The muons only live for 2.2 microseconds when at rest, and even when they are accelerated and their lifetime is extended by the effect of relativity, there is little time to manipulate the muons so that they are in a state to be accelerated.

MICE is an international collaboration based at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire, which uses a beam of muons created by the ISIS accelerator and aims to show that it is feasible to create such an intense beam. It will do this by creating a beam of muons of much lower intensity and tracking each one individually through one part of the system which has been designed to perform this beam compression at the Neutrino Factory. This process where the random sideways motions of the muons are reduced and we are left with the longitudinal motion is referred to as cooling the beam; the system which performs the cooling is known as the cooling channel.

The first stage was to build a system capable of producing a muon beam whose size and divergence could be adjusted before it enters the cooling channel. This was completed last year and measurements have been made to show that the beam has the flexibility and intensity for MICE to perform the required measurements.
The second stage is to finish construction of the cooling channel itself and to provide a system to measure very accurately the position and momentum of each muon before and after it has passed through the cooling channel. By looking at many muons produced in many different conditions, it will be possible to determine how much cooling has been produced by the channel. In the channel itself the muons will be slowed by passing through a suitable material, such as liquid hydrogen, liquid helium or lithium hydride. As they slow they lose momentum both longitudinally and transversely to the beam axis. Then they are accelerated with high field radio frequency cavities, replacing only the longitudinal momentum.

This experiment which is pushing the boundaries of what is possible with materials, magnets and cooling technologies, represents a collaboration between particle physicists, and accelerator physicists and will demonstrate the UK's ability to host an experiment at the forefront of science and engineering.

Organisations

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Developed the design of the cooling channel for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and showed that ionization cooling is a viable accelerator physics technique to reduce the phase space of muons for future accelerators.
Exploitation Route Ionization cooling is essential if beams of the requisite intensity and quality are to be provided for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. The technique can also be used to enhance substantially the sensitivity of experiments seeking to discover charged lepton-flavour violation, such as the Mu2e experiment. The short muon lifetime makes traditional cooling techniques inappropriate. Ionization cooling, in which muons lose energy in low-Z absorbers and their longitudinal momentum is restored by re-accelerating the muons in a series of RF cavities, is the only viable alternative. Cooling is most efficient when the absorbers and the RF cavities are immersed in high-focusing magnetic fields. The collaboration built, commissioned and operated a section of an ionization-cooling channel, with strong-focusing magnetic fields.

MICE is the only experiment in the world performing the measurement of ionization cooling. The demonstration of ionization cooling has already been presented at a number of international conferences by MICE collaborators, and will be published in a high-profile journal. The experiment will pave the way for stored muon beams to become a new technique for particle physics. This breakthrough would change the field fundamentally, making it possible to search for leptonic-CP violation with exquisite sensitivity at the Neutrino Factory, to study lepton-antilepton annihilation energies in excess of 1 TeV at the Muon Collider and, potentially, allow charged lepton-flavour- violation searches with sensitivities corresponding to muon-electron conversion probabilities of better than 10^{-19}.
Sectors Creative Economy,Education,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Other

URL http://mice.iit.edu
 
Description 1) Contribution to worldwide accelerator R&D programme: This is already a success, since new accelerator techniques developed in MICE are affecting the design of future high power proton facilities and can be used to develop future RF cavity technology. 2) Training of accelerator physicists and engineers: MICE has also succeeded in training over 67 STFC and university staff and students, including 32 PhD and MSc students that have graduated (with four more currently doing their PhDs). They are deploying their skills in industry (such as IT consultancy, the financial sector, IBM and defense industries) and as scientists carrying out postdoctoral work in a variety of experiments and facilities. The expertise they developed include low frequency RF for future accelerators, large superconducting solenoids, novel liquid hydrogen handling systems and accelerator instrumentation. 3) The MICE project has already benefitted the following collaborations: the international MICE collaboration encompassing 34 institutions in 8 countries, the International Design Study for a Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF), (https://www.ids-nf.org/wiki/FrontPage), the EC-funded EUROnu project (http://www.euronu.org/), the nuSTORM collaboration (http://arxiv.org/pdf/1206.0294v1.pdf) and the 'Proton Accelerators for Science and Innovation' (PASI) collaboration (http://pasi.org.uk/Main_Page). 4) UK and international industry: MICE has benefitted industry through cryogenic engineering (AS Scientific), collaborative development of large superconducting magnets with TESLA engineering (UK) and Wang NMR (USA), knowledge exchange in the development of the MICE target with TechVac, Multigrind Watford, ExcelPrecision and CCFE-Babcock, and knowledge exchange with UK industry in the manufacture of RF amplifier components, HT safety systems, high power, high frequency electrical contacts and specialist plating and joining methods. 5) Dissemination of activities: There are 18 refereed journal and more than 300 conference publications, a freely accessible archive record (http://www.mice.iit.edu/), organised outreach activities for school students, participation in the Annual Goldsmiths courses for A-level teachers, participation in the Particle Physics Masterclasses, public events, such as the "Accelerator extravaganza" at RAL and the General Public Access Day at RAL (8 July 2015), 15 undergraduate, PGI and summer projects hosted by MICE, publicity through Physics World and the CERN Courier, a prizewinning paper at the "SET for Britain" Meeting in 2009, and other public and media activities and the MICE magnetic shielding mural competition.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Education,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Argonne National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Brookhaven National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Brunel University London
Department School of Information Systems, Computing and Mathematics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP)
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Cockcroft Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Daresbury Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Fermilab - Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Harbin Institute of Technology
Department Institute of Cryogenics and Superconductivity Technology
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)
Department Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies
Country Japan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Muons Inc
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Pavia
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation National Institute for Nuclear Physics
Department National Institute for Nuclear Physics - Pavia
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation National Institute for Subatomic Physics Nikhef
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Osaka University
Department Department of Physics
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Paul Scherrer Institute
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Roma Tre University
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation Sofia University
Department Department of Atomic Physics
Country Bulgaria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
Department Division of Astronomy & Astrophysics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of California, Riverside
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of Geneva
Department Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of Iowa
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of Kyoto
Department Research Reactor Institute
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of Mississippi
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of Naples
Department Department of Physics
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of New Hampshire
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of Northern Illinois
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of Sheffield
Department Department of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006
 
Description International MICE Collaboration 
Organisation University of Trieste
Department Department of Physics
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution MICE conditions database, luminosity monitor, MICE Step I data analysis, analysis of MICE target yields
Collaborator Contribution Buikding the MICE beam, MICE instrumentation and the MICE cooling channel
Impact Construction of the MICE beam, detectors and progress towards construction of the MICE cooling channel
Start Year 2006