Particle Physics Consolidated Grant from the University of Sheffield - ATLAS, ATLAS upgrade, T2K, FNE, MICE, EDELWEISS/EURECA, DMGS, SNO+, R&D, KE

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sheffield
Department Name: Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

We are living in an exceptional age for discoveries in particle physics and particle astrophysics with potential for producing step changes in understanding of the composition of matter and the structure of the Universe. The research we plan with this consolidated grant in particle physics and particle astrophysics at Sheffield is at the core of these discoveries. Firstly, we appear to be near answering the fundamental question of what gives particles mass. In this field Sheffield will continue to play a leading role in the ATLAS experiment that now looks to be on the verge of solving the mystery by detecting the famous Higgs Boson. Our ATLAS work, where we are currently the only UK group heavily involved in the flagship 4-lepton channel Higgs search, will aim to confirm the first evidence for excess reported in Dec. 2011. Simultaneously work will continue in the equally fundamental hunt to find supersymmetric particles and on radiation modeling and detector tests for the ATLAS upgrade anticipated as the next experiment. We currently provide the UK spokesman for ATLAS.
A second recent major advance, made by the T2K experiment in 2011, reports evidence for a non-zero third neutrino mixing angle. This potentially unlocks progress to experiments in so-called charge-parity (CP) violation to answer the mystery of why the Universe contains matter and virtually no anti-matter. Our T2K and neutrino group will focus on contributing further analysis to confirm the new results but also, using our membership of the LBNO and LBNE collaborations, progress key new detector technology towards a next generation long baseline neutrino experiment to see CP violation. For this our focus will be with liquid argon technology, our pioneering work on electroluminescence light readout for that, and our simulation work on backgrounds from muons. The latter is key also to our on-going work towards an experiment to see if the proton decays, an issue at the core of understanding Grand Unified Theories of physics. Closely related and vital for our neutrino programme is continued participation in SNO+, aimed at understanding solar neutrinos, and the MICE experiment with its related R&D on high power particle beam targets for future neutrino beams.
Technological developments recently led to significant improvement in sensitivity of detectors to WIMP dark matter with key contributions from the Sheffield group towards EDELWEISS and DRIFT. Exploiting our leadership in background mitigation strategy, calibration and data analysis, our future work will concentrate on EDELWEISS operation and data analysis, as well as on developments towards ton-scale cryogenic experiment EURECA. The group is also uniquely well positioned to contribute through new work aiming to see, or exclude, a definitive galactic signature for the claimed low mass WIMP events. Our pioneering work on directional WIMP detectors will see a new experiment installed at the UK's Boulby underground site, DRIFTIIe, while our continued analysis of data from DM-ICE17 at the Antarctic South Pole, for which we supplied the NaI detectors, will seek an annual modulation galactic signature and inform design of a new experiment there planned for 2013.
Our generic detector R&D is vital to underpinning the group, closely related to a vigorous knowledge exchange programme that now includes funded projects involving 15 different companies. Highlight activity here will include development of particle tracking technology in liquid argon relevant to neutrino physics and astrophysics, new gas-based directional neutron programmes with relevance for homeland security, and new muon veto R&D. The latter links to our KE programme on CO2 underground storage technology. We plan first deployment of test detectors at 760m depth by 2013. This is part of the group's contribution to key social agendas in climate change and crime prevention.

Planned Impact

The Sheffield group has a strong record of outside impact through KE activity that since 2009 has roughly tripled to include funded projects with government, industry or medical priority areas, particularly in energy and environment. Currently 15 UK companies are involved, with other activity across several non-physics departments, other Universities and government organisations. Notable are:
A major new funded programme on application of particle physics muon detector technology to carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). We are leading with Sheffield departments in geo-mechanics, engineering and law, in cooperation with Durham University and Petrofac Ltd., CO2DeepStore Ltd. and National Grid Carbon, a programme to develop deep bore hole muon tomography to monitor underground stored CO2. This has potential huge impact in the multi billion CCS industry.
A strong effort to spin out dark matter work into sensitive fast neutron detection for homeland security and crime prevention includes: a major funded programme to produce large area (m2) next generation scintillator portal monitors for airborne cargo; a project developing neutron activation for detection of explosives; a project building hand-held neutron detectors for in-field monitoring of nuclear material and dirty bombs; a project to use cosmic rays in nuclear security; a project with Leverhulme, through the DRIFT DM programme, to build a gas-based directional fast neutron detector for security. These activities have potentially huge impact in the multi-billion security industry.
New work for the medical industry has started with funded programmes spun out from T2K work with LabLogistic Ltd. and Southern Scientific Ltd. to develop new liquid scintillator and photo-sensor technology for in-blood tissue diagnostics, and a new programme with the Hallamshire Hospital to spin out our noise extraction data analysis techniques, developed in gravitational wave research (LIGO), for application to brain wave analysis.
Our long-standing cooperation with Cleveland Potash Ltd. (CPL) has aided development of the deep underground Palmer laboratory into a new interdisciplinary low background E-futures laboratory. Here we have projects developing radio-assay and climate change including the SKY-II project to study cosmic ray effects on climate change. There is impact across non-physics projects including biology and underground science and to provide the UK with a world-class facility.
Linked to FNE we have a new programme with Alan Auld Engineering Ltd. to produce new rock engineering simulations transferred via joint supervision of undergraduate and PhD students. They received £350K EU funding as a direct result of our collaboration and also now sponsor a PhD student with us. Linked here is work also with Rhyal Engineering Ltd. for their expertise building massive tanks aiming to expand expertise and promote greater presence in European markets and with Technodyne Ltd. joint work on new cryogenic liquid pumps that can impact their market in LPG tank design.
A major new success is a funded industrial programme to spin out our expertise from ATLAS engineering into the aerospace industry with VCB Group Ltd. This will allow creation of a prototype based on an existing high performance welding system. The principle objective is to transfer an advanced technique developed for automatic joining of ultra thin wall aerospace based metal alloy tube to the VBC group, a UK based SME.
Finally, from our liquid argon work and generic detector R&D there are many worldwide, multi-disciplinary motivations to develop generic cheap liquid argon technology. Specifically we work with Electron Tubes Ltd. and Sensl Ltd. regarding SiPMTs, PMT and associated apparatus. Results of our tests of Sensl SiMPTs already feature in their marketing materials. Involvement with e2V Technologies Ltd. is also ongoing due to their need to develop new CCDs for cryogenic applications.

Organisations

Publications

10 25 50
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A A10 - Abdinov A11 - O A12 - Abi A13 - B A14 - Abolins A15 - M A16 - AbouZeid A17 - OS A18 - Abramowicz A19 - H A20 - Abreu A21 - H A22 - Acerbi A23 - E A24 - Acharya A25 - BS A26 - Adam A27 - E A28 - Adamczyk A29 - L A30 - Adams A31 - DL A32 - Addy A33 - TN A34 - Adelman A35 - J A36 - Aderholz A37 - M A38 - Adomeit A39 - S A40 - Adragna A41 - P A42 - Adye A43 - T A44 - Aefsky A45 - S A46 - Aguilar-Saa Search for resonant WZ production in the WZ -> lvl ' l ' channel in root(s)=7 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

publication icon
A A10 - Abdinov A11 - O A12 - Abi A13 - B A14 - Abolins A15 - M A16 - AbouZeid A17 - OS A18 - Abramowicz A19 - H A20 - Abreu A21 - H A22 - Acerbi A23 - E A24 - Acharya A25 - BS A26 - Adam A27 - ER A28 - Adamczyk A29 - L A30 - Adams A31 - DL A32 - Addy A33 - TN A34 - Adelman A35 - J A36 - Aderholz A37 - M A38 - Adomeit A39 - S A40 - Adragna A41 - P A42 - Adye A43 - T A44 - Aefsky A45 - S A46 - Aguilar-Sa Search for Pair Production of a New b ' Quark that Decays into a Z Boson and a Bottom Quark with the ATLAS Detector

 
Description new accelerator target technology
Exploitation Route improved neutrino beams
Sectors Electronics,Energy

 
Description Consolidated Grant
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/N000277/1, only the fraction of the grant relevant to the LZ commissioning and exploitation is indicated in the cost 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 09/2019
 
Description Muon tomography of volcanoes in South America
Amount £150,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/R002606/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description Particle Physics Consolidated Grant from the University of Sheffield - ATLAS, ATLAS upgrade, T2K, LBNE/F, Hyper-K, MICE, LZ, DMGS, DRIFT, R&D, KE
Amount £2,709,792 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/N000277/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) Dark Matter Search
Amount £4,600,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/M003469/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2018
 
Title Method of modelling muon transport through complex geological structures 
Description We have developed a new method of producing computer model of a geological structure that can be interfaced with the particle transport code used in particle physics, Geant4. The method allowed us to simulate muon transport down to and through a geological structure. The method was validated for a specific type of a geological repository. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Simulation of muon transport through a geological repository - potential site of carbon dioxide storage. Development of the muon tomography technique. 
 
Description ATLAS 
Organisation ATLAS Experiment
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution SCT detector system development, monitoring and running. ATLAS supersymmetry searches and trigger development. Contributions to SUSY 0-lepton analysis.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of ATLAS detector and research environment see http://atlas.ch
Impact Scientific papers as reported elsewhere.
 
Description EDELWEISS 
Organisation Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)
Department Institute of Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe (IRFU)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Monte Carlo modelling of radioactive background, leading the work package on background studies.
Collaborator Contribution Joint work on EDELWEISS-II experiment
Impact One paper has been submitted to Physics Letter B, two more papers are in preparation
Start Year 2010
 
Description EDELWEISS 
Organisation Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Monte Carlo modelling of radioactive background, leading the work package on background studies.
Collaborator Contribution Joint work on EDELWEISS-II experiment
Impact One paper has been submitted to Physics Letter B, two more papers are in preparation
Start Year 2010
 
Description EDELWEISS 
Organisation National Center for Scientific Research (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS)
Department IN2P3-Lyon
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Monte Carlo modelling of radioactive background, leading the work package on background studies.
Collaborator Contribution Joint work on EDELWEISS-II experiment
Impact One paper has been submitted to Physics Letter B, two more papers are in preparation
Start Year 2010
 
Description EDELWEISS 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Particle Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Monte Carlo modelling of radioactive background, leading the work package on background studies.
Collaborator Contribution Joint work on EDELWEISS-II experiment
Impact One paper has been submitted to Physics Letter B, two more papers are in preparation
Start Year 2010
 
Description EURECA 
Organisation Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific collaboration to design, build and operate a tonne-scale cryogenic experiment
Collaborator Contribution Scientific collaboration to design, build and operate a tonne-scale cryogenic experiment
Impact Scientific publications, software development.
Start Year 2006
 
Description EURECA 
Organisation National Center for Scientific Research (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS)
Department Centre for Nuclear Sciences and Material Sciences (CSNSM)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Scientific collaboration to design, build and operate a tonne-scale cryogenic experiment
Collaborator Contribution Scientific collaboration to design, build and operate a tonne-scale cryogenic experiment
Impact Scientific publications, software development.
Start Year 2006
 
Description EURECA 
Organisation National Center for Scientific Research (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS)
Department IN2P3-Lyon
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific collaboration to design, build and operate a tonne-scale cryogenic experiment
Collaborator Contribution Scientific collaboration to design, build and operate a tonne-scale cryogenic experiment
Impact Scientific publications, software development.
Start Year 2006
 
Description EURECA 
Organisation Saclay Nuclear Research Centre
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Scientific collaboration to design, build and operate a tonne-scale cryogenic experiment
Collaborator Contribution Scientific collaboration to design, build and operate a tonne-scale cryogenic experiment
Impact Scientific publications, software development.
Start Year 2006
 
Description EURECA 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific collaboration to design, build and operate a tonne-scale cryogenic experiment
Collaborator Contribution Scientific collaboration to design, build and operate a tonne-scale cryogenic experiment
Impact Scientific publications, software development.
Start Year 2006
 
Description LZ 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Collaborator Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Impact LZ Conceptual Design Report, LZ Technical Design Report, LZ detector
Start Year 2013
 
Description LZ 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department Particle Physics Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Collaborator Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Impact LZ Conceptual Design Report, LZ Technical Design Report, LZ detector
Start Year 2013
 
Description LZ 
Organisation University College London
Department Department of Physics & Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Collaborator Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Impact LZ Conceptual Design Report, LZ Technical Design Report, LZ detector
Start Year 2013
 
Description LZ 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department School of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Collaborator Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Impact LZ Conceptual Design Report, LZ Technical Design Report, LZ detector
Start Year 2013
 
Description LZ 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Collaborator Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Impact LZ Conceptual Design Report, LZ Technical Design Report, LZ detector
Start Year 2013
 
Description LZ 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Collaborator Contribution Working together on the design and future construction of the LZ detector
Impact LZ Conceptual Design Report, LZ Technical Design Report, LZ detector
Start Year 2013
 
Description MICE 
Organisation International MICE Collaboration
Country Global 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design, construction, maintenance and operation of target drive. Periods as Operations Manager on site; running experimental shifts; providing on-call experts, etc. Monitoring of experimental conditions; analysis of data. Magnetic modelling and shielding calculations. Field mapping studies. Calibration system for fibre tracker. Collaboration Board secretary and Chair. Member of Executive Board. Integration Scientist; Detector Coordinator. Duty coordinator.
Collaborator Contribution Joint construction of apparatus; sharing in running shifts; joint analysis of data. Provision of other parts of the experiment.
Impact Working target drive for generation of muons. Operational beam-line for measurement of muon cooling. Journal publications and conference talks.
 
Description Muon tomography for carbon storage monitoring 
Organisation Department of Energy and Climate Change
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Designing and constructing detector prototype, modelling muon transport and detection
Collaborator Contribution Modelling geological repositories, financial contribution of DECC and Premier Oil
Impact Talks at meetings and conferences, applications to funding
Start Year 2012
 
Description Muon tomography for carbon storage monitoring 
Organisation Durham University
Department Department of Earth Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Designing and constructing detector prototype, modelling muon transport and detection
Collaborator Contribution Modelling geological repositories, financial contribution of DECC and Premier Oil
Impact Talks at meetings and conferences, applications to funding
Start Year 2012
 
Description Muon tomography for carbon storage monitoring 
Organisation Premier Oil
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Designing and constructing detector prototype, modelling muon transport and detection
Collaborator Contribution Modelling geological repositories, financial contribution of DECC and Premier Oil
Impact Talks at meetings and conferences, applications to funding
Start Year 2012
 
Description Muon tomography for carbon storage monitoring 
Organisation University of Bath
Department Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Designing and constructing detector prototype, modelling muon transport and detection
Collaborator Contribution Modelling geological repositories, financial contribution of DECC and Premier Oil
Impact Talks at meetings and conferences, applications to funding
Start Year 2012
 
Description PASI 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC)
Department ISIS Neutron and Muon Source
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Calculations and modelling of neutron production, cooling and activation of components.
Collaborator Contribution Design studies for target station upgrades. Benchmark calculations.
Impact Contributions to ISIS target upgrade programme.
Start Year 2012
 
Description T2K 
Organisation T2K Collaboration
Country Global 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Quality assurance/acceptance tests on ECAL scintillators; construction of light injection (LI) system; installation of LI in ECAL modules built at Lancaster, Liverpool, Warwick, & Daresbury; analysis of LI test data; commisioning of LI system on installation of ECAL at Tokai.
Collaborator Contribution Construction of apparatus, commissioning, operations, data analysis
Impact LI system will have impact on performance of ECAL and therefore on quality of physics from T2K.
Start Year 2009
 
Description UK Neutrino factory target 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department Particle Physics Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Intellectual input; management of experimental work; simulation studies; analysis of data
Collaborator Contribution Simulation studies
Impact Publications on high temperature transient properties of tungsten and tantalum
 
Description UK Neutrino factory target 
Organisation University of Warwick
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Intellectual input; management of experimental work; simulation studies; analysis of data
Collaborator Contribution Simulation studies
Impact Publications on high temperature transient properties of tungsten and tantalum
 
Title Modified SOURCES4 code 
Description The original code SOURCES4 developed at LANL (USA) has been modified to allow more accurate calculation of neutron yield in (alpha, n) reactions on a large number of isotopes relevant to material construction for rare event experiments. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact The code is now widely used by physicists working with underground experiments for rare event searches. 
 
Description AAAS Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact 120 journalists attended

Interview for Radio 4 today programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Interview with the Register 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with the journalist from The Register on the LZ programme. An article published online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.theregister.co.uk/2016/08/01/upgraded_lux_experiment_hunt_for_dark_matter/
 
Description Physics World online 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with a journalist from Physics World Online, an article in this online journal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2015/apr/09/dark-matter-and-muons-are-ruled-out-as-dama-sig...
 
Description Publication in the Observer on Sunday 21st September and on the Observer web site. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The article was an answer to a question on addition of velocities, and whether it is possible to exceed the speed of light. Rather than try and describe it, let me just paste the question and my article in here (below). I was working with the Observer Tech monthly columnist, Nicola Davis.
// start of question:
Q Say an aeroplane is flying at 500mph and I run forwards inside the aeroplane at 10mph. I'm
travelling at 510mph. If we replicate this on a larger scale, an aeroplane flying inside another aeroplane, inside another and so on, could we eventually break the speed of light?" asks Paul Dunny
Start of answer:
A The short answer is no. Indeed although the scenario might sound plausible, as Dr Ed
Daw from the University of Sheffield explains: "Sometimes common sense is just wrong, or perhaps different common sense ideas conflict with each other, and something has to give." Another thought experiment provides a good illustration of such limitations. "It is 'common sense'
to say that a car moving on top of another car has a total speed of the sum of their speedometer readings relative to the ground.
"However, what happens if instead of doing this with cars, you do it with light beams?" asks Daw. "Suppose I have a trolley travelling along a road at almost the speed of light, and I shine a light backwards off it. How fast is the backwards travelling light going with respect to the road?"
Following the apparent "logic" of the argument brings you to a bizarre conclusion: "The so-called 'common sense' above suggests that if the trolley is travelling fast enough, the light can be stationary," says Daw. "That's just nonsense! Stationary light? Well, at least, Einstein thought it was nonsense."
Unfazed, the great man of physics understood that one aspect of the scenario must be awry. "He realised that the common sense notion of light as somehow NOT like particles, and of light always travelling fast with respect to anyone looking, meant that the idea of adding speeds together to get a resultant speed [that is] the sum of its parts just can't be right for light, and therefore it isn't right for other objects moving at speeds close to the speed of light either," says Daw.

There were many public comments on the web site for this column on my article, and it clearly stimulate a lot of debate by members of the public, who tend to be fascinated by the apparent paradoxes of Special Relativity. It is important that the Public continue to be made aware of the fascinating nature of modern scientific theories, and I hope my participation in this outreach activity made some contribution to that end.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/sep/21/speed-light-science-questions-answered
 
Description Radio 4 interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Radio 4 Today programme interview on Dark Matter

Appeared on Radio 4 Today programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description School visits 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Multiple talks, to groups of 20-30 sixth form pupils.
Questions and discussions followed.
Roughly 8-10 such talks per year in recent years.

Further invitations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018
 
Description Sunday Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview on Dark Matter for Sunday Times March 2013

Article in Sunday Times 24/3/13
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013