PML Cycling in the Sunlit Ocean (biogeochemical cycling)

Lead Research Organisation: Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Abstract

The cycling of elements within the surface oceans and coastal seas has important effects upon marine productivity, atmospheric chemistry and for life on land. These areas are also thought to play a major role in climate regulation via the uptake and release of climatically active gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the roles of these chemical and biological processes, as well as the processes performed by the microbial community, are not well quantified or understood and therefore, the way in which they will respond to global change is a major question for science and society. All of the processes that occur in the ocean will be directly or indirectly affected by ocean acidification; the lowering of seawater pH due to human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels. Uncertainties remain about how any future changes in pH will impact upon element cycling and how this will affect the goods and services provided by the ocean. Increasing fundamental understanding of the ocean, and the invisible processes taking place within, creates a more informed and evidence based foundation for analysing, predicting and responding to the effects of ocean acidification, climate change and developing sustainable marine management strategies. PML has a long and internationally recognised track record in biogeochemical cycling research, which requires an interdisciplinary approach to study the interface of biology, chemistry and physics. Key research areas: a) air-sea gas exchange; b) oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs); c) dimethyl sulphide (DMS); d) nitrogen cycling; e) ocean acidification; f) primary production; g) microbes and viruses.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Marine biogeochemical cycles affect atmospheric chemistry and climate via the exchanges of gases and impact on ocean productivity by controlling nutrients. Our research has improved fundamental understanding of marine biogeochemical cycles and allowed us to develop predictions of how these cycles might alter in a changing climate. Examples of our key findings include;

1) Air-sea gas exchange. We have shown in field experiments that the rate at which gases transfer between the atmosphere and ocean is strongly reduced in the presence of organics on the sea surface. Surprisingly, we even saw reductions at high winds. We have found that the transfer of gases is not as high as predicted by models and lab experiments at high winds, possibly due to wave effects.

2) Ocean acidification and trace gases. We have made the first measurements of the response of trace gases to ocean acidification. We have shown in field experiments that that the production of nitrous oxide, dimethyl sulphide and iodine containing gases are all reduced in response to high carbon dioxide levels with implications for human health, atmospheric chemistry and climate.

3) We have made major progress in understanding the cycling of oxygenated organics in seawater. These compounds include alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. We developed novel instrumentation to measure these gases and made the first measurements of ethanol and propanol in seawater. We have shown that the oceans act as a strong source of some of these compounds to the atmosphere. We have also made the first field measurements of the flux of methanol between the air and oceans and used data to test models for the transfer of soluble gases between the oceans and atmosphere.

4) We have installed and maintained fully autonomous systems for measuring carbon dioxide levels in the air and oceans on board the three NERC research ships. This data has been used in individual research projects and also been added to SOCAT, a large international database used to quantify how much man-made carbon dioxide the oceans are taking up from the atmosphere.

5) We have developed techniques that measure the role of marine organisms in the cycling of organic gases in the oceans. We have found that bacteria rapidly remove methanol and acetaldehyde from seawater and use these compounds as a source of both energy and carbon. Similarly we have shown that DMSO is used by marine organisms at a much faster rate than originally thought.

6) We have gained fundamental understanding of how marine viruses interact with their hosts and with each other, e.g. programmed host cell death in regulating viruses and the occurrence of chlorophyll alteration products during viral infection of phytoplankton.

7) We have developed a waste water treatment system and rapid method for the eradication of E-coli from waste water streams.
Exploitation Route Findings will be used by other scientists, by the Hadley Centre (UK Met Office), by policy makers, by the IPCC and hence by governments and may be of interest to industry.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Energy,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

 
Description Transport of gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, and the cycling of nutrients within the oceans has profound implications for our environment and the Earth's climate. Findings in this area have contributed to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and to policy reports.
First Year Of Impact 2007
Sector Energy,Environment
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Best Practice Report of the Workshop on Synthesis of Hydrographic, Phytoplankton, Microbial Plankton and Zooplankton Time Series in the North Atlantic and Adjacent Seas (WKSERIES)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
 
Description Development of an ammonia sensor through a KTP Innovate proposal, subcontract via University of Nottingham
Amount £27,100 (GBP)
Funding ID KTP010649 
Organisation University of Nottingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2020
 
Description NERC Discovery Science July 2017 submission round
Amount £647,921 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/R010382/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 05/2021
 
Title Culture methods established for enabling analytical examination of phytoplankton DOM 'fingerprints'. 
Description Culturing methods using axenic cell lines established so that the DOM produced by phytoplankton can be extracted, and samples prepared for mass spectrometry analysis. These fingerprints will represent the biochemical complexity of the living cells. Uniquely to this study, this material will not have been exposed to bacterial activity and so will include the full spectrum of material that is available to natural bacterial communities. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This is a facilitating development for the delivery of the project. 
 
Title New CRDS instrument for greenhouse gases in seawater 
Description A new instrument was developed for the measurement of greenhouse gases (CO2/CH4/N2O) dissolved in seawater. This instrument integrates a cavity ring down spectrometer, showerhead equilibrator and associated electronics, water- and gas-handling hardware and gas standards. The instrument is automated to work in "underway" mode on research vessels. Compared to existing instrumentation, this provides increased sample throughput (data acquisition every 10 seconds compared to hourly) without compromising accuracy and precision. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The instrument provides increased data coverage which facilitates research into the role of the oceans as sources/sinks of greenhouse gases. 
 
Title Spectrophotometric pH in seawater 
Description A new instrument was developed for the spectrophotometric determination of seawater pH using the meta-cresol-purple dye (MCP). The automated system integrates a high precision burette, spectrophotometer and thermometer with a custom-built light source. Data reduction is performed with a custom script in R (r-project.org). The accuracy of the system is calculated as better than 0.003 pH units when compared with pH calculated from independent measurements of Alkalinity and Inorganic Carbon in seawater. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Automation ensures improved reliability, accuracy and precision with substantial efficiency improvement translating to reduced cost. Potential to get the whole carbonate system (TA, DIC, pH and pCO2) from a single sample. 
 
Title 14C tracer experiments station L4 
Description 14C2 - DMSO tracer being used to determine loss rates due to a) dissimilation to CO2 for microbial energy generation and b) microbial assimilation for growth 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Annual surveys at station L4 undertaken in 2014 and 2016. Data will be submitted to BODC once it has been quality controlled. DOI will then follow. 
 
Title Abundance of microbial phytoplankton abundance and bacteria through the water column during the AMT28/JR18001 cruise in 2018. 
Description Fresh seawater samples were collected in clean 250 mL polycarbonate bottles using a Seabird CTD system containing a 24 bottle rosette of 20 L Niskin bottles from 200 m to the surface at predawn and solar noon CTD casts. Samples were stored in a refrigerator and analysed within 2 hours of collection. Fresh samples were measured using a Becton Dickinson FACSort flow cytometer which characterised and enumerated Prochlorococcus sp. and Synechococcus sp. (cyanobacteria) and pico- and eukaryote phytoplankton, based on their light scattering and autofluorescence properties. The resulting data provide information on the abundance of marine microbes in the sunlit upper ocean in the Atlantic from approx. 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south and form part of an ongoing time series, which began in 1995. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The database has only just been created, so there are no impacts to report. 
 
Title Abundance of microbial phytoplankton abundance through the water column during the AMT29/JR19001 cruise in 2019. 
Description This dataset contains depth profiles of the mean abundance of groups of plankton as cells per millilitre, measured using flow cytometry from research cruise AMT29 in October-November 2019. The groups quantified are divided into phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria. Phytoplankton groups quantified are: Synechococcus sp., Prochlorococcus sp. (cyanobacteria), picoeuakryotes (smaller than 2 µm), cryptophytes, coccolithophores, and nanoeukaryotes not already mentioned (2-20 µm). Heterotrophs quantified are: bacteria with relatively high nucleic acid content and bacteria with relatively low DNA. Samples were collected using a Seabird rosette sampler containing 20 L Niskin bottles and analysed within 3 hours of being taken. Bacteria were enumerated from all sample depths. Phytoplankton were analysed from all depths to a maximum of 200 m. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Only recently submitted to BODC 
 
Title Abundance of phytoplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and bacteria through the water column at time series station L4 in the Western English Channel, 2007-2017 
Description This dataset contains depth profiles of the mean abundance of groups of plankton as cells per millilitre, measured using flow cytometry from the long-term sampling station, L4 (50°15.0'N; 4°13.0'W) situated off the south-west coast of England, United Kingdom. The groups quantified are divided into phytoplankton and heterotrophs. Phytoplankton groups quantified are: Synechococcus sp. (cyanobacteria), picoeuakryotes (smaller than 2 µm), cryptophytes, coccolithophores, small dinoflagellates (<20 µm), Phaeocystis sp. and nanoeukaryotes not already mentioned (2-20 µm). Heterotrophs quantified are: heterotrophic nanoflagellates, bacteria with relatively high nucleic acid content and bacteria with relatively low DNA. Samples were collected and analysed in duplicate (heterotrophs) or triplicate (phytoplankton) from 2 m, 10 m, 25 m and 50 m depth. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None yet 
URL https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/published_data_library/catalogue/10.5285/908f84ec-d20c-7c88-e053-6c86abc...
 
Title Abundance of phytoplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and bacteria through the water column at time series station L4 in the Western English Channel, 2007-2018. 
Description This dataset contains depth profiles of the mean abundance of groups of plankton as cells per millilitre, measured using flow cytometry from the long-term sampling station, L4 (50°15.0'N; 4°13.0'W) situated off the south-west coast of England, United Kingdom. The groups quantified are divided into phytoplankton and heterotrophs. Phytoplankton groups quantified are: Synechococcus sp. (cyanobacteria)(Syn), picoeuakryotes (smaller than 2 µm) (Peuk), cryptophytes (Crypto), coccolithophores (Cocco), small dinoflagellates (<20 µm) (Dino), Phaeocystis sp. (Pcystis) and nanoeukaryotes (Neuk) not already mentioned (2-20 µm). Heterotrophs quantified are: heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN), bacteria with relatively high nucleic acid content (HNA) and bacteria with relatively low DNA. Samples were collected and analysed in duplicate (heterotrophs) or triplicate (phytoplankton) from 2 m, 10 m, 25 m and 50 m depth. In 2007 the Secchi depth was sampled instead of the 10 m depth. NOTE: In 2013 an extra column appears in the abundance section and in the standard deviation section. The columns are labelled 'Pnitz'; possibly the chain-forming diatom Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. It is also present in 2011 and 2012 where the samples were run using the newest flow cytometer at PML - data still to be supplied. Discrimination is down to better measurement of forward light scatter with the new flow cytometer (a BD Accuri C6). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None, in relation to the Question help. 
 
Title E1 Nutrient Time Series, 2002 to 2016 
Description Nutrient concentration profiles from long term time series at Station E1 in the Western English Channel from 2002 to 2016 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Time series trends of nutrient in the English Channel are observed 
URL http://www.westernchannelobservatory.org.uk/
 
Title Effects of ocean acidifcation on the production and cycling of DMS and DMSP on the UK shelf 
Description A research cruise was undertaken in UK Shelf waters to investigate the response of surface ocean microbial communities to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry induced by the oceanic uptake of human CO2 emissions - a phenomenon known as ocean acidifcation (OA). Standing stocks of the trace gase dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and its algal precursor dimethyl sulphoniopropionate (DMSP), as well as measurements of rates of algal DMSP synthesis and bacterial DMS consumption and production, were m, A research cruise was undertaken in UK Shelf waters to investigate the response of surface ocean microbial communities to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry induced by the oceanic uptake of human CO2 emissions - a phenomenon known as ocean acidifcation (OA). Standing stocks of the trace gase dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and its algal precursor dimethyl sulphoniopropionate (DMSP), as well as measurements of rates of algal DMSP synthesis and bacterial DMS consumption and production, were measu 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not known 
 
Title Effects of ocean acidification on the production and cycling of DMS and DMSP in the Arctic Ocean 
Description Effects of ocean acidification on the production and cycling of DMS and DMSP in the Arctic Ocean 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not known 
 
Title Effects of ocean acidification on the production and cycling of DMS and DMSP in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic waters 
Description A research cruise was undertaken in Southern Ocean and Antarctic waters in January/February 2013 to investigate the response of surface ocean microbial communities to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry induced by the oceanic uptake of human CO2 emissions - a phenomenon known as ocean acidifcation (OA). Standing stocks of the trace gase dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and its algal precursor dimethyl sulphoniopropionate (DMSP), as well as measurements of rates of algal DMSP synthesis and bac, A research cruise was undertaken in Southern Ocean and Antarctic waters in January/February 2013 to investigate the response of surface ocean microbial communities to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry induced by the oceanic uptake of human CO2 emissions - a phenomenon known as ocean acidifcation (OA). Standing stocks of the trace gase dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and its algal precursor dimethyl sulphoniopropionate (DMSP), as well as measurements of rates of algal DMSP synthesis and bacteri 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not known 
 
Title Geotraces Intermediate Data Product 2017 
Description Global database for Nutrients and trace metals along Geotraces survey lines. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Presentation and release at Ocean Sciences meeting in Portland Oregon. 
URL http://www.geotraces.org/dp/idp2017
 
Title L4 Nutrient Time Series, 2000 to 2016 
Description Nutrient concentration profiles from long term time series at Station L4 in the Western English Channel from 2000 to 2016 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Annual trends and changes in the Nutrient patterns are observed 
URL http://www.westernchannelobservatory.org.uk/
 
Title L4 time series - DMS/Methylamines 
Description Preliminary Tedlar incubation methylamine addition experiments (with stable S tracers d3-DMS, d6-DMSP, 13C2-DMSO) have been undertake at station L4. Routine sampling will commence in ~September 2019 as detailed in the proposal. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet - too early in the research proposal. 
URL https://www.pml.ac.uk/Research/Projects/Bacterial_DMS
 
Title Nitrogen Cycling in the UK shelf Sea 
Description Data set describing how the marine nitrogen cycle responds to ocean acidification in the pelagic environment within the UK shelf Seas. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact First reports of the impact of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in UK waters 
 
Title Phytoplankton growth dynamics in response to Ocean Acidification 
Description Dataset describing how the growth dynamics of marine phytoplankton respond to the combination of nutrient limitation and ocean acidification. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not known 
 
Title Plankton abundance measured by flow cytometry from long term time series Station E1 in the Western English Channel for 2019 
Description This dataset contains depth profiles of the abundance of groups of plankton as cells per millilitre, measured using flow cytometry from the long-term sampling station, E1 (50°2.05'N; 4°22.5'W) situated off the south-west coast of England, United Kingdom. The groups quantified are divided into phytoplankton and heterotrophs. Phytoplankton groups quantified are: Synechococcus sp. (cyanobacteria), picoeuakryotes (smaller than 2 µm), cryptophytes, coccolithophores, small dinoflagellates (<20 µm), Phaeocystis sp. and nanoeukaryotes not already mentioned (2-20 µm). Heterotrophs quantified are: bacteria with relatively high nucleic acid content (HNA) and bacteria with relatively low DNA. Samples were collected and analysed from 2, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 m depth. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Only recently submitted to BODC 
 
Title Plankton abundance measured by flow cytometry from long term time series at Station E1 in the Western English Channel from 2014 - 2018. 
Description This dataset contains depth profiles of the abundance of groups of plankton as cells per millilitre, measured using flow cytometry from the long-term sampling station, E1 (50°2.05'N; 4°22.5'W) situated off the south-west coast of England, United Kingdom. The groups quantified are divided into phytoplankton and heterotrophs. Phytoplankton groups quantified are: Synechococcus sp. (cyanobacteria)(Syn), picoeuakryotes (smaller than 2 µm) (Peuk), cryptophytes (Crypto), coccolithophores (Cocco), small dinoflagellates (<20 µm) (Dino), Phaeocystis sp. (Pcystis) and nanoeukaryotes (Neuk) not already mentioned (2-20 µm). Heterotrophs quantified are: bacteria with relatively high nucleic acid content (HNA) and bacteria with relatively low DNA. Samples were collected and analysed from 2, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 m depth. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None in relation to the Question help 
 
Title Plankton abundance measured by flow cytometry from long term time series at Station E1 in the Western English Channel from 2014 to 2017 
Description This dataset contains depth profiles of the abundance of groups of plankton as cells per millilitre, measured using flow cytometry from the long-term sampling station, E1 (50°2.05'N; 4°22.5'W) situated off the south-west coast of England, United Kingdom. The groups quantified are divided into phytoplankton and heterotrophs. Phytoplankton groups quantified are: Synechococcus sp. (cyanobacteria), picoeuakryotes (smaller than 2 µm), cryptophytes, coccolithophores, small dinoflagellates (<20 µm), Phaeocystis sp. and nanoeukaryotes not already mentioned (2-20 µm). Heterotrophs quantified are: bacteria with relatively high nucleic acid content (HNA) and bacteria with relatively low DNA. Samples were collected and analysed from 2, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 m depth. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact None yet 
 
Title Plankton abundance measured by flow cytometry from long term time series at Station L4 in the Western English Channel from 2019. 
Description This dataset contains depth profiles of the mean abundance of groups of plankton as cells per millilitre, measured using flow cytometry from the long-term sampling station, L4 (50°15.0'N; 4°13.0'W) situated off the south-west coast of England, United Kingdom. The groups quantified are divided into phytoplankton and heterotrophs. Phytoplankton groups quantified are: Synechococcus sp. (cyanobacteria), picoeuakryotes (smaller than 2 µm), cryptophytes, coccolithophores, small dinoflagellates (<20 µm), Phaeocystis sp. and nanoeukaryotes not already mentioned (2-20 µm). Heterotrophs quantified are: heterotrophic nanoflagellates, bacteria with relatively high nucleic acid content and bacteria with relatively low DNA. Samples were collected and analysed in duplicate (heterotrophs) or triplicate (phytoplankton) from 2 m, 10 m, 25 m and 50 m depth. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Only recently submitted to BODC 
 
Title SOLAS N Fixation data-sets 
Description Vertical profiles of nitrogen fixation rates during the UK SOLAS cruise D325 Nitrogen fixation from bioassay experiments by stable-isotope mass spectrometry on UKSOLAS cruise D325 Nitrogen fixation from diel surveys by stable-isotope mass spectrometry on UKSOLAS cruise D325 Impact of phosphate and iron fertilisation on rates of nitrogen fixation in surface waters by stable-isotope mass spectrometry during the FEEP programme cruise PO311, Vertical profiles of nitrogen fixation rates during the UK SOLAS cruise D325 Nitrogen fixation from bioassay experiments by stable-isotope mass spectrometry on UKSOLAS cruise D325 Nitrogen fixation from diel surveys by stable-isotope mass spectrometry on UKSOLAS cruise D325 Impact of phosphate and iron fertilisation on rates of nitrogen fixation in surface waters by stable-isotope mass spectrometry during the FEEP programme cruise PO311 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2009 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Collaboration with University California Santa Cruz and publication: Turk et al 2011 
 
Title SW rivers and estuaries: Concentrations of methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone. 
Description A series of rivers and estuaries were sampled in the SW England to determine the concentrations of the main OVOC compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Data analysis ongoing. 
 
Title Seawater concentration of DMSO, DMS, DMSP database for 2014 and 2016 completed. 
Description Approximately annual surveys of the changes in concentrations of DMSO, DMS and DMSP have been undertaken in 2014 and 2016 on surface (10m) and deep (50m) water samples. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data has been provided to collaborators at Warwick University. Data has been sent to BODC. Waiting for DOI. 2014 data doi:10.5285/77294815-9c69-338b-e053-6c86abc070db 2016 data doi:10.5285/77294815-9c6a-338b-e053-6c86abc070db 
URL https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/published_data_library/catalogue/10.5285/77294815-9c6a-338b-e053-6c86abc...
 
Title Stable tracer experiments for determining DMSO loss processes Station L4 
Description Three stable tracers were used (13C-DMSO, d3- DMS, d6-DMSP) to determine the biological consumption, net and gross production and turnover times of DMS, DMSP and DMSO in surface waters of station L4, WCO. 2014 and 2016 datasets. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Detailed time series in 2016 (with some preliminary data from 2014). Data has been submitted to BODC WCO database. Currently waiting for DOI from BODC. 
 
Title Western Channel Observatory: L4 and E1 Microbial methanol uptake rates, virus numbers & diversity of xoxF5 genes. 
Description A one-year time-series was conducted with the objectives of (i) characterising the seasonal variability in microbial methanol uptake rates throughout the water column, and (ii) determine whether any relationships exist with virus abundances, biogeochemical parameters and/or bacterial groups. Sampling was carried out between August 2017 and September 2018, with water samples used to determine the microbial methanol uptake (dissimilation and assimilation) and bacterial production rates. Additionally, samples were taken to investigate the virus abundances, bacterial abundances and DNA was extracted from 0.2 µm filters to investigate the taxonomic diversity of the 16S rRNA (V4 Region) and xoxF5 genes at surface and bottom depths. Samples from L4 were taken from different depths (2 m, 10 m, 25 m and 50 m), but assimilation was only determined at surface and 50 m depth. Similarly, at E1, water samples for uptake rates and virus abundances were determined at the surface and 60 m. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Kevin past his Viva February 2020 with minor corrections. 
 
Title pCO2 and SOCAT 
Description Measurements of pCO2 from autonomous systems deployed on the NERC Research ships are submitted to BODC and to SOCAT, an international database used to help scientists determine how much anthropogenic CO2 has been taken up by the oceans and hence, by difference, by the land. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data are used in scientific papers, in an annual estimate of greenhouse gases, and contribute to policy reports including the IPCC 
URL http://www.socat.info/
 
Description C0-organise and Lead an International Nutrient Training Workshop for scientists from developing countries 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-organised and lead an International Training Workshop held at NIOZ, The Netherlands to instruct scientists from developing countries in Nutrient analysis techniques and best analytical practice. Successfully gained funding for this from SCOR and POGO.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Co-Chair of SCOR International Nutrient Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact SCOR working group #147: Towards comparability of global oceanic nutrient data.
Organise International meetings and workshops to further the aims of the working group which is to improve global nutrient analysis through the use of certified reference materials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description Co-Chair of SCOR International Nutrient Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact SCOR working group #147: Towards comparability of global oceanic nutrient data.
Organise International meetings and workshops to further the aims of the working group which is to improve global nutrient analysis through the use of certified reference materials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017,2018
URL http://www.scor-int.org/SCOR_WGs_WG147.htm
 
Description GESAMP 44 side event, WMO Geneva, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Frances Hopkins gave an invited presentation at the 44th Annual Meeting of UN-GESAMP in Geneva, Switzerland. The session was titled: CO2 in the atmosphere-ocean system: impacts and feedbacks, and the talk title was: changing ocean acidity as a modulator of atmospheric biogeochemistry and climate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description GESAMP WG 38 workshop, Impact of ocean acidification on fluxes of non-CO2 climate-active species 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This workshop focused on the impacts of ocean acidification on the oceanic sources of a range of non-CO2 gaseous species as well as aerosol precursors that are influential in regulating radiative forcing, atmospheric oxidizing capacity and atmospheric chemistry. Participants included international scientists working in this field of research. The workshop has the following Terms of Reference:

1. Review and synthesize the current science on the direct impacts of ocean acidification on marine production and emissions to the atmosphere of key species important for climate and atmospheric chemistry.
2. Identify the primary needs for new research to improve process understanding and to quantify the impact of ocean acidification on these marine fluxes (i.e., provide recommendations on the specific laboratory process studies, field measurements and model analyses needed to support targeted research activities and improved understanding on this topic).
3. Publish the results of this activity in the open peer-reviewed scientific literature.
4. Provide input to and interact with national and international research programs on ocean acidification (e.g., UKOA, NOAA-OAP) and with relevant WMO programs (e.g., Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)) to build on their recent relevant activity in achieving the above objectives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited member of IOCCP Expert working group-Setting Observing Targets for Biogeochemical Observing System in the Atlantic 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop Goals
• Decide on the biogeochemical (BGC) phenomena for which to set observing targets, based on the list of phenomena developed by AtlantOS WP1.
• Define what an observing target is in the context of the BGC observing system
• Set observing targets for BGC phenomena (described by relevant variables)
• Analyse feasibility of set targets with respect to current capacities to enable a comprehensive gap analysis
• Provide recommendations for designing an optimized Atlantic Ocean observing system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Member of consultancy team for the design and build of the new UK Polar Research Vessel, the RRS Sir David Attenborough 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Representing the UK Marine Chemistry community and wider UK Marine Science community as part of the design and consultation team
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description Member of consultancy team for the design and build of the new UK Polar Research Vessel, the RRS Sir David Attenborough 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Representing the UK Marine Chemistry community and wider UK Marine Science community as part of the design and consultation team
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019,2020
URL https://www.bas.ac.uk/polar-operations/sites-and-facilities/facility/rrs-sir-david-attenborough/
 
Description Moderate a scientific presentation session at the Ocean Sciences Meeting in Portland, Oregon, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Moderating a session is to introduce and Chair the session talks and questions at the International bi-annual ocean Sciences meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Nutrient and related PML activites during the ORCHESTRA programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation about the proposed science activities of PML to be carried out during the UK cross Centre ORCHESTRA programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.bas.ac.uk/project/orchestra/
 
Description Nutrient characteristics during the UK Shelf Seas Programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the Final UK Shelf Seas (SSB) meeting held in Winchester, UK. This was a summary of the general nutrient results from the series of research cruises in 2014 and 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Organise and Co-Chair the annual meeting of the SCOR International Nutrient Working Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact CO-organised and Chaired the annual meeting of the International SCOR working group on Nutrients
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Present OA research at IMBER conference (Bergen) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk highlighted recent findings on the impact of OA on the marine nitrogen cycle and created great interest with peers

Invitation to write paper for forthcoming journal special issue
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation at International CLIVAR meeting in Qingdao China, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation about the work and results from the SCOR International Working group on Nutrients.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at the Ocean Sciences Meeting held in Portland Oregon, February, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation about the work and results from the SCOR International Working group on Nutrients.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to Local Womens Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave presentation on NERC funded research to approx. 20 members of a local womens group. Questions and discussion followed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SCOR WG147: Towards comparability of global ocean nutrient data 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on the activities of SCOR WG147 to the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Annual Meeting, Plymouth, UK, September 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://scor-int.org/Annual%20Meetings/2018_SCOR_Meeting/2018_SCOR_Annual_Meeting.htm