Avian influenza transmission at the animal-human interface in Bangladesh

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Veterinary College
Department Name: Production and Population Health

Abstract

Zoonotic avian influenza virus (AIV) strains H5N1 and H9N2 are endemic in several Asian countries,including Bangladesh. Although these viruses have only caused sporadic infections in humans so far, their continuous circulation in poultry populations and their potential for recombination and/or reassortment withhuman influenza strains raise concern about their pandemic potential. This project aims to assess the risk of zoonotic transmission of AIVs at the human-animal interface in Bangladesh.
A cross-sectional survey with structured interviews will be conducted to assess live bird market workers andsmall-scale poultry farmers' practices that impact on their likelihood of exposure to zoonotic AIVs. Using multivariable statistics, "profiles" presenting a high risk of exposure to AIV will be identified. Given thatbackyard poultry are generally raised by women, gender-specific exposure will be assessed separately. The cross-sectional survey conducted among small-scale poultry farmers and live bird market workers will alsoassess seroprevalence levels to H5, H7 and H9 AIVs. The association between their levels of potential risk of exposure to AIV, and their actual serological status to AIVs will be assessed. Likewise, the associationbetween serological status in humans and virological and serological status of in-contact poultry - which will be obtained in a parallel survey - will be examined. Finally, a study will be conducted in a sample of live bird markets to assess how hygiene interventions aiming to reduce the survival of AIVs in the environment and their zoonotic transmission are implemented. It will allow the development of recommendations to improve the effectiveness to these interventions.
This PhD project will be part a wider project involving several research institutions in the UK and Bangladesh, offering the successful applicant a unique opportunity to be part of an inter-disciplinary research team and be exposed to a range of scientific disciplines and methods.

Publications

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Studentship Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Student Name
BB/N503563/1 01/10/2015 30/09/2019
1681346 Studentship BB/N503563/1 01/12/2015 31/05/2019 Mahbubur Rahman
 
Description Evidence of aerosolization of avian influenza virus in Live Bird Markets (LBMs) and its presence in respiratory passages of workers. More than half (59.5%) of LBMs, 46.3% of air samples and 10.7% individual worker's respiratory samples (nasal/throat/both) were contaminated with Avian Influenza A virus. Nearly all of the LBM workers used bare hands even for sick or dead poultry. A quarter used masks and reported washing hands with soap after dealing with dead poultry. Presence of ducks in the market were strongly associated with respiratory contamination. Slaughtering in the stall had higher risk for respiratory contamination, whereas boiling before defeathering and use of defeathering machine in the stall had protective effect against respiratory contamination.
Exploitation Route Knowledge gained from the project will help inform better targeted prevention and control measures for avian influenza transmission at the human-animal interface for Bangladesh. Air sampling can be used as a non-invasive surveillance tool in live bird markets for developing countries.
This study will allow to determine whether market poultry or any specific environment or risk behaviors are the source of avian-to-human transmission of avian influenza A viruses infection. Findings will inform policy directives for poultry interventions to reduce risk of poultry-to-human AIV transmission.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Healthcare

 
Description Evaluation of potential risk of transmission of Avian Influenza A at the human-animal interface in response to unusual crow die off in Bangladesh
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description 2nd International Meeting on Respiratory Pathogens (ISIRV-IMRP 2018)
Amount $1,700 (USD)
Organisation International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases 
Sector Learned Society
Country Unknown
Start 03/2018 
End 03/2018
 
Description Young Scientist Travel Grant for the Sixth ESWI Influenza Conference
Amount € 800 (EUR)
Organisation European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2017
 
Title Research Questionnaire 
Description Research questionnaire which collect information on live bird market structure and hygiene and live bird market workers practices 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Market and individual level hygienic practices 
 
Title Collection of air sample, nasal/throat swab and blood sample from individual worker 
Description Collection of air sample with two different type of air samplers, nasal/throat swab and acute and convalescent blood sample from individual worker 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Evidence of aerosolization of avian influenza in LBMs and its presence in respiratory passages of workers 
 
Title Longitudinal air sampling for one year 
Description Collection of air samples from 10 live bird markets every monthly for one year 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Yet to generate any notable outcome 
 
Description Collaboration - microbiological air sampler provided by the University of Minnesota 
Organisation University of Minnesota
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The project team collected and analysed samples. Collaborators will be associated to publications.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Montserrat Torremorell (College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA) lent us a microbiological air sampler.
Impact Samples have been collected and are being analysed. Joint publications will be produced.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Host Institutions and collaborations 
Organisation Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute
PI Contribution I am enrolled with RVC for my PhD studentship. One of my supervisor's is from LSHTM. The LSHTM supervisor plays the key role in designing and guiding the project which forms the human aspect of the main one-health study. My field work and data collection in Bangladesh is based in IEDCR where I am contributing to the National Influenza Center. I am also supporting IEDCR in its different epidemiological programs, research and workforce development activities. One of my supervisors is based in CVASU in Bangladesh and plays a facilitating role with the main project. BLRI is testing the air samples. FAO allows with to work with their existing live bird market surveillance (Sink surveillance)
Collaborator Contribution I am hosted by RVC as a PhD student. I get training support from RVC that includes regular training programs, including online ones. I am attending as short courses in LSHTM key courses in epidemiology and advanced statistics. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR)/National Influenza Centre (NIC), Bangladesh have contributed for in-kind support and equipment purchasing . IEDCR is also helping in subtyping of PCR results via the US CDC. The local institutional lead for the project is given by IEDCR. BLRI, Bangladesh is collaborating for lab testing of air samples. FAO, Bangladesh is collaborating specially with the longitudinal study through their existing sink surveillance including synchronisation of activities and data sharing. Dr Montserrat Torremorell, Associate Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA has lent and provided training for the use of an air sampler. Laboratory of Professor Malik Peiris, from University of Hong Kong, will support for serological testing (HAI and neutralization assays).
Impact Multidisciplinary collaboration for achieving targeted outcomes
Start Year 2016
 
Description Host Institutions and collaborations 
Organisation Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Country Bangladesh 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am enrolled with RVC for my PhD studentship. One of my supervisor's is from LSHTM. The LSHTM supervisor plays the key role in designing and guiding the project which forms the human aspect of the main one-health study. My field work and data collection in Bangladesh is based in IEDCR where I am contributing to the National Influenza Center. I am also supporting IEDCR in its different epidemiological programs, research and workforce development activities. One of my supervisors is based in CVASU in Bangladesh and plays a facilitating role with the main project. BLRI is testing the air samples. FAO allows with to work with their existing live bird market surveillance (Sink surveillance)
Collaborator Contribution I am hosted by RVC as a PhD student. I get training support from RVC that includes regular training programs, including online ones. I am attending as short courses in LSHTM key courses in epidemiology and advanced statistics. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR)/National Influenza Centre (NIC), Bangladesh have contributed for in-kind support and equipment purchasing . IEDCR is also helping in subtyping of PCR results via the US CDC. The local institutional lead for the project is given by IEDCR. BLRI, Bangladesh is collaborating for lab testing of air samples. FAO, Bangladesh is collaborating specially with the longitudinal study through their existing sink surveillance including synchronisation of activities and data sharing. Dr Montserrat Torremorell, Associate Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA has lent and provided training for the use of an air sampler. Laboratory of Professor Malik Peiris, from University of Hong Kong, will support for serological testing (HAI and neutralization assays).
Impact Multidisciplinary collaboration for achieving targeted outcomes
Start Year 2016
 
Description Host Institutions and collaborations 
Organisation Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)
Department Food and Agriculture Organization
PI Contribution I am enrolled with RVC for my PhD studentship. One of my supervisor's is from LSHTM. The LSHTM supervisor plays the key role in designing and guiding the project which forms the human aspect of the main one-health study. My field work and data collection in Bangladesh is based in IEDCR where I am contributing to the National Influenza Center. I am also supporting IEDCR in its different epidemiological programs, research and workforce development activities. One of my supervisors is based in CVASU in Bangladesh and plays a facilitating role with the main project. BLRI is testing the air samples. FAO allows with to work with their existing live bird market surveillance (Sink surveillance)
Collaborator Contribution I am hosted by RVC as a PhD student. I get training support from RVC that includes regular training programs, including online ones. I am attending as short courses in LSHTM key courses in epidemiology and advanced statistics. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR)/National Influenza Centre (NIC), Bangladesh have contributed for in-kind support and equipment purchasing . IEDCR is also helping in subtyping of PCR results via the US CDC. The local institutional lead for the project is given by IEDCR. BLRI, Bangladesh is collaborating for lab testing of air samples. FAO, Bangladesh is collaborating specially with the longitudinal study through their existing sink surveillance including synchronisation of activities and data sharing. Dr Montserrat Torremorell, Associate Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA has lent and provided training for the use of an air sampler. Laboratory of Professor Malik Peiris, from University of Hong Kong, will support for serological testing (HAI and neutralization assays).
Impact Multidisciplinary collaboration for achieving targeted outcomes
Start Year 2016
 
Description Host Institutions and collaborations 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am enrolled with RVC for my PhD studentship. One of my supervisor's is from LSHTM. The LSHTM supervisor plays the key role in designing and guiding the project which forms the human aspect of the main one-health study. My field work and data collection in Bangladesh is based in IEDCR where I am contributing to the National Influenza Center. I am also supporting IEDCR in its different epidemiological programs, research and workforce development activities. One of my supervisors is based in CVASU in Bangladesh and plays a facilitating role with the main project. BLRI is testing the air samples. FAO allows with to work with their existing live bird market surveillance (Sink surveillance)
Collaborator Contribution I am hosted by RVC as a PhD student. I get training support from RVC that includes regular training programs, including online ones. I am attending as short courses in LSHTM key courses in epidemiology and advanced statistics. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR)/National Influenza Centre (NIC), Bangladesh have contributed for in-kind support and equipment purchasing . IEDCR is also helping in subtyping of PCR results via the US CDC. The local institutional lead for the project is given by IEDCR. BLRI, Bangladesh is collaborating for lab testing of air samples. FAO, Bangladesh is collaborating specially with the longitudinal study through their existing sink surveillance including synchronisation of activities and data sharing. Dr Montserrat Torremorell, Associate Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA has lent and provided training for the use of an air sampler. Laboratory of Professor Malik Peiris, from University of Hong Kong, will support for serological testing (HAI and neutralization assays).
Impact Multidisciplinary collaboration for achieving targeted outcomes
Start Year 2016
 
Description Host Institutions and collaborations 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Department Pathobiology and Population Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am enrolled with RVC for my PhD studentship. One of my supervisor's is from LSHTM. The LSHTM supervisor plays the key role in designing and guiding the project which forms the human aspect of the main one-health study. My field work and data collection in Bangladesh is based in IEDCR where I am contributing to the National Influenza Center. I am also supporting IEDCR in its different epidemiological programs, research and workforce development activities. One of my supervisors is based in CVASU in Bangladesh and plays a facilitating role with the main project. BLRI is testing the air samples. FAO allows with to work with their existing live bird market surveillance (Sink surveillance)
Collaborator Contribution I am hosted by RVC as a PhD student. I get training support from RVC that includes regular training programs, including online ones. I am attending as short courses in LSHTM key courses in epidemiology and advanced statistics. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR)/National Influenza Centre (NIC), Bangladesh have contributed for in-kind support and equipment purchasing . IEDCR is also helping in subtyping of PCR results via the US CDC. The local institutional lead for the project is given by IEDCR. BLRI, Bangladesh is collaborating for lab testing of air samples. FAO, Bangladesh is collaborating specially with the longitudinal study through their existing sink surveillance including synchronisation of activities and data sharing. Dr Montserrat Torremorell, Associate Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA has lent and provided training for the use of an air sampler. Laboratory of Professor Malik Peiris, from University of Hong Kong, will support for serological testing (HAI and neutralization assays).
Impact Multidisciplinary collaboration for achieving targeted outcomes
Start Year 2016
 
Description Host Institutions and collaborations 
Organisation University of Hong Kong
Department School of Public Health and Department of Community Medicine
Country Hong Kong 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am enrolled with RVC for my PhD studentship. One of my supervisor's is from LSHTM. The LSHTM supervisor plays the key role in designing and guiding the project which forms the human aspect of the main one-health study. My field work and data collection in Bangladesh is based in IEDCR where I am contributing to the National Influenza Center. I am also supporting IEDCR in its different epidemiological programs, research and workforce development activities. One of my supervisors is based in CVASU in Bangladesh and plays a facilitating role with the main project. BLRI is testing the air samples. FAO allows with to work with their existing live bird market surveillance (Sink surveillance)
Collaborator Contribution I am hosted by RVC as a PhD student. I get training support from RVC that includes regular training programs, including online ones. I am attending as short courses in LSHTM key courses in epidemiology and advanced statistics. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR)/National Influenza Centre (NIC), Bangladesh have contributed for in-kind support and equipment purchasing . IEDCR is also helping in subtyping of PCR results via the US CDC. The local institutional lead for the project is given by IEDCR. BLRI, Bangladesh is collaborating for lab testing of air samples. FAO, Bangladesh is collaborating specially with the longitudinal study through their existing sink surveillance including synchronisation of activities and data sharing. Dr Montserrat Torremorell, Associate Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA has lent and provided training for the use of an air sampler. Laboratory of Professor Malik Peiris, from University of Hong Kong, will support for serological testing (HAI and neutralization assays).
Impact Multidisciplinary collaboration for achieving targeted outcomes
Start Year 2016
 
Description Host Institutions and collaborations 
Organisation University of Minnesota
Department College of Veterinary Medicine
PI Contribution I am enrolled with RVC for my PhD studentship. One of my supervisor's is from LSHTM. The LSHTM supervisor plays the key role in designing and guiding the project which forms the human aspect of the main one-health study. My field work and data collection in Bangladesh is based in IEDCR where I am contributing to the National Influenza Center. I am also supporting IEDCR in its different epidemiological programs, research and workforce development activities. One of my supervisors is based in CVASU in Bangladesh and plays a facilitating role with the main project. BLRI is testing the air samples. FAO allows with to work with their existing live bird market surveillance (Sink surveillance)
Collaborator Contribution I am hosted by RVC as a PhD student. I get training support from RVC that includes regular training programs, including online ones. I am attending as short courses in LSHTM key courses in epidemiology and advanced statistics. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR)/National Influenza Centre (NIC), Bangladesh have contributed for in-kind support and equipment purchasing . IEDCR is also helping in subtyping of PCR results via the US CDC. The local institutional lead for the project is given by IEDCR. BLRI, Bangladesh is collaborating for lab testing of air samples. FAO, Bangladesh is collaborating specially with the longitudinal study through their existing sink surveillance including synchronisation of activities and data sharing. Dr Montserrat Torremorell, Associate Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA has lent and provided training for the use of an air sampler. Laboratory of Professor Malik Peiris, from University of Hong Kong, will support for serological testing (HAI and neutralization assays).
Impact Multidisciplinary collaboration for achieving targeted outcomes
Start Year 2016