A Dynamic and Controllable Building Stock model: to identify the quantity of energy flexibility present in UK homes.

Lead Research Organisation: Loughborough University
Department Name: Architecture, Building and Civil Eng


The proposed transition from gas to electrified heating for dwellings in the UK, has a problem. There is not enough peak capacity in the UK's electrical grid to accommodate this new demand, due to differences in daily supply and demand profiles. National Grid (GB) and UK Government have recognised this issue and are seeking ways to mitigate peaks in electrical demand.

One approach to reduce this impact on the grid is to use Demand Side Response (DSR), this is where peaks in demand are anticipated and demand, where possible, is reduced for a duration of time. National Grid (GB) expects DSR will be required in some form in their predicted future energy scenarios.

This research aims to identify the potential reduction in peaks of demand possible through temporary reduction in space heating in electrically heated dwellings (by direct electric and air/ground source heat pumps), whilst keeping occupants comfortable. This will indicate the potential energy flexibility available in UK dwellings. What can be provided by their current fabric and controls, and what level of fabric retrofit is required for a dwelling to provide energy flexibility.

This energy flexibility in homes will be identified by creating a dynamic and controllable model based on the common house types in the UK, and then applying DSR for various periods of time. This will be achieved by using house types from the English Housing Survey in association with Modelica Building Library associated with Dymola modelling tools.

As part of the research, a new validation method for national scale heat load models will be created, by determining suitable metrics for quantifying and characterizing energy flexibility in houses. To achieve this, data will be collected to calibrate and validate the model and provide data for future research in DSR.

Associated ESPRC research areas:
Built Environment
Energy Networks
End Use Energy Demand (Energy Efficiency)
Energy Storage


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Studentship Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Student Name
EP/S021671/1 01/10/2019 31/03/2028
2299756 Studentship EP/S021671/1 01/10/2019 30/11/2023 Ben Atack