Understanding the Nature and Impact of Online Hate Speech Victimisation

Lead Research Organisation: Cardiff University
Department Name: Sch of Social Sciences


This research examines the effects of transphobic online hate speech on victims in the UK. A
Galop LGBT+ study found:
Trans, non-binary and intersex people were subjected to more frequent
online hate speech, which was generally more severe, more threatening, and
had greater impact and consequences (Stray 2017)
The impacts of this research will be compared with other kinds of online hate, such as racist
and ableist hate speech, keeping a keen eye on intersectionality (Koyama 2006).
The purpose of this research is to create an online hate speech harms index, leading to a
greater understanding of online hate speech victimisation and how crime reporting could be
improved. It will crucially offer a way to categorise online hate and therefore develop strategies
against it.
Bringing a unique perspective to this research, I have varied experience working in media,
including managing social media accounts for a BBC prime-time TV show. This research could
branch into several areas, from using my insight regarding how large organisations operate,
moderate and police such platforms, to a focus on in-group hate speech (e.g. transmedicalists
vs. 'trans-trenders'1).

As little specific research has been undertaken on gender diverse people's experience of
online hate, the results of this research will make a valuable original contribution, addressing
this gap in current academic knowledge. It is anticipated the outcomes of this project will
have relevance to several areas including social data science, social policy and sociology.
An index of harms will firstly benefit the victims of online hate, in understanding how to
recognise and report such crimes. Secondly the index will enable lawmakers to enforce
legislation and companies like Twitter will have a clearer responsibility for tackling online hate.
This vital research will provide an empirical base on which to evaluate and steer such
The findings of this research could be used to inform recommendations useful to
policymakers, third sector organisations such as Galop and the police and would facilitate
the provision of adequate support to this vulnerable group.


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Studentship Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Student Name
ES/P00069X/1 01/10/2017 30/09/2027
2433766 Studentship ES/P00069X/1 01/10/2020 30/09/2023 Jay Harley