Improving convective storm simulations through scale-adaptive and flow-adaptive sub-grid methods

Lead Research Organisation: University of Reading
Department Name: Meteorology


The project is concerned with improving the numerical simulations required for short-range numerical weather prediction and small-scale regional climate prediction. Over the past decade, such simulations have become practical at "convection-permitting" resolutions. Convection-permitting simulations have enabled a step change in our forecasting capabilities because individual convective storms can now be simulated directly with the numerical model. Many high-impact weather events are associated with such storms, particularly in cases of flash flooding and damaging wind gusts.

There continues to be a steady increase in the use and reliance on such models, and their benefits are well recognized. However, that experience has also revealed some important issues and limitations.

a. The simulations are strongly sensitive to the model resolution. Increases in model resolution do not translate into improvements in simulation in any straightforward way. Indeed, we have recently found evidence that key metrics do not converge in current models even at very high resolutions.
b. The simulations are strongly sensitive to choices made in the treatment of turbulent mixing.
c. The simulations are strongly sensitive to assumptions about cloud formation and microphysics.

These issues are strongly related. In reality processes that happen on smaller scales than the model grid interact with and influence the processes that take place on larger scales. In "model world" the smaller scales simply do not exist, but we try to mimic their effects by introducing extra assumptions about turbulent mixing and cloud schemes. It is those assumptions that create problems.In the engineering fluid dynamics community, improved model behaviour as a function of resolution has been achieved using "dynamic" techniques in which key turbulent mixing parameters are no longer prescribed. Rather, they can be computed "on the fly" during the simulation as a function of the evolving flow. The key principle invoked in making the computation is to ensure respect for the proper scale-dependence of the turbulent characteristics of the flow.

Compared to the current applications of the technique, simulations of convective storms have additional thermodynamic and microphysical complications (or, as we like to think of it, additional physics that makes the atmosphere produce such rich and interesting forms of flow). This PhD project will extend and enhance the dynamic technique to develop a scale-adaptive and flow-adaptive sub-grid turbulence model that is suitable for simulations of convective storms at convection-permitting scales.


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Studentship Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Student Name
NE/S007261/1 30/09/2019 29/09/2027
2438507 Studentship NE/S007261/1 30/09/2020 29/09/2023 Alanna Power