Assessing the Contribution of the Dairy Sector to Economic Growth and Food Security in Malawi

Lead Research Organisation: SRUC
Department Name: Research

Abstract

Fractured supply chains have been identified as a barrier to growth for the agricultural sector (Gorton and White, 2007). In this regard, African agriculture is particularly handicapped. The purpose of this project is to address some of the key challenges through an assessment of the current and potential contribution of the dairy sector to economic growth and food security in Malawi.

Dairy is a key investment sector for the Government of Malawi (MIPA, 2011) , donors such USA, Japan and Belgium have focused part of their development aid on the sector. Despite this, domestic production response is unimpressive, with FAO data showing an increasing trend between 1961 and 1987, followed by periods of poor growth. This is not surprising several factors hamper the sector development. These include: (1) a processing sector comprised of five firms employing only between 20% to 40% of their capacity; (2) processed products produced from imported reconstituted powder milk; (3) the processing sector attains profits despite high costs by targeting only the affluent part of the urban population; (4) a high percentage of the milk sent to the formal channel is rejected due to quality (estimated at 17%); (5) only a relatively small percentage of the milk produced domestically is destined to formal channels (the proportion undergoing pasteurisation), the rest is sold through informal channels (estimated at around 27,000 tons or 50% of total milk supply, including imports) to the rural population and less affluent urban segment; (6) Malawi has the lowest consumption of milk per capita in Africa (estimated at 4.7 kg/capita/year compared to an Africa average of 15 kg/capita/year).

There is a need either to address supply chain ineffectiveness or to find alternative ways to increase the income of smallholder producers while improving the country's food security (e.g., promoting shorter supply chains as in Omore et al., 2004). The first strategy requires understanding the reasons behind the marketing into informal channels, and a strategy to integrate them with the formal dairy supply chain. Addressing these barriers offers scope for pro-poor development through the sector. This occurs directly through the potential impact on incomes of smallholder producers. An indirect economic impact will be felt in terms of the sector GDP, and multiplicative effects via linkages with other industries. The analysis will also has implications for food security; i.e. the availability, accessibility and affordability of safe milk products.

The analytical approach proposed in this project combines supply chain analysis (e.g., Taylor, 2005) with industrial organisation theory (e.g., Carlton and Perloff, 2005) to consider possible imperfect competition at the processing level, presence of transactions costs, asymmetric information and risk. These problems have subsequent impacts on incomes and, crucially, impede the appropriate adoption and diffusion of technological improvements in the dairy supply chain.

The first stage of the project will consist of seven studies, using secondary information, and semi-structured interviews of key informants along the dairy supply chain. This stage will provide a complete overview of the sector and will guide the subsequent modelling exercise.

Evaluation of the supply chain potential requires integrating all the chain parts into a regional multimarket model of the entire dairy supply chain (e.g., Sadoulet and De Janvry, 1995). The second stage of the project will construct such a model to be used to illustrate alternative scenarios of policy strategies for the sector and their impact on the GDP, the income of different supply chain stakeholders and food security. We suggest that this model will provide useful analytical insights to illustrate policy options for Malawi.

The project duration will be three years and will involve the multidisciplinary interaction of SAC and Malawian researchers.

Planned Impact

This research will ultimately identify barriers that hamper the development of the dairy industry in Malawi, an industry that has the potential to have a positive impact on the income of smallholder farmers, on employment opportunities, food security outcomes, and overall performance of businesses that contribute to Malawi's GNP.

In terms of the Millennium Development Goals we see this research as directly impacting goals 1 (i.e., eradicate extreme poverty and hunger) and 8 (i.e., develop a global partnership for development, particularly target 8B namely to address the special needs of the Least Developed Countries) as the development of the entire dairy supply chain will contribute to the income of the smallholder farmers and to their food security in a sustainable way. Furthermore, by identifying key barriers, it will help international development agencies to target cooperation funds according to the special needs of Malawi in an effective and efficient way.

We anticipate that this research will have an impact in clarifying aid objectives in the dairy sector and potentially supply chains more generally. For instance, JICA supplied the Bvumbwe (Thyolo district) with a milk pasteuriser and a packaging machine in 2003 for the cooperative to sell milk directly to consumers and not through the major milk companies. Whilst this can have a positive impact for consumers in terms of food security (e.g., access to lower prices for safe milk), it also increases the degree of fragmentation and inefficiency of the supply chain, as dairy plants are operating with a high degree of unutilised capacity. A related issue is the discussion of whether the monetisation of milk powder as part of USAID's Programme of Food for Peace would distort the Malawian dairy domestic market (Fintrac Inc., 2008). On the one hand Fintrac Inc., in the report produced for USAID to provide guidance about what commodities should be monetised, states that selling milk powder to processors will expand their production and reduce their prices with obvious benefit to consumers. However, Land O' Lakes/Malawi, which works on a USAID programme to support the development of the dairy industry, and smallholder milk production in particular, makes it clear that it does not support milk powder for monetization due to its possible effects on the domestic market. The project will provide evidence to illustrate these contradicting impacts.

The research results in the form of briefings and presentations will be useful to the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security and Ministry of Industry, Trade and Private Sector Development. The dairy supply chain falls under the jurisdiction of both ministries and a consistent policy needs to integrate the actions from both offices as the operation of supply chains has impact on the well-being of the agricultural sector and consumers. The research will contribute knowledge about the determinants of marketing milk to the informal sector and whether the processing sector operates in a competitive way. Furthermore, we anticipate that this type of analysis will also encourage similar research in other food supply chains.

The results will be useful to other dairy sector stakeholders, including farmer associations and NGOs that support them, consumers, processors and traders associations. All will be informed by the results by means of presentations, discussions and briefings.

In terms of training, the project will transfer research skills to Malawian research collaborators in areas such as supply chain analysis and industrial organisation theory. Regarding the latter, many of the approaches used in industrial organisation have been applied to development economics creating an area known as development microeconomics (see for instance Bardhan and Udry, 1999). Another area will be in the use of econometric modelling of supply chain for the simulation of policies.
 
Description The project was motivated by three facts: (1) The Malawi Government considers dairy production a priority within the livestock sector; (2) 'Supply chains in disarray' have been identified as a barrier to growth for the agricultural sector (e.g., inefficiency, transaction costs, unbalanced power along the chain, poor product quality); (3) They can also be a constraint to the achievement of food security in a country as they will produce less than the optimal amount with a given level of resources; they will do so at higher prices; and they will be poor creators of employment.

The logic of the project was based on the following facts according to the literature and available data up to early 2011 (when the project was formulated): (1) Underutilisation of processing capacity; (2) Use of imported reconstituted powder milk instead of domestic supplies; (3) A profitable processing sector targeting affluent urban population; (4) Poor quality milk leading to rejection by processors (17%); (5) Significant proportion of milk production sold as raw milk (i.e., through the "informal market"); (6) The lowest consumption of milk per capita in Africa (estimated at 4.7 kg/capita/year). (7) Donors have been contributing to the development of the sector for several years without significant results.

In the aforementioned context two major aims of the project were (1) to identify factors hampering the contribution of the sector to economic growth and food security and (2) to assess whether a strategy of revamping the existing formal dairy supply chain would be more effective than one promoting "short dairy supply chains" by investing in small-scale dairy marketing and processing facilities.

Major findings as regards aim (1) are:

(a) The project found significant differences in the production of milk at the farm level, with the Southern region being the most efficient and the Northern region the least efficient. This speaks well of the strategy of expanding mix breeds animals (mix of native zebus and pure breeds), which have lower milk yields per cow than pure breeds but also have lower costs.

(b) Marketing of milk suffers from issues regarding infrastructure, e.g., roads quality, electricity power cuts, quality of equipment and management at the milk bulking group (MBG) level. This affects not only the collection and the quality of the milk but also the returns of farmers, since the inefficiencies at the MBGs level are reflected in the price paid to farmers.

(c) The project did not find processors to have market power on both the buying and selling markets. On the buying side because of the size of the informal market where farmers can sell their products directly if they find processors' price too low. On the selling side because of retailers (supermarkets) power in deciding the final price paid by consumers. In that context, processors' idle capacity is engineering and not economic and is due to the fact that they sell products with added value to customers with relatively high purchasing power, which is a relatively small population. The fact that processors set prices can be taken as a case of barometric price leadership (they are the best informed buyers).

(d) Retailers were found to have some market power over processors and urban consumers. Based on information of processors price lists and retail audits to supermarkets, it was found that supermarkets set high marketing margins over pasteurised milk (in some cases more than twice the processors' recommended retail margin). This has effects on food security (affordability) because these are products purchased by relatively poor urban population.

(e) The informal market can be thought as a contributor to food security (affordability) as it sells raw milk at a price much lower than that of pasteurised milk (about 1/3 of the price of pasteurised milk). In 2013 it was estimated that the informal market receives about 63% of the milk from the dairy herd (i.e., excluding milk from the native zebus).

Major findings as regards aim (2) are:

(a) Economic growth of the sector should differentiate the milk production and value added products. The growth of raw milk production (by 7% per year from 2004 to 2013) have been through the improvement of productivity and increase in the number of dairy cows (between 2004 and 2013 yields grew by 2.1% per year and the number of cows by 4.8% per year). This has been due to the work of donors, Government and producers associations. The formal sector has also grown by 12% per year during the same period (as measured by milk collection). Nevertheless, excluding milk from the zebu herd, processors collection represented only 36.4% of the milk produced.

(b) As regards the strategy to further develop the sector: (1) The processors/formal sector would benefit with investment to improve infrastructure (particularly roads and electricity power). (2) Micro processing is a strategy that seems not to have future due to: management issues, lack of purchasing power of the population, lack of scale economies in comparison with the large processors sector. However, it should be noted that the Government and some milk bulking groups are keen on this. (3) Given the size of the informal market, selling directly is already happening. This is in direct conflict with the reform of the Milk Act that aims at stopping the selling of raw milk in urban and rural areas. Instead the discussion should be on how to ensure that the raw milk is of good quality.

As regards further questions:

The dairy sector in Malawi has the potential to contribute to economic growth, food security and to improve the livelihood of the poor. The limiting factor for economic growth seems to be the demand in both cases (raw and processed milk). Domestic demand is limited by the population's purchasing power.

It is our view, given the facts, that the Government of Malawi, the donors and other stakeholders need to commit on a joint strategy for the dairy sector so the results are coherent. We feel that there needs to be stakeholder consensus as regards:

• whether the strategy should be guided by business development or poverty alleviation;
• whether the Government and donors should focus on consolidating in the Southern and Central regions instead of trying to develop the Northern region. Or just focus on the Southern region;
• What strategy Malawi should follow in terms of development.
Exploitation Route The outcomes of the project have been disseminated to a very large audience through presentations and research and policy briefings: within Malawi to a number of different stakeholders such as the Government, donors, NGOs, producers associations, processors, academia working on the sector; and also in conferences to international organisations (International Livestock Research Institute) and academics.

As regards how the outcomes of the project might be taken forward and by whom: (1) it is expected that the outcomes related to production efficiency (farmers), operation of the MBGs, retailers pricing will be taken forward by producers associations and processors mainly due to their competence. (2) as regards the outcomes regarding the structure of the dairy sectors (e.g., size of the informal market), it is expected that they will be taken forward by NGOs and producers associations aiming at the reform of the Malawi Milk Act.

As regards academia, we envisage two groups that will be taking forward the outcomes from the project: (1) The Malawian academics, which were part of the team. As recognised by them, the work and all the data collected open opportunities for a number of PhD and Master students to do further work on the sector. (2) The SRUC team has produced several working papers during the lifetime of the project (several of which have been presented in international and UK conferences). It is expected that these papers will be submitted to journals in the next two years. They cover areas of production efficiency, milk bulking group efficiency, supply chain management, reform of the Malawian Milk Act, retailers' margins and consumers' preferences for milk. A paper on consumption of dairy products has already been published in the African Journal of Agricultural Economics.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

URL http://www.sruc.ac.uk/info/120037/land_economy_environment_and_society/802/assessing_contribution_of_dairy_sector_to_economic_growth_and_food_security_in_malawi
 
Description The latest impact is as follows: On the 1st of October 2016 the Malawi Revenue Authority announced that milk, which until then had been exempted of the valued added tax (VAT), was going to be taxed at the standard rate of 16.5 per cent. This was the third time that the Government of Malawi tried to impose VAT to milk. A brief report written by Cesar Revoredo-Giha using the model developed as part of the project showed that the introduction of the 16.5% VAT over milk at the retail level was going to have negative effects on the dairy supply chain (about 75% of the tax was going be absorb by producers). The report was part of the evidence used in the negotiation with the Malawi Revenue Authority and which ended with the elimination of the VAT to milk. The following materials from the project have also been used: - Several findings on the demand for dairy products have been used by researchers (IFPRI). - A processor used some of our results in his own presentations. - Further analysis of consumption of dairy products was provided for an international donor. - Maps generated as part of the project are being used by government officials - Additional information has been processed for an advisor of the Southern Producers Association.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Incidence analysis of the effects of the introduction to VAT to dairy products in Malawi
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact On the 1st of October 2016 the Malawi Revenue Authority announced that milk, which until then had been exempted of the valued added tax (VAT), was going to be taxed at the standard rate of 16.5 per cent. This was the third time that the Government of Malawi tried to impose VAT to milk. A brief report written by Cesar Revoredo-Giha using the model developed as part of the project showed that the introduction of the 16.5% VAT over milk at the retail level was going to have negative effects on the dairy supply chain (about 75% of the tax was going be absorb by producers). The report was part of the evidence used in the negotiation with the Malawi Revenue Authority and which ended with the elimination of the VAT to milk.
 
Description SRUC Research Assessment Grant
Amount £8,000 (GBP)
Organisation Scotland's Rural College 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description Strengthening the Impact Case Study based on the Malawi Dairy Supply Chain project
Amount £71,766 (GBP)
Organisation Scotland's Rural College 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Title Malawi Milk Bulking Groups survey 
Description This is a dataset of 23 milk bulking groups in Malawi (across Malawi) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact It has contributed to understand the different aspects of the operation of milk bulking groups in Malawi 
 
Title Malawi dairy producers survey 
Description Results from the survey to 460 dairy producers in Malawi 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This database is being used for the analysis of efficiency of dairy producers in Malawi 
 
Title Milk delivery to processors by milk bulking groups in Malawi 
Description This is a dataset constructed from milk delivery to processors by milk bulking groups in Malawi. The data is recorded by Shire Highlands Milk Producers Group, specifically by Mr. Brian Lewis. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The database is very useful because it shows milk collected, prices paid by processors and prices received by farmers. Therefore it is key to analyse supply response. We are using it to estimate the supply elasticity faced by processors in Malawi. 
 
Description Agribusiness Acceleration Malawi 
Organisation Edinburgh Napier University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution • Lead Partner for agri-food areas component. • Value Chain Analysis and Development. • Technical advice and support on production, value addition and post- harvest loss management. • Conduct research and monitoring to ensure that the project is on track with the objective of developing agri-businesses.
Collaborator Contribution • As Grant Holder, primary responsibility for reporting to CORRA/Scottish Government on project performance and financial matters. • Lead Partner for Incubator component, including building capacity of Malawi management team and development of online platform and related resource materials. • Primary responsibility for recruiting Scottish specialists and student interns assigned to support project implementation team in Malawi • In-country Project Manager • Primary responsibility for managing in-country resources, human, physical and financial. • Periodic reporting to Project Manager in Edinburgh on implementation and budget performance. • Liaison with SEED and other local partners and associates. • Identification and recruitment of clients. • Building capacity of clients. • Management of Business Incubator Hubs. • Monitoring, assessment and dissemination of project impacts.
Impact The collaboration has submitted a proposal (1st stage) to the Scottish Government Malawi Development Programme, Funding Round 2018.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Agribusiness Acceleration Malawi 
Organisation Scotland Malawi Business Group
PI Contribution • Lead Partner for agri-food areas component. • Value Chain Analysis and Development. • Technical advice and support on production, value addition and post- harvest loss management. • Conduct research and monitoring to ensure that the project is on track with the objective of developing agri-businesses.
Collaborator Contribution • As Grant Holder, primary responsibility for reporting to CORRA/Scottish Government on project performance and financial matters. • Lead Partner for Incubator component, including building capacity of Malawi management team and development of online platform and related resource materials. • Primary responsibility for recruiting Scottish specialists and student interns assigned to support project implementation team in Malawi • In-country Project Manager • Primary responsibility for managing in-country resources, human, physical and financial. • Periodic reporting to Project Manager in Edinburgh on implementation and budget performance. • Liaison with SEED and other local partners and associates. • Identification and recruitment of clients. • Building capacity of clients. • Management of Business Incubator Hubs. • Monitoring, assessment and dissemination of project impacts.
Impact The collaboration has submitted a proposal (1st stage) to the Scottish Government Malawi Development Programme, Funding Round 2018.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Article "Milking it in Malawi" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The article brought later talks about the importance of prices for farmers, where we were able to contribute with information from the project.

After this article I was invited by Thomson-Reuters Foundation to write a a piece on food security in developing countries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.foodsecurity.ac.uk/blog/index.php/2014/07/milking-it-in-malawi/
 
Description Article 'You won't help farmers in Africa by just throwing money at them' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was an article about the importance to consider the entire dairy supply chain when trying to support the dairy sector.

This article published in the Conversation brought some comments about the chain on issues of quality and also was disseminated in Malawi where SHMPA (which produces about 80% of the milk in Malawi) advisor agree with the points made.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://theconversation.com/you-wont-help-farmers-in-africa-by-just-throwing-money-at-them-30691
 
Description Article on Sub Saharan patterns of consumption "Eating western, dying western? " 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Provide information about the effects that Western diets are having in Sub Saharan African.

No available.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.trust.org/item/20141022133226-b04lo/?source=search.
 
Description Identifying Barriers for the Development of the Dairy Supply Chain in Malawi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an invited talk as part of the Science, Technology and Innovation Studies (STIS) Seminar and also together with Food Researchers in Edinburgh (FRIED) at Crystal Macmillan, University of Edinburgh, 23rd of November 2015. It brought staff and postgraduate students. They got very interesting on the analysis of supply chains and the impact of infrastructure (or lack of it) on outcomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.sruc.ac.uk/info/120037/land_economy_environment_and_society/802/assessing_contribution_of...
 
Description Malawi: building a sustainable dairy farming sector 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This event was part of ESRC Festival. It was held on the 4th November 2013, Edinburgh Botanic Garden.

It disseminated our work amongs practioners and provided their points of view.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Market structure and coherence of international cooperation: the case of the dairy sector in Malawi 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation at the Pan-SAC seminar of the paper "Market structure and coherence of international cooperation: the case of the dairy sector in Malawi"

THis activity fostered further work on the project as we discussed different ways to see the information that was collected.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Presentation ILRI-CTA Value Chain Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk brought questions and discussion about potential solutions to the problems that were described in the presentation.

The talk and also attending to the workshop was useful because we gained access to plenty of information about ongoing projects on dairy sectors around the world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.slideshare.net/ILRI/cta-ilri-roveredosep2014
 
Description Presentation Malawi: building a sustainable dairy farming sector 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at the event "Malawi: building a sustainable dairy farming sector" by Cesar Revoredo-Giha and Irina Arakelyan on the 4th of November at the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh.

Although the seminar was held in Edinburgh, it was disseminated beyond the local group because the poster became briefings that were distributed to Malawian dairy stakeholders and an overview of the project presented at a Meeting in Malawi.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.sruc.ac.uk/info/120372/international_activities/802/assessing_contribution_of_dairy_secto...
 
Description Presentation at Bunda College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Final Seminar of the DFID/ESRC Project 'Assessing the Contribution of the Dairy Sector to Economic Growth and Food Security in Malawi Scotland's Rural College, at Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources by SRUC to dairy staff and postgraduate students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation at Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe, Malawi , 15 May 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Final Seminar of the DFID/ESRC Project 'Assessing the Contribution of the Dairy Sector to Economic Growth and Food Security in Malawi' Crossroads Hotel, Lilongwe, Malawi , 15 May 2015. It provided a very good discussion of the results and we had further requests from the participants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.sruc.ac.uk/info/120037/land_economy_environment_and_society/802/assessing_contribution_of...
 
Description Presentation at the "Economic opportunities for a better future: Leveraging agriculture, innovation and financial inclusion". 28-29 October 2016, Nairobi, Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The challenge of agricultural development for economic transformation involves not only change on farms, but also in the supply chains that link farmers, most of them smallholders, to markets. With better links farmers can sell and earn more; as well as access fertiliser, crop chemicals, veterinary supplies, tools and machinery. As agricultural supply chains develop, they create jobs and incomes for others in the rural economy. Hence a key question is how these supply chains can be made to work more effectively and equitably, for the benefit of farmers, consumers and all those working in the chains. This was the focus of the activity and it was attended by about 50 people some of which were practitioners (e.g., the head of the Kenya veterinary board), researchers, policymakers and media.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://degrp.squarespace.com/events-1/2016/10/28/economic-opportunities-for-a-better-future-leveragi...
 
Description Recordings with interviews to processors and other stakeholders in Malawi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Recordings of the interviews to processors and other stakeholders in Malawi carried out during the first two weeks of July 2013

After the interviews we kept contact with the interviewees by e-mail (as they are in Malawi) and we continued exchanging e-mails about the situation of the dairy indutry in Malawi.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Website of the project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This is the website of the project that we use to diseminate information of the project. http://www.sruc.ac.uk/info/120257/food_marketing/802/assessing_contribution_of_dairy_sector_to_economic_growth_and_food_security_in_malawi

http://www.sruc.ac.uk/info/120257/food_marketing/802/assessing_contribution_of_dairy_sector_to_economic_growth_and_food_security_in_malawi
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012