High Deposition Rate Additive Manufacture of Complex Metal Parts (HiDepAM)

Lead Research Organisation: Cranfield University
Department Name: School of Water, Energy and Environment

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process of building a component layer by layer. In a simplified manner, it can be described as 3D printing of a component. The technology is important because it is logistically and conceptually extremely simple with major benefits. For example it would lead to significantly reduced material and energy use and manufacture of structures such as aircraft. Lowering of material wastage is an important issue as presently the aerospace sector machines out complex shapes from regular shaped structures. This causes significant wastage and a very high buy to fly ratio, i.e. A large amount of material needs to be purchased compared to that which goes on the aircraft. AM is able to create complex component architectures which would supplement the advancement in soft design technology. Therefore, it is no wonder that AM technique has been identified as one of the transformational technology for the future manufacturing sector.
This project is tackling two major barriers to implementation of AM technology for applications such as making aircraft. These are the very high cost of the process and the properties of the material that is being deposited. In the present programme the multi-disciplinary team seeks to investigate the development of AM processes that are overcome the barriers. This includes a new AM process based around the use of the laser combined ways a new method of adding material. We are also developing a new process to go with the AM process which transforms the properties of the material so that it is similar to the material currently used on aircraft. This new process uses techniques like rolling to introduce cold work into the metal; this changes the structure of the material at the microscopic level. Finally manufacturing of complex shapes, out of position (not vertical down) and multi-axes deposition and integrated machining will be evaluated for production of near net shape from a single process. The research programme would also study the feasibility of developing an innovative and non-destructive way of online process control of microstructure by Spatially Resolved Acoustic Spectroscopy (SRAS) technique. The consortium is carefully formed with complimentary knowledge base between the partners so that a significant progression can be made within the project span. This cross continental activity will help in leveraging the tacit knowledge base through regular visits; web based discussions and investigator exchange programme. The project is expected to solve the major issues identified in AM Technology, leading to its early application in industry.

Planned Impact

Manufacturing has now been identified as one of the potential vehicle which can positively impact the economic growth of UK. Return on investment in manufactruing has always been positive and consistent. It is also one of the sector where growth can be sustainable with a profound impact on people's life. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a digital tool-less manufacturing technique that will have profound impact on the future of high value and advanced manufacturing sector. At present the whole segment of AM, including machine tools, material sales and associated services, is worth $1.9 billion. However, the segment is growing aggressively across the world. The double digit growth figure in recent years indicates that by 2020 even with the present growth rate this segment of manufacturing will be worth $7.5 billion. However, if the technology readiness level (TRL) can be advanced and commercial barriers eliminated it has been predicted that the AM has potential to become a sector worth $100 billion. In recent years in UK a total of £90 million (including private and public sector) has been invested to advance the technology readiness level of AM. From all the investments and growth figure it is obvious that this multi-disciplinary research programme is timely and successful completion would have significant impact on the TRL. The growth of this sector implies that it would also result in creation of jobs in significant numbers across the globe. Individual specifically trained in this area of manufacturing will be needed which will drive creation of academic courses. AM technology also reduces material waste, increases energy efficiency and has the potential of developing complex design efficient structures. Therefore, development of AM technology as a manufacturing tool will have a very strong and positive impact in every sphere of human activity.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description By introducing a mechanical working step after each layer of deposition during 3D printing of metals much better mechanical properties can be achieved. High deposition rate additive manufacture has been developed. This is with both multiple wire and shaped wire configurations which are both new techniques.
Exploitation Route Development of WAAM systems that include cold work to improve material properties enabling much greater exploitation of 3D printing of metals by industry
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

URL https://waammat.com/
 
Description AM Strategy
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Input to national laser strategy document released February 2018
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact The national strategy provides guidance to government and funding bodies and the importance and need for laser material processing. it also identifies issues and problem areas where future support is required.
 
Description ATI Innovate funding
Amount £8,000,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 5041010 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2020
 
Description Direct industrial contract
Amount £78,000 (GBP)
Organisation Airbus Group 
Department Airbus Operations
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 06/2017
 
Description EPSRC Programme grant
Amount £5,746,005 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R014574/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2023
 
Description ESA Contract
Amount € 2,500,000 (EUR)
Organisation ESA - ESTEC 
Sector Public
Country Netherlands
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2020
 
Description Industrial
Amount £120,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EMD3043V 
Organisation Weir Pumps Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description Industrial contract
Amount £950,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EMD3034V 
Organisation BAE Systems 
Department BAE Systems Military Air & Information
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 04/2018
 
Description Industrial contract
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 03/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description Industrial funding
Amount £140,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lockheed Martin 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 03/2016 
End 12/2019
 
Description Industrial research project
Amount £880,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EMD3034V 
Organisation BAE Systems 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 08/2018
 
Description Industrial research project
Amount £120,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EMD3040Z 
Organisation Northrop Grumman 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2019
 
Description Industrial research project
Amount £180,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EMD3039V 
Organisation Schlumberger Limited 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Description Industry funding
Amount £22,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EMD4007V 
Organisation Weir Pumps Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 07/2017
 
Description LASIMM
Amount € 4,800,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 723600 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description Central Manufacturing Technology Institute, Bangalore 
Organisation Central Mafacturing Technlogy Instititute
Country India 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Training in additive methods.
Collaborator Contribution None.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Ni superalloy deposition 
Organisation Federal University of Amazonas
Country Brazil 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided facilities for multi layer deposition of Ni superalloys, and training in arc welding deposition.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of researcher and materials.
Impact None yet. Paper in preparation.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Use of strip wire in additive manufacture 
Organisation Bekaert
Country Belgium 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution investigation of the benefits of using strip wire
Collaborator Contribution provision of commercial grade strip wire to specific geometries
Impact none yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description WAAMMat 
Organisation ARM Holdings
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are running a collaborative research programme to mature wire + arc additive manufacture technology with many industry partners contributing direct cash to support the programme. The EPSRC award forms part of the WAAMMat programme.
Collaborator Contribution Direct funding, materials and application requirements.
Impact Two journal papers, international collaborations
Start Year 2014
 
Description WAAMMat 
Organisation Air Products
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are running a collaborative research programme to mature wire + arc additive manufacture technology with many industry partners contributing direct cash to support the programme. The EPSRC award forms part of the WAAMMat programme.
Collaborator Contribution Direct funding, materials and application requirements.
Impact Two journal papers, international collaborations
Start Year 2014
 
Description WAAMMat 
Organisation BAE Systems
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are running a collaborative research programme to mature wire + arc additive manufacture technology with many industry partners contributing direct cash to support the programme. The EPSRC award forms part of the WAAMMat programme.
Collaborator Contribution Direct funding, materials and application requirements.
Impact Two journal papers, international collaborations
Start Year 2014
 
Description WAAMMat 
Organisation Bombardier Inc.
Department Bombardier Transportation
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are running a collaborative research programme to mature wire + arc additive manufacture technology with many industry partners contributing direct cash to support the programme. The EPSRC award forms part of the WAAMMat programme.
Collaborator Contribution Direct funding, materials and application requirements.
Impact Two journal papers, international collaborations
Start Year 2014
 
Description WAAMMat 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We are running a collaborative research programme to mature wire + arc additive manufacture technology with many industry partners contributing direct cash to support the programme. The EPSRC award forms part of the WAAMMat programme.
Collaborator Contribution Direct funding, materials and application requirements.
Impact Two journal papers, international collaborations
Start Year 2014
 
Description WAAMMat 
Organisation GKN
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are running a collaborative research programme to mature wire + arc additive manufacture technology with many industry partners contributing direct cash to support the programme. The EPSRC award forms part of the WAAMMat programme.
Collaborator Contribution Direct funding, materials and application requirements.
Impact Two journal papers, international collaborations
Start Year 2014
 
Description WAAMMat 
Organisation Global Robots
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are running a collaborative research programme to mature wire + arc additive manufacture technology with many industry partners contributing direct cash to support the programme. The EPSRC award forms part of the WAAMMat programme.
Collaborator Contribution Direct funding, materials and application requirements.
Impact Two journal papers, international collaborations
Start Year 2014
 
Description WAAMMat 
Organisation ITS United Kingdom
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We are running a collaborative research programme to mature wire + arc additive manufacture technology with many industry partners contributing direct cash to support the programme. The EPSRC award forms part of the WAAMMat programme.
Collaborator Contribution Direct funding, materials and application requirements.
Impact Two journal papers, international collaborations
Start Year 2014
 
Description WAAMMat 
Organisation Lockheed Martin
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We are running a collaborative research programme to mature wire + arc additive manufacture technology with many industry partners contributing direct cash to support the programme. The EPSRC award forms part of the WAAMMat programme.
Collaborator Contribution Direct funding, materials and application requirements.
Impact Two journal papers, international collaborations
Start Year 2014
 
Description WAAMMat 
Organisation National Institute for Materials Sciences
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are running a collaborative research programme to mature wire + arc additive manufacture technology with many industry partners contributing direct cash to support the programme. The EPSRC award forms part of the WAAMMat programme.
Collaborator Contribution Direct funding, materials and application requirements.
Impact Two journal papers, international collaborations
Start Year 2014
 
Description WAAMMat 
Organisation United Technologies Research Center (UTRC)
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We are running a collaborative research programme to mature wire + arc additive manufacture technology with many industry partners contributing direct cash to support the programme. The EPSRC award forms part of the WAAMMat programme.
Collaborator Contribution Direct funding, materials and application requirements.
Impact Two journal papers, international collaborations
Start Year 2014
 
Title WAAMCost 
Description Creation of WAAMCost, a cost estimation tool for industry partners to estimate the cost of a component made by WAAM and machining from solid, for titanium, four aluminium alloys, and Inconel 718. Also enables studies of the effects of higher build rates on cost benefit for different types of applications. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Generation of much higher level of interest in WAAM technology and therefore industrial partners joining the WAAMMat programme. 
 
Description Belgian welding society talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Keynote lecture at Belgian Welding Society 75 year celebration workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ICWAM talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Plenary lecture at ICWAM 17 conference Metz
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description India visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Visit to various industrial companies and research institutions in India (IIT Bombay, IIT Indore and CMTI Bangalore) - presentations given and applications of the technology discussed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description NIIAM opening 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Keynote presentation at formal opening of the National Innovation Institute for Additve Manufacture (NIIAM) in Xian China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Plenary lecture at AMS Pressure and Pipe Welding Conference Hawaii 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Plenary lecture at AMS Pressure and Pipe Welding Conference Hawaii July 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Prof eng article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in Professional Engineering, February 2014, "3D printing takes off"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact WAAMMat twitter account
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Video 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Educational video filmed for The Manufacturer
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description WAAM website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact WAAMMat website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Youtube 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 2process videos uploaded on youtube
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015