National Hub in High Value Photonic Manufacturing

Lead Research Organisation: University of Southampton
Department Name: Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC)

Abstract

Photonics is one of six EU "Key Enabling Technologies. The US recently announced a $200M programme for Integrated Photonics Manufacturing to improve its competiveness. As a UK response, the research proposed here will advance the pervasive technologies for future manufacturing identified in the UK Foresight report on the Future of Manufacturing, improving the manufacturability of optical sensors, functional materials, and energy-efficient growth in the transmission, manipulation and storage of data. Integration is the key to low-cost components and systems. The Hub will address the grand challenge of optimising multiple cross-disciplinary photonic platform technologies to enable integration through developing low-cost fabrication processes. This dominant theme unites the requirements of the UK photonics (and photonics enabled) industry, as confirmed by our consultation with over 40 companies, Catapults, and existing CIMs.
Uniquely, following strong UK investment in photonics, we include most of the core photonic platforms available today in our Hub proposal that exploits clean room facilities valued at £200M. Research will focus on both emerging technologies having greatest potential impact on industry, and long-standing challenges in existing photonics technology where current manufacturing processes have hindered industrial uptake. Platforms will include:
Metamaterials: One of the challenges in metamaterials is to develop processes for low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing. Advanced metamaterials produced in laboratories depend on slow, expensive production processes such as electron beam writing and are difficult to produce in large sizes or quantities. To secure industrial take up across a wide variety of practical applications, manufacturing methods that allow nanostructure patterning across large areas are required. Southampton hosts a leading metamaterials group led by Prof Zheludev and is well positioned to leverage current/future EPSRC research investents, as well as its leading intellectual property position in metamaterials.
High-performance special optical fibres: Although fibres in the UV and mid-IR spectral range have been made, few are currently commercial owing to issues with reliability, performance, integration and manufacturability. This platform will address the manufacturing scalability of special fibres for UV, mid-IR and for ultrahigh power sources, as requested by current industrial partners. Integration with III-V sources and packaging issues will also be addressed, as requested by companies exploiting special fibres in laser-based applications. In the more conventional near-infrared wavelength regime, we will focus on designs and processes to make lasers and systems cheaper, more efficient and more reliable.
Integrated Silicon Photonics: has made major advances in the functionality that has been demonstrated at the chip level. Arguably, it is the only platform that potentially offers full integration of all the key components required for optical circuit functionality at low cost, which is no doubt why the manufacturing giant, Intel, has invested so much. The key challenge remains to integrate silicon with optical fibre devices, III-V light sources and the key components of wafer-level manufacture such as on line test and measurement. The Hub includes the leading UK group in silicon photonics led by Prof Graham Reed.
III-V devices: Significant advances have been made in extending the range of III-V light sources to the mid-IR wavelength region, but key to maximise their impact is to enable their integration with optical fibres and other photonics platforms, by simultaneous optimisation of the III-V and surrounding technologies. A preliminary mapping of industrial needs has shown that integration with metamaterial components optimised for mid-IR would be highly desirable. Sheffield hosts the EPSRC III-V Centre and adds a powerful light emitting dimension to the Hub.

Planned Impact

Our vision is to create a hub that is the Go-To place for the UK photonics industry who are interested in:
1. Improving existing manufacturing processes for production of photonics components
2. Supply of prototype components and sub-systems to their designs
3. A one-stop-shop for trialling user ideas and developing new manufacturing processes
In addition to this user pull, the Hub will push out new processes that enable hitherto difficult or expensive
device/component ideas resulting from EPSRC investments in advanced photonics research. The Hub will work at TRL 2- 3 and will provide the currently-absent manufacturing research component of the TRL chain within the UK photonics infrastructure. Much of photonics is clean-room based (III-V semiconductors, fibres, silicon photonics, metamaterials) and we believe the UK suffers from not having a clear route from its physics-based research investments, through development of devices, to prototype production using new processes, before finally handing on to mid-TRL entities (e.g. HVM Catapult) or direct to industry for incorporating into trial systems and prototypes. Currently, this photons-to-production value chain does not have a broad physics-based ideas engine to underpin it. Thus UK Photonics plc is constrained to buy products already on the market from (usually) foreign companies (fibres, silicon waveguides, etc.) that puts them at a competitive disadvantage, since their competitors can do the same.. Our own commercial experience shows the advantage of investing in TRL 2-3 processes, e.g. Fibrecore, approximately £10m turnover, the world-leading special fibre production company and SPI Lasers who transferred their entire production processes from Southampton. Both now supply special fibre and fibre lasers throughout the UK photonics industry. We will do the same for each of our platform technologies and can offer £200M of clean room investment as a national resource for industry.
Examples of impact of the photonicproduction engine (i.e. the Hub) are as follows:
Metamaterials: lenses and arrays, polarises and isolators, dispersion compensators, electro/magneto-optical modulators, spatial light-modulators.
Fibres: Ultrasensitive distributed gas and chemical sensors, radiation-hard, fibres, low-latency fibre cables for data centres, connectorised mid-IR power delivery cables (100W) for surgical, industrial sensing and defence applications, kW-class ultra-reliable pulsed fibre lasers systems for industrial materials processing.
III/V Semi-conductors: Integrated light sources on silicon through CMOS-compatible processes, high-power fibrecompatible pump lasers at new wave lengths, mid-IR sources compatible with both silicon photonics and fibre devices.
Silicon photonics: Photonic-electronic convergence designed for integration on a silicon platform, metamaterials, plasmonics devices on silicon, special fibres for interlinking silicon devices in data centres
The above is a small selection from a list of over one hundred devices we have in mind that require new processes to make them faster, cheaper, better. All have seen early-stage demonstration, and have excited industry, but are currently impractical for lack of a low-cost robust manufacturing process. Through our industrial and mid- and high TRL collaborators these innovations and their enabling processes will have direct impact in defence, security, healthcare, communications and the wider UK high value manufacturing sector.
The Hub will thus provide the missing foundations to support the currently-disconnected UK photonics infrastructure and embed EPSRC's major investments in physics-based photonics into the early stage of the supply chain. Currently, much of EPSRC's investment is taken up abroad and our vision is to change this by providing the innovation engine for UK Photonics plc. This will have a major impact on the way it does business.

Organisations

 
Description The Photonics Hub aims to produce research at low TRL levels that will improve manufacturing by optimising multiple photonic platform technologies such as 2D materials, optical fibres, silicon photonics and light generation/delivery. Additionally, the grand challenge aims to enable integration through developing low-cost fabrication processes. Research has been driven both by emerging technologies with potential industrial impact, and industry-driven projects on specific topics of interest to our industrial partners. The Hub has developed manufacturing technologies related to 4 platforms, namely:

- HIGH PERFORMANCE OPTICAL FIBRES. Although fibres in the near and mid-IR spectral range have been made, few are currently commercial owing to issues with reliability, performance, integration and manufacturability. This platform has started to address the manufacturing scalability of special fibres for visible and near/mid-IR, and for ultrahigh power sources, as requested by current industrial partners. The scalability of the manufacturing process of hollow core silica fibres for high power delivery and low-latency telecom has continued with preforms capable to deliver ~10km of fibres being developed. Simultaneously, a new class of optical fibres for fibre lasers has been developed, to optimise the power output in single mode operation.
Hollow core fibre manufacturing has moved from Photonics Bandgap Fibres towards Antiresonant Fibres, which have the benefits of wider transmission bandwidths, a smaller glass overlap and loss limited by leakage loss. Low-loss has been achieved in fibres optimised for operation in the near-IR (5.3dB/km at 895nm) and visible (7.4dB/km at 644nm and 12.3dBkm at 532nm). A connector between hollow core fibre and single mode fibre has been developed which provided very low insertion loss (0.9dB), low back reflection (-48dB) and good modal quality (higher order modes (HOMs) content is suppressed by 21dB relative to the fundamental mode). Multicore and multiple multimode core fibres have been fabricated using the stack and draw technique. Devices such as fan-in-fan-out couplers and multicore amplifier in the telecom wavelength region have been developed for mode division multiplexing.
Research on LMA fibres has focused on Single-Trench-Fibre (STF), a novel LMA fibre design comprising an all-solid fibre structure that can be made using conventional fibre manufacturing technologies. The STF design functions were based on the selective loss mechanism of modes for single-mode operation. The modal properties, including effective mode area of the fundamental mode (FM) and the losses of FM and HOMs have been investigated. Er-doped STFs with an ultra-low NA of 0.04 and core diameter up to 60 µm were fabricated using conventional Modified Chemical Vapour Deposition (MCVD) and solution doping techniques. Characterisation of these fibres has revealed remarkable HOM suppression performance, while high power tests showed a good laser efficiency (> 45%) at 1.55 µm.

- LIGHT GENERATION AND DELIVERY: Significant advances have been made in extending the range of III-V light sources to the mid-IR wavelength region, but key to maximise their impact is to enable their integration with optical fibres and other photonics platforms, by simultaneous optimisation of the III-V and surrounding technologies. Analysis conducted within the Hub has determined that low power and low voltage operation of such devices will be critical to achieve the required level of integration. A new approach to the problem has been initiated and designs of inter band-cascade lasers have been developed. Our research also aims to develop a convincing micro-display demonstrator which harnesses our patented, super-efficient Hybrid LED technology, using quantum dots to generate light of any colour from a standard blue LED chip. This technology represents a paradigm shift in efficiency for LEDs, having recorded 123% effective colour conversion efficiency for multi-coloured LEDs. In contrast to a standard LED which uses a simple optical energy transfer mechanism to generate white light, our Hybrid technology employs both optical and electrical energy transfer mechanisms simultaneously and circumvents optical losses, to achieve greater than 100% colour conversion efficiency for a wide range of colours from a single blue LED chip. Devices we have made over the last 12 months are suitable for general lighting applications. The ability to shrink down the size of the LEDs enables us to manufacture high density arrays of super-high efficiency colour tuneable LEDs and opens up new opportunities in the wearable display market.
New fibre structures based on a tubular core surround, connected to a Kagome-style lattice cladding, have also been developed and refined. These have been designed to enable easier fibre fabrication, cleaving and splicing. Strong links to end-users of Kagome fibres for mid-IR power delivery applications have been established, including supplying samples for use in the medical industry and a healthcare-related collaboration with the University of Oxford (temporary spoke) on laser delivery at 3.1 µm for use in diagnosing lung disease and breathe analysis.
Finally, amplifiers have been developed to amplify short pulse lasers operating in the 2 um wavelength region. There is a growing demand for this type of lasers and applications demand higher and higher output power, for which adequate amplifiers are necessary. We have identified the germanate family of glasses as one of the most promising materials for developing ultra-compact fibre amplifiers operating at 2 um wavelengths. Through numerous experimental iterations, we have designed a glass composition and developed a reproducible synthesis process. The glass material we have developed offers an ideal combination of thermo-mechanical properties, high concentration doping in amplifying Tm3+ ions and suitable transparency across the mid-infrared region. We are currently optimising the maximum doping level, in order to achieve optical amplifiers as short as 1cm. these will be used in the final boosted amplification stage of a mast oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) chain in order to achieve record high peak powers whilst suppressing undesirable nonlinear effects.

- 2D MATERIALS. One of the challenges in 2D materials and metamaterials is to develop processes for low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing. Advanced 2D materials produced in laboratories depend on slow, expensive production processes such as electron beam writing and are difficult to produce in large sizes or quantities. Manufacturing methods that allow nanostructure patterning across large areas are are being developed to secure industrial take up across a wide variety of practical applications.
2D (including graphene, MoS2, WS2, MoSe2, WSe2, Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and h-BN) materials and thin films have been manufactured by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD), and Van der Waals Epitaxy (VdWE), to provide wafer-scale processing and transfer methods which meet the industrial needs. The investigation of different protocols have allowed to minimise the surface roughness and decrease the effect of grain boundaries, thus to optimise the optical and electrical properties.
The most recent work has focused on developing deposition and fabrication techniques for new material structures for metamaterials including self-assembled metasurfaces, phase change chalcogenide films and tuneable plasmonic nanostructures. Using high-throughput physical vapour deposition and characterization techniques we are exploring the potential of chalcogenides as compositionally-tuneable alternatives to noble metals for UV-VIS plasmonics, metasurfaces and 'epsilon-near-zero' photonics. Binary (Bi:Te and Sb:Te) and ternary (Bi:Sb:Te) alloys are found to exhibit a plasmonic response (a negative value of the real part of relative permittivity e1) in their amorphous and/or crystalline states at UV/VIS wavelengths. We continue to develop nanomechanical metamaterial device functionalities: During this reporting period we have demonstrated a reflective light modulator based upon a dynamic Salisbury screen. We have also developing approaches to the integration of metasurfaces and active metadevices with optical fibre platforms by realizing a fully fiberized and packaged metadevice for all-optical signal modulation based on coherent absorption.

- SILICON PHOTONICS. This platform potentially offers full integration of all the key components required for optical circuit functionality at low cost. Southampton and Sheffield have worked to find optimal ways in which to integrate Quantum Cascade Lasers onto the Silicon platform. Our research has focused on the fabrication of Ge-on-Si, suspended-Si and suspended-Ge platforms and their characterisation at longer wavelengths. We have fabricated devices in these 3 platforms and characterised them at a range of wavelengths using new experimental setups that we built in 2017. The key achievements of our research are: a) Realisation of low loss suspended Si waveguides suitable for sensing applications that operate up to 8 micrometers, which is the transparency limit of silicon. b) Demonstration of a low-loss Ge-on-Si platform operating up to 8.5 micrometers. c) Improving the fabrication of suspended Ge waveguides. d) Designing passive Si photonics circuits suitable for integration with quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) fabricated in Sheffield.

- INTEGRATION. The main aim of this work package, overarching all the four platforms, is the integration of the four platforms with a particular eye on cost reduction, manufacturing efficiency, and the capture of 'smart' value at component level. We have developed a multi-strand approach to integration, from design through to applications development and have used inputs from other work packages, collaborations with industry, and temporary spokes enabled by the Hub innovation fund to further the research in this work package. New fabrication methods for compatible semiconductor devices have been developed, and working with the University of Strathclyde and Fraunhofer Centre for Applied Photonics, we have demonstrated the successful transfer of mid-infra red lasers from the growth substrate to a host Silicon substrate; thereby establishing the initial stages of a method for fabricating Photonics Integrated Circuits (PICs). Applications in the medical field are being explored with the University of Oxford, in the metrology field through working with the Future Metrology Hub, and in the quantum, displays and optical storage fields with industrial collaborators. Initial discussions with the compound semiconductor Catapult have taken place to explore reliability analysis.
Exploitation Route The photonics Hub has carried out both research on key photonic platforms and targeted industrial projects. These last efforts have been used by companies towards the commercialization of products.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description The Future Hub in Photonics supports 4 major research platforms (2D materials, optical fibres, silicon photonics and light generation and delivery) to develop novel manufacturing technologies and the grand challenge of integration, together with numerous targeted projects funded by the industry with ~£11M over the last three years. These technologies are being exploited by the industrial partners for the improvement of their products and the development of novel products/technologies, some of which are being exploited in a newly formed start-up from the ORC.
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Provide information for the Technical Education Bill
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Set-up All-Party Parliamentary Group on Photonics
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://photonicsuk.org/appg-photonics/
 
Description ACTPHAST
Amount € 73,535 (EUR)
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2017 
 
Description DSTL
Amount £1,700,000 (GBP)
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2018
 
Description Development of semiconductors in quantum communications
Amount £250,000 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
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Description ENERGY RESILIENT MANUFACTURING 2: SPATIO-TEMPORAL BEAM TAILORED FIBRE LASERS FOR ENERGY RESILIENT MANUFACTURING
Amount £649,938 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P012248/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description EPSRC National Epitaxy Facility
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Funding ID NS/A000054/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
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Description Feasibility of a novel low cost technique to deposit chalcogenides
Amount £24,097 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
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Description Fellowship
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Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
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Description Fellowship
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Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
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Description Horizon 2020
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Funding ID Manufacturing energy supply platform for wearable electronics 
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
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Start  
 
Description Horizon 2020
Amount £129,102 (GBP)
Funding ID Next Generation metamaterial-based SMART and FLEXible Optical Solar Reflectors 
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start  
 
Description Industrial
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lumenisity 
Start 01/2018 
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Description Industrial
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Sector Private
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Description Industrial
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Sector Private
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Description Industrial
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Sector Private
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Start 09/2016 
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Description Industrial
Amount £250,000 (GBP)
Organisation Toshiba Research Europe Ltd 
Sector Private
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Description Industrial
Amount £250,828 (GBP)
Organisation SPI Lasers UK 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
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Description Industrial
Amount £1 (GBP)
Organisation Qinetiq 
Sector Private
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Description Industrial
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Sector Private
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Description Industrial
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Organisation Huawei Technologies Research and Development UK Ltd 
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Description Industrial
Amount £141,742 (GBP)
Organisation Leonardo MW Ltd. 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
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Description Industrial
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation Northlab Photonics AB 
Start 01/2017 
End 09/2017
 
Description Industrial
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Organisation Qinetiq 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 12/2019
 
Description Industrial
Amount £1,955,000 (GBP)
Organisation Huawei Technologies 
Sector Private
Country China
Start 01/2019 
End 01/2023
 
Description Industrial
Amount £178,539 (GBP)
Organisation Rockley Photonics 
Sector Private
Country Unknown
Start 01/2017 
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Description Industrial
Amount £211,000 (GBP)
Organisation SPI Lasers UK 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 08/2018
 
Description Industrial
Amount £658,096 (GBP)
Organisation Lumenisity 
Start 05/2018 
End 05/2020
 
Description Industrial
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lightpoint Medical 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
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Description Industrial
Amount £2,112,342 (GBP)
Organisation Microsoft Corporation 
Sector Public
Country United States
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Description Industrial
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Organisation Lumenisity 
Start 07/2017 
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Description Industrial
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation Northrop Grumman 
Sector Private
Country United States
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End 10/2017
 
Description Industrial
Amount £87,000 (GBP)
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 05/2019
 
Description Industrial
Amount £417,831 (GBP)
Organisation IS Instruments 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
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Description Industrial
Amount £637,000 (GBP)
Organisation Toshiba Research Europe Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 04/2019
 
Description Industrial
Amount £71,250 (GBP)
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 05/2019
 
Description Industrial
Amount £33,000 (GBP)
Organisation IS Instruments 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2016 
End 11/2019
 
Description Industrial
Amount £1 (GBP)
Organisation FlexEnable Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 10/2018
 
Description Industrial
Amount £584,869 (GBP)
Organisation Seagate Technology (Ireland) 
Sector Private
Country Ireland
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End 01/2018
 
Description Industrial
Amount £700,000 (GGP)
Organisation Slice, Inc. 
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description Industrial
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation BAE Systems 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 10/2018
 
Description Industrial
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Organisation IQE Europe Limited 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
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Description Industrial
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Description Industrial
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Description Industrial
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Description Industrial
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Organisation Honeywell Aerospace 
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Description Industrial
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Organisation Lumenisity 
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Description Industrial
Amount £53,000 (GBP)
Organisation Qpeak Inc 
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Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 10/2019
 
Description Industrial - Bi-doped fibre amplifiers and lasers
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation II-VI Incorporated 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 05/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Description Industrial - Development of few mode, multicore erbium doped amplifiers
Amount £190,015 (GBP)
Organisation Huawei Technologies 
Sector Private
Country China
Start 06/2017 
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Description Industrial - FMF Isolator x 3
Amount £2,250 (GBP)
Organisation Phoenix Photonics Ltd. 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 11/2016
 
Description Industrial - Hollow core fibre fabrication
Amount £30,415 (GBP)
Organisation Lumenisity 
Start 07/2016 
End 10/2016
 
Description Industrial - Hollow core fibre programme
Amount £1,170,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lumenisity 
Start 02/2017 
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Amount £437,000 (GBP)
Organisation PhotonStar LED 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
 
Description Industrial - fs writing of waveguides
Amount £53,709 (GBP)
Organisation Huawei Technologies 
Sector Private
Country China
Start 01/2017 
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Description Industrial development contract
Amount £52,000 (GBP)
Organisation SP Technical Institute of Sweden 
Sector Academic/University
Country Sweden
Start 09/2016 
 
Description Industrial project
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation Trumpf 
Sector Private
Country Germany
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End 03/2016
 
Description Industry - FMF isolator
Amount £750 (GBP)
Organisation Phoenix Photonics Ltd. 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description Industry - Modulator development
Amount £2,023,391 (GBP)
Organisation Rockley Photonics 
Sector Private
Country Unknown
Start 11/2017 
End 11/2022
 
Description Industry - Multimode amplifiers
Amount £14,750 (GBP)
Organisation Phoenix Photonics Ltd. 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
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Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rockley Photonics 
Sector Private
Country Unknown
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Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Innovate UK - Materials for HAMR
Amount £211,227 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
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Description Laser Technologies for Future Manufacturing
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Funding ID EP/P027644/1 
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Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2022
 
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Sector Public
Country Belgium
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Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
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Description Research Fellowship
Amount £496,398 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
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Description Responsive mode
Amount £486,940 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N013883/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
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Description Standard Research
Amount £381,101 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N020057/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
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Amount £468,624 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2020
 
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Amount £15,900 (GBP)
Organisation University of Southampton 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
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Description communications
Amount £211,227 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N510063/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description industrial
Amount £150,000 (GBP)
Organisation SPI Lasers UK 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 06/2017
 
Description industrial
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Organisation SPI Lasers UK 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2016 
End 08/2017
 
Description industrial
Amount £286,000 (GBP)
Organisation SPI Lasers UK 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 08/2019
 
Description Ben Gurion University 
Organisation Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Country Israel 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution supply of 2D materials
Collaborator Contribution demonstration of 2D materials as alignment layers in liquid crystal displays
Impact Publication submitted
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Phoenix Photonics 
Organisation Phoenix Photonics Ltd.
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution developed sapce division multiplexing components and depolarizers
Collaborator Contribution provide expertise, product specifications, and guidelines for product development. Funding for parts of the project.
Impact Products.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Deepsky corporation 
Organisation Deepsky Corporation Ltd
PI Contribution Our team developing inkjet printing techniques to improve colour performance of commercial display boards using our patented technology. Quantum dot coating processes were developed suitable to coat provided commercial display test boards. Development of plastic pixel dam processes
Collaborator Contribution Provided advice on electronic drive circuitry. Provided access to ASIC chip designs. Provided technical expertise for PCB design utilising their driver chips. Expertise for monolithic display chip manufacture and design,
Impact N/A
Start Year 2016
 
Description Direct write 3D Photonic Crystal Structures 
Organisation University of Bristol
Department Bristol Centre for Surgical Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of 2D and thick film materials for direct write 3D Photonic Crystal Structures
Collaborator Contribution integration of 2D material in all dielectric surface wave devices for light generation
Impact Publications Mike P.C. Taverne, Xu Zeng, Katrina A. Morgan, Ioannis Zeimpekis, Chung-Che Huang, Ying-Lung D. Ho, Mahmoud Mostafavi and Anton Shterenlikht, "Fabrication of micro-scale fracture specimens for nuclear applications by direct laser writing", MRS Advances, (https://doi.org/10.1557/adv.2018.236) Lifeng Chen, Katrina A. Morgan, Ghadah Alzaidy, Chung-Che Huang, Y. -L. Daniel Ho, Mike P. C. Taverne, Xu Zheng, Zhong Ren, Daniel W. Hewak, John G. Rarity, "Observation of Complete Photonic Bandgap in Low Refractive Index Contrast Inversed Rod-Connected Diamond Structured Chalcogenides", ACS photonics, Under Review. Conference Lifeng Chen, X. Zheng Y-L D. Ho, C.C. Huang, Dan Hewak, J.G. Rarity, M. Lopez-Garcia, "Bloch Surface waves as a platform for single photon emitters in 2D materials", The Nanoscale Quantum Optics (NQO) Workshop - COST Action MP1403 Nanoscale Quantum Optics Meeting. February 13th-16th 2018 Prague, Czech Republic (Poster). Grant Proposal EP/T000600/1 3D Nanophononics in Chalcogenide Material
Start Year 2016
 
Description EU COST Action MP1401 
Organisation Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Country Israel 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Some glass samples have already been sent to Prof. A Ishaaya for assessing the laser damage threshold of the germanate glass material developed and discussion for further experiments are ongoing.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Ishaaya's group shows interest in testing the germanate glass developed in our laboratories for demonstrating amplifier and laser operation in small diameter glass rod configuration.
Impact material exchange
Start Year 2017
 
Description Flexenable LTD, UK 
Organisation FlexEnable Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution NDA signed, ongoing
Collaborator Contribution NDA signed, ongoing
Impact collaboration towards commercialization
Start Year 2017
 
Description Guangdong University of Technology 
Organisation Guangdong University of Technology
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution 2D materials exchange
Collaborator Contribution 2D materials testing
Impact 2D materials exchange
Start Year 2017
 
Description Heriot-Watt University 
Organisation Heriot-Watt University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Manufacture of Graphene
Collaborator Contribution Demonstration of laser mode locking using Graphene
Impact materila exchange
Start Year 2017
 
Description IS instruments - Hollow Microstructured Fibres 
Organisation IS Instruments
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Manufactured Hollow Microstructured Fibres
Collaborator Contribution Contributed to CASE studentship and Innovate UK projects on Hollow Microstructured Fibres for Compact atomic clocks
Impact CASE studentship and Innovate UK project
Start Year 2016
 
Description Ilika technologies 
Organisation Ilika
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Exchange and characterization of 2D materials
Collaborator Contribution Exchange and characterization of 2D materials
Impact Innovate UK project with Seagate and Ilika Technologies, funded through EP/N510063/1 Nanomaterials for Smart Data Storage
Start Year 2015
 
Description KTN 
Organisation Materials KTN
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Participated in Flexible and Printed Electronics, Displays & Photonics demonstrator workshop 21 November 2017, Cambridge
Collaborator Contribution Organised Flexible and Printed Electronics, Displays & Photonics demonstrator workshop 21 November 2017, Cambridge
Impact Flexible and Printed Electronics, Displays & Photonics demonstrator workshop
Start Year 2017
 
Description MIT 
Organisation Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Manufacture of chalcogenides and 2D materials
Collaborator Contribution testing and characterization
Impact Publication in Nature Photonics (doi:10.1038/s41566-017-0033-z)
Start Year 2016
 
Description Merck Chemicals Ltd, UK 
Organisation Merck
Department Merck UK
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution NDA and MTA signed. Material transfered
Collaborator Contribution NDA and MTA signed, material testing
Impact testing
Start Year 2017
 
Description NPL - Hollow core fibres for atomic clocks 
Organisation National Physical Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided Hollow Microstructured Fibres for Compact atomic clocks
Collaborator Contribution Used the Hollow Microstructured Fibres in Compact atomic clocks. A PhD studentship was funded through DSTL.
Impact Hollow Microstructured Fibres have been manufactured and tested at NPL for application in compact atomic clocks
Start Year 2016
 
Description NTU singapore 
Organisation Nanyang Technological University
Country Singapore 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution manufacture and characterization of atomically thin MoS2 and other 2D Materials; supervision of joint PhD student
Collaborator Contribution Observation of Enhanced light-matter interaction in atomically thin MoS2 and 2D Materials Fundamentals. Supervision of joint PhD student
Impact a) Contact: Qi Jie Wang Scope: Enhanced light-matter interaction in atomically thin MoS2 Output: publication Commenced: 2015 and ongoing http://research.ntu.edu.sg/expertise/academicprofile/Pages/StaffProfile.aspx?ST_EMAILID=QJWANG b) Contact: Prof Zexian Shen Scope: 2D Materials Fundamentals Output: publication Commenced: 2013 and ongoing http://research.ntu.edu.sg/expertise/academicprofile/Pages/StaffProfile.aspx?ST_EMAILID=ZEXIANG c) Joint PhD Studentship, Southampton-Singapore Student Name: Benliang Li Output: Publication, PhD thesis Commenced 2014, Completed 2017
Start Year 2013
 
Description National University of Malaysia 
Organisation National University of Malaysia
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Material Transfer Agreement signed, Providing 2D graphene samples
Collaborator Contribution Material Transfer Agreement signed, test 2D graphene samples
Impact Material Transfer Agreement signed, exchange of 2D graphene samples
Start Year 2017
 
Description PhD student training 
Organisation University of Southampton
Department University of Southampton Clinical Trials Unit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Training of PhD student to deposit 2D materials and provision of 2D materials
Collaborator Contribution Exploitation of 2D materials for photocatalyic water splitting Investigation of 2D MoS2 films for tribolelectrication studies Use of 2D materials for nonlinear devices
Impact Publication Junqiu Guo, Xin Liao, Ming-Hsien Lee, Geoff Hyett, Chung-Che Huang, Daniel Hewak, Sakellaris Mailis, Wei Zhou, Zheng Jiang, "Experimental and DFT insights of Zn-doping effects on the visible-light photocatalytic water splitting and dye decomposition over Zn-doped BiOBr photocatalysts", Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 243 (2019) 502-512. Internal He Wang, Tomas Polcar and Chung-Che Huang, "Nanoscale Triboelectrification of Chemical Vapor Deposited MoS2 Film", Scientific Reports, 9, 334, (2019). Haojie Zhang, Noel Healy, Antoine Runge, Chung-Che Huang, Daniel William Hewak, Anna C. Peacock, "Optical-resonance-enhanced nonlinearities in a MoS-coated single-mode fiber", Optics Letters, Vol. 43, Issue 13, pp. 3100-3103 (2018). (Editors' Pick) Liam P. McDonnell, Chung-Che Huang, Qingsong Cui, Dan W. Hewak, David C. Smith, "Probing Excitons, Trions and Dark Excitons in Monolayer WS2 using Resonance Raman Spectroscopy", Nano Lett., 2018, 18 (2), pp 1428-1434.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Politecnico di Torino 
Organisation Polytechnic University of Turin
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are collaborating on the fabrication of active non-silica glasses by sharing recipes, glass samples, fabrication techniques and people, through 1 EU Marie Curie research fellowships and through the exchange of 2 visiting students (1 MSc and 1 PhD). Since 2016 discussions with Dr Paola Palmero have also taken place regarding the development of active glass materials for 2 um and 3 um wavelengths. It is now planned that Dr Fedia Ben Slimen, an ORC Hub researcher within the Compound Glass Group, will visit Dr Palmero's team to perform preliminary experiments for the development of active materials for 2 um and 3 um fibre based optical amplifiers. The visit will take place within the framework of the EU COST Action MP1401
Collaborator Contribution We are collaborating on the fabrication of active non-silica glasses by sharing recipes, glass samples, fabrication techniques and people, through 1 EU Marie Curie research fellowships and through the exchange of 2 visiting students (1 MSc and 1 PhD). Development of active materials for 2 um and 3 um fibre based optical amplifiers.
Impact Fabrication of novel fibres, glass samples, 1 EU Marie Curie research fellowships exchange of 2 visiting students (1 MSc and 1 PhD).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Seagate technologies 
Organisation Seagate Technology (Ireland)
Country Ireland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Exchange and characterization of 2D materials
Collaborator Contribution Exchange and characterization of 2D materials
Impact Innovate UK project with Seagate and Ilika Technologies, funded through EP/N510063/1 Nanomaterials for Smart Data Storage
Start Year 2015
 
Description Singapore University of Technology and Design 
Organisation Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD)
Country Singapore 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Manufacture of 2D material
Collaborator Contribution 2D material characterization and application
Impact 2D material characterization and application
Start Year 2015
 
Description Strathclyde University - microtransfer printing 
Organisation Fraunhofer Society
Department Fraunhofer Centre for Applied Photonics (CAP)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Through the Photonics Hub Innovation fund, we have awarded a new project contract to Strathclyde University to develop with Sheffield and Southampton the micro-tranfer printing of arrays of mid-infra red lasers onto silicon/Ge substrates.
Collaborator Contribution The Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics granted access to their extensive characterisation facilities to all project members (Southampton, Sheffield, Strathclyde).
Impact The new project between Strathclyde University, Sheffield and Southampton aims to develop the micro-tranfer printing of arrays of mid-infra red lasers onto silicon/Ge substrates
Start Year 2017
 
Description University of Bristol 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Manufacture of 2D materials
Collaborator Contribution Incorporation of 2D materials into 3D Photonic Crystal structures
Impact Publications, Conference Presentation, Research Grants
Start Year 2016
 
Description University of Tennessee Knoxville 
Organisation University of Tennessee
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Fabricated multielement fibre for neutron imaging
Collaborator Contribution provided isotopically pure glasses
Impact Fibres for neutron imaging
Start Year 2014
 
Description Van de Waals epitaxy of 2D materials 
Organisation Federal University of Sao Carlos
Department Department of Physics
Country Brazil 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of 2D materials
Collaborator Contribution Use of 2D materials for photoluminescence experiments
Impact Publications V. Orsi Gordo, M.A.G. Balanta, Y. Galvão Gobato, F. S. Covre, F. Iikawa, O. Couto Jr, Fanyao Qu, H. V. A. Galeti, M. Henini, D. W. Hewak and C. C. Huang, "Revealing the nature of low-temperature photoluminescence peaks by laser treatment in Van der Waals Epitaxially grown large-scale WS2 monolayers", Nanoscale, 2018, 10, 4807. Conference Y. Galvão Gobato, V. Orsi Gordo, M.A.G. Balanta, F.S. Covre, H.V.A. Galeti, F. Iikawa, O.D.D. Couto Jr., F. Qu, M. Henini, D.W. Hewak, C.C. Huang, "Identification of low-temperature photoluminescence peaks by laser treatment in van der Waals epitaxially grown WS2 monolayers", 34th International Conference on The Physics of Semiconductors (ICPS-2018), Montpellier, France, 29 July- 3 August, 2018. (poster_P1_108) Y. Galvao Gobato, G.A. Prando, A.D. Rodrigues, M. Henini, H. Wang, T. Polcar , D.W. Hewak, C.C. Huang, "Interlayer coupling in twisted MoS2/WS2 Van der Waals heterostructures", 34th International Conference on The Physics of Semiconductors (ICPS-2018), Montpellier, France, 29 July-3 August, 2018. (poster_P3_078)
Start Year 2017
 
Description iMEC, Belgium 
Organisation Interuniversity Micro-Electronics Centre
Country Belgium 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution NDA and MTA signed, material tranfered
Collaborator Contribution NDA and MTA signed, material testing
Impact material exchange
Start Year 2017
 
Description material provision for laser experiments 
Organisation University of Southampton
Department University of Southampton Clinical Trials Unit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of 2D graphene for saturable absorber
Collaborator Contribution Integration in laser to produce high frequency output
Impact Publication Christos Grivas, Ismaeel Rand, Costantino Corbari, Chung-Che Huang, Dan W. Hewak, Pavlos Lagoudakis, Gilberto Brambilla, "Generation of multi-gigahertz trains of phase coherent femtosecond laser pulses in Ti:sapphire waveguides", Laser & Photonics Reviews, 2018, 1800167.
Start Year 2017
 
Title APPARATUS AND A METHOD FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF GLASS INSULATED MICROWIRE 
Description APPARATUS AND A METHOD FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF GLASS INSULATED MICROWIRE 
IP Reference GB1607842.0 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed No
Impact none yet
 
Title Infrared Optical Material 
Description Infrared Optical Material 
IP Reference GB1615780.2 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed No
Impact None, yet
 
Company Name Lumenisity Ltd 
Description Lumenisity is a very recently formed University spin out concerned with commercialising optical fibre technology for diverse applications. 
Year Established 2016 
Impact company has only just recently secured funding.
 
Description "Science on Stage" EU Teachers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Science on Stage" EU Teachers, Queen Mary University London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 2016 University of Southampton Science and Engineering Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Engagement with 256 children and accompanying parents at the 2016 University of Southampton Science and Engineering day with the Lightwave Roadshow, an outreach education program based at the Optoelectronics Research Centre and supported by the EPSRC Future Photonics Manufacturing Hub. Significant participation by postgraduate students with research relevant to the Hub activities, with positive change of attitude and renewed engagement of the program following this activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.zeplerinstitute.ac.uk/news/4858
 
Description BBC4 "Secret History of Stuff" broadcasted in November 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The BBC 4 Programme 'Secret History of Stuff' contained interviews with Hub co-Is and outreach team members.
It was aired in November 2018 and had a potential audience of 3M viewers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Big Bang Science and Engineering Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Big Bang Science and Engineering Fair,
NEC Birmingham, March 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description British Science Festival : "Light shaping the future" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk at the British Science Festival to inform current research fields of light for telecommunications aimed at the general public (>50 in attendance), which led to questions on my research and current consumer and technology trends.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A stand at the Festival allowed to reach 1360 people.

The aims of the activity were as follows:
• to introduce the public to Photonics and Hub applications
• to train post graduate students; improving their science communication and practical problem solving skills in optics and photonics through operating the show and presenting to large audiences.

At the Cheltenham Festival 47 feedback forms were given out to visitors to the stand. During the event, 153 stickers, 167 postcards, 171 bookmarks, 189 pens and approximately 200 pairs diffraction glasses were distributed dependent on the degree of 'significance' of the interaction with an individual.

The 'Significance' of the interaction with a visitor to the stand was assigned based on the length of the interaction or the difficulty of topics discussed. For example, a pair of diffraction glasses was more expensive to source in comparison with a postcard, so these were only handed out once the demonstrators had spoken at some length about Hub research. It was interesting to note that greater numbers of visitors wanted in-depth discussions with the demonstrators rather than a brief interaction. This distribution was no doubt due to the fact that the fair was aimed at members of the public already interested in science.

The largest impact for demonstrators was engaging with new audiences and people from underserved communities as illustrated below:

"The best moment for me was seeing the happiness and joy the infinity mirror brought to six children with severe learning difficulties." Hub demonstrator.

100% of those surveyed stated that the demonstrators communicated at an appropriate level with them.
"Excellent"! Good - informed conversation." Adult, member of public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Exhibited with Display Table at SPIE Security + Defence and Remote Sensing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Exhibited with Display Table at SPIE Security + Defence and Remote Sensing Edinburgh 26-29 Sep 2016. Over 60 contacts were made in the area of novel IR glasses through this 2 day event. One of these contacts has led to USA-UK-Germany industrial collaboration to develop IR lenses for medical applications. A second defense related collaborative group has been established between the ORC and five industrial partners to develop multispectral IR cameras and an Innovate UK proposal is in progress.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Family Science and Engineering Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Family Science and Engineering Day
3 separate events, UoS campus
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description From heliographs to the Internet: celebrating Light - Cafe Sci Salisbury 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 70 members of the general public attended a 45 minute presentation on the International Year of Light and my current research being carried out at the university of Southampton. Many questions were raised by the audience after the presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://cafescientifiquesalisbury.org.uk/2015/09/light/
 
Description International Day of Light Event on campus - 16.05.18 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A day of hands-on and interactive activities was arranged on campus for the following schools: Redbridge Community School; Oasis Academy Mayfield; The Hamble School; Toynbee School and Priory School. These local schools are targeted as 'underserved' and are part of the Learn with Us widening participation programme.

80 Year 9 students and 9 teachers took part.

The aims of the activity were as follows:
• to introduce pupils to Photonics and Hub applications
• to encourage students from underrepresented groups to attend university
• to train post graduate students; improving their science communication and practical problem solving skills in optics and photonics through operating the show and presenting to large audiences.

The learning outcomes for the activity were that students would be able to do the following at the end of the event:

• Define the word 'photonics' as being the science of light
• To know what a spectroscope is, and does
• To know what the acronym 'LASER' stands for
• To explain how a Pepper's Ghost demonstration works. (The optical illusion can be described in terms of simple ray optics and reflection).
• List three applications of photonics
• To increase the likelihood that students would want to study physics at University.

During the day students made spectroscopes and identified gases with them, made pepper's ghost demonstrations with their smart phones, attended the interactive Light Express laser show based on photonics, and did hands-on optics experiments with post graduate students.

The participants were surveyed at the beginning and end of the event to determine the following:
• their enjoyment of the event
• what they had learned
• their favourite activity of the day
• How likely they were to want to study physics at University.

Enjoyment:
The 67 pupils who returned surveys gave the event an average rating of 7.95/10 when asked about their enjoyment which we considered a very good result.

Change in knowledge:
There was a measurable change in the student's knowledge of optics and photonics as a result of the intervention:
• Before the event only 15% of the participants were able to define photonics as relating to light, after the event 50% of the pupils gave definitions of photonics as relating to the science of light or the study of light.
• At the beginning of the event 12% of pupils were able to describe a spectroscope as something that observed a spectrum of colours, after the event 62% were able to describe a spectroscope as something that identified gases using light.
• Before the event none of the students were able to explain what 'LASER' meant, after the event 45% were able to answer 'light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation'.
• At the start of the day none of the students knew what a Pepper's ghost was, or how it worked, after the event 100% of the students had made a demonstration to take how with them and 56% identified that reflection was responsible for the image. A common misconception amongst students was that refraction caused the optical illusion.
• Before the event 16% of pupils were able to give three applications of light; most referred to energy, and seeing things, after the event 59% of pupils were able to give three applications of light and included a much greater variety of applications such as lasers, fibre optics and telecommunications.

Change of attitude:
We acknowledge that a single one-off intervention was unlikely to alter student's long-term behaviour and at the end of the event:
• 44% of students declared no change in their intentions to study physics at University describing it as 'unlikely' both before and after the event that they would study physics.
• 11% of students maintained a positive attitude toward coming to University to study Physics; 3% described it as being 'Fairly likely' they would apply to University to study Physics both before and after the intervention
4.5% described it as being 'likely' that they would apply to study physics,
3% described it as being 'very likely' that they would apply.

The event though did result in some declared change in behaviour, some positive, some negative:
• 4.5% students described the event has having increased the likelihood that they would apply to study physics.
• One student changed their attitude from being 'very likely' to 'fairly likely' to study physics at University - a drop in two categories.
• 2 students dropped from 'fairly likely' to 'not likely'.
• 10% of students did not respond to the question.

10 students presumably arrived late from one school and were unable to complete the 'before' questions; their responses at the end of the event were that 2 were unlikely to want to study physics and 8 of whom were more positive in their response either declaring themselves; fairly likely, likely, or 1 very likely they were going to study physics.

From the statistics it could be determined that approximately 28% of pupils could be described as considering studying Physics at University. We will use this data in the future as a benchmark to determine whether interventions have been successful with this age group and WP schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.orc.soton.ac.uk/news/5594
 
Description Key stage 3 school visits 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 175 pupils in key stage 3 attended 2 events visiting the research organisation and taking practical classes on telecommunications and applications to photonics and manufacturing research. Positive change of attitude noted from both youths and accompanying teachers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Participation in a outreach and public engagement national conference - INTERACT - An Engagement Symposium for the Physical Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Attendance and participation at the first 2017 INTERACT conference hosted at the University of Birmingham. 127 people in total attended the conference. A University of Southampton comprised of 10 PhD students, 3 Post docs, 2 outreach staff and 1 professor attended. 13 members of the delegation presented a total of 9 talks ( out of 31 in total, so 29% of the schedule ). Excellent networking, a good number of new contacts were made as well as our strong presence of Southampton people definitely left a mark on the entire event. Further participation in the conference is expected. The organisation of the transport for the delegation was funded through grants obtained from the IEEE Photonics Society and the University of Southampton's Faculty of Physical Sciences and Engineering.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.events.iop.org/e/interact---an-engagement-symposium-for-the-physical-sciences-123538990/...
 
Description Participation in an activity, workshop or similar - Widening Participation Outreach Programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Outreach education workshops with 582 school students in key stages 2 & 3 from schools the South of England across 11 days in June 2017. School visits organised in collaboration with the University of Southampton Outreach Office's Widening Participation (WP) program, targeting schools that do not traditionally engage with higher education. Classes on optical sciences and applications to photonics research carried out on varied subjects, including mirrors and lenses, telecommunications, electromagnetic spectrum. 20 postgraduate research students were trained and involved in the delivery and evaluation of these classes. Further activity organised with the Outreach Office WP program for increased training and activities in 2018 resulted from activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Participation in an activity, workshop or similar - Women in Optics and Photonics activities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A 1 day workshop at a public event in Southampton West Quay shopping centre and 1 classroom workshop and tour of cleanroom facilities, engaging with 191 members of the public and female students. ----- 40 pupils from schools around the UK attended a workshop and visit of the research facilities of the Optoelectronics Research Centre as part of a residential course for girls in July 2017. ---- 151 members of the public visited research showcase and engagement stand at West Quay shopping centre as part of city wide celebration of the 2017 International Women's Day. ---- In both events, change of attitude towards the subject area recorded and assimilation of knowledge and application of photonics research. Renewed interest to participate in the residential course in 2018. settings organised to present the science and research at the University of Southampton in Photonics and Optoelectronics. Activities supported by SPIE Women in Optics grant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Participation in fairs for the general public 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participation in 2017 University of Southampton Science and Engineering Day (18 March) and 2017 Winchester Science Festival (29-30 July), engaging with 586 children and an estimated 300 parents and members of the public. Activities featured photonics hands-on activities and applications to scientific research. Events organised in collaboration with the University of Southampton Public Engagement Roadshow, resulting in renewed interest to participate in the Roadshow and attend more festivals in 2018. Further networking possible with other workshop organisers resulting in more opportunities for events and identifying funding through regional partners (IOP for instance)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Participation in school fairs and visits 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Visits organised to attend 2 school festivals and 1 school day, engaging with 521 school students from 6 schools in the South of England. Activities include showcase of research in optoelectronics and photonics and educational activities to enrich the national curriculum in science for students in key stages 2 and 3 (aged 8-14 years). Events organised in collaboration with Public Engagement Roadshow, Cantell School and Winchester Cathedral Science Centre. Renewed interest for collaboration in 2018, in particular with Cantell School for first ever celebration of the 2018 UNESCO International Day of Light.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Photonics West 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact the Photonics Hub, Southampton and Sheffield were represented with staff and presentations at the Photonics West conference in San Francisco in Feb 2017. This is one the major international conference for Photonics and has led to new industrial contacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Pint of Science, Southampton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 150 members of the general public attended the Southampton's Pint of Science "From Atoms to Galaxies" in May 2015. Many questions were addressed to researchers involved in the event on their presentations and in discussion afterwards. Assimilation of knowledge documented, positive feedback asking for a similar event to be held in 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://pintofscience.co.uk/event/light-the-future-of-the-internet/
 
Description Portsmouth Grammar School, Portsmouth - 26.09.18 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A Light Express show performance for KS4 students supporting an inspirational lecture by Sir Professor David Payne.

170 GCSE students and 9 teachers attended.

The aims of the activity were as follows:
• to introduce teachers to Photonics and Hub applications
• to train post graduate students; improving their science communication and practical problem solving skills in optics and photonics through operating the show and presenting to large audiences.

Participants were asked to give the show a rating out of 10 for enjoyment, a brief description of what they had learned, as well as feedback for future shows.

Overall Event Ratings: The event scored an average of 8.2/10.

The attendees were asked to write down what they learned from the Light Express Show. 54% of people completed an evaluation. Answers revealed that the show communicated a broad range of science concepts: optical fibres; lasers and the internet. Key aspects of science learned by the audience were: total internal reflection; the absorption of light by different coloured materials; and the introduction of the word 'photonics'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Primary school workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Work with university of southampton Outreach Office Widening Participation program. 3 events carried out to engage with 300 pupils from local schools.

The activity has resulted in the participation of a high-profile Primary Science Festival in Winchester Cathedral.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Public Engagement Training 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Public Engagement Training for Postgraduate Students
3 sessions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Royal Horticultural Society Flower Show Tatton Park 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Reflecting Photonics - Scientists in the Garden.
Conversations with approx 1200 visitors about research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description School visit (Inspire course) Key stage 5 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 30 pupils from schools around the UK attended a workshop and visit of the research facilities of the Optoelectronics Research Centre as part of a residential course for girls. Change of attitude towards the subject area recorded and assimilation of knowledge and application of photonics research. Renewed interest to participate in the residential course in 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description School visits (Key stage 2) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 344 students attended a workshop on fibre optics and telecommunications developed based on the research areas of the postgraduate students involved in running the activity. The workshop is in high demand for 2016 from schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description School visits (Key stage 3) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A series of workshops on telecommuniations was delivered to 763 students in key stage 3. The postgraduate demonstrators were asked questions about their research and studies, which has fed back into developing the structure of the workshop and PGRs improving their ability to communicate with school students and non-specialist audiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description School visits, 6th form 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 126 6th form students visited the university in 4 events in 2015 to take part in workshops on fibre optics, quantum computing and telecommuniations research and to visit the university's cleanroom facilities. Comments are positive and further activities have been requested as a result.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.orc.soton.ac.uk/q-wow.html
 
Description School visits, external (Key stage 1) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Visits to 4 schools and reached 180 students at key stage 1. This activity has required further demand from schools and further visits are in preparation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
 
Description Science Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact London Science Museum
2 x Shows.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Science and Engineering Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science and Engineering Day
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Southampton Physicist of the Year 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A Light Express show performance was organised for award-winning Physics students, their teachers and parents.

40 pupils, 40 parents and 40 teachers attended.

The aims of the activity were as follows:
• to entertain and inform students, parents and teachers about Photonics and Hub applications
• to train post graduate students; improving their science communication and practical problem solving skills in optics and photonics through operating the show and presenting to large audiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Institute of Physics Stimulating Physics Network Meeting, Charter House School. - 07.07.18 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A Light Express show performance to teachers, presenting the audience with the research of the hub and photonics in general.

95 science teachers attended.

The aims of the activity were as follows:
• to introduce teachers to Photonics and Hub applications
• to train post graduate students; improving their science communication and practical problem solving skills in optics and photonics through operating the show and presenting to large audiences.

Feedback from the audience was obtained via the Maths and Science Learning Centre's evaluations which were mainly positive. There were a range of teachers there with a range of Physics backgrounds (many new teachers, technicians and those with backgrounds in biology, so finding the right level to pitch at wasn't easy). Responses ranged from 'interesting' and 'Fascinating' and 'informative'. Criticisms were that the content was too easy, or two difficult. The audience appreciated learning about the research which was mostly tailored towards the curriculum and telecommunications, but did describe the hub's research into new fibres for manufacturing purposes.

• Amazing!/ Loved the lightshow! - very interesting/ Fascinating lecture thank you/ Loved it, really interesting!/ Interesting and thought provoking/ Lightshow was fun and informative, very enjoyable. Great presentation. I know what I'm studying next!
• The Light Show was great inspiration for upcoming physicists. Gave a broader idea to why we need to keep researching to improve the current technology/ interesting to see cutting edge research in action/ The lightshow was really interesting and showed some insight into the world of lasers and optical communication/ Lightshow brilliant and very thought provoking for the future of the internet/smartphone and energy./Excellent overview of various fibre optics/ Very informative and will help with teaching properties and uses of lasers in industry and information/ Very interesting and informative
• Too basic for science teachers/ Nice + fun but remember most of the audience already has a physics degree (no I take it back, I think it was new to quite a few people). Love the TIR in water!/Very interesting, pitched at a level too high for KS4. Could be scaled down?/ Fabulous - a great eye opener. Could be more technical with this audience!
• great idea, excellent way to end the day. Prefer to keynote talk which isn't always relevant.
• Very interesting - would be interested to know if available for school visits and if can be tailored down to KS3/GCSE level (Nikita Ramsey from Mayville High School)
• Excellent - better than previous lectures (Pearl - this teacher has attended nearly all the Charterhouse conference over the last 7/8 years)

We had 55 teachers tick that they considered themselves to be a specialist physics teacher, out of 85 completed feedback forms. We had 95 attend overall.
Most are secondary and/or post 16 teachers and some technicians too.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description University of Southampton Science and Engineering Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I have been involved in Science and Engineering Day at the University of Southampton since 2014, where each year 400-500 members of the general public (out of an audience of >2000) visited a workshop that I have organised on the fundamentals of optics and photonics.

As a result of this workshop, myself and the postgraduates taking part in the event wished to develop new workshops to engage the same audience on but more specifically on our research areas. The experience of communicating fundamental science facilitated the process and gave us confidence to do this.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
 
Description Visit to Applemore College, Roman Road, Dibden Purlieu, Southampton SO45 4RQ. Secondary School. 20-04-18 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Light Express show performance to pupils and teachers, presenting the audience with the research of the hub and photonics in general, to accompany an inspirational lecture by Sir Professor David Payne. 120 GCSE pupils and 8 teachers attended.

The aims of the activity were as follows:
• to introduce pupils to Photonics and Hub applications
• to train post graduate students; improving their science communication and practical problem solving skills in optics and photonics through operating the show and presenting to large audiences.

A show of hands at the beginning of the show confirmed that no one in the audience was familiar with the term 'photonics' before the talk began.

The Light Express Roadshow was organised by a third party and it was not possible to get feedback directly from the audience, we relied on feedback from teachers. A sample testimonial is shown below:

I am emailing as a follow up from the light show and presentation that you delivered to our students at Applemore College last half term. Thank you for bringing this opportunity to us, the afternoon was brilliant and certainly inspired many of our students, the questions from the students continued into the following week and has generated some excellent Science. Thank you for organising this and thank you to everyone that took the time to visit us.
Head Teacher, Applemore College.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.lightexpress.soton.ac.uk
 
Description Visit to Ferndown Upper School, Cherry Grove, Ferndown BH22 9EY. (Comprehensive School). 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact It consisted of two Light Express show performances to pupils and teachers, presenting the audience with the research of the hub and photonics in general. It reached 240 GCSE pupils, 40 A Level students and 8 teachers.

The aims of the activity were as follows:
• to introduce pupils to Photonics and Hub applications
• to train post graduate students; improving their science communication and practical problem solving skills in optics and photonics through operating the show and presenting to large audiences.

A show of hands at the beginning of the show confirmed that no one in the audience was familiar with the term 'photonics' before the talk began.

The two audiences received the shows with enthusiasm. No formal feedback was obtained but a testimonial from the school was received below:

Dear Dr Gow, Just a short note to thank you for the Light Express show that you did at Ferndown Upper School. Both staff and students were thrilled and amazed by the impressive delivery and your presenters were excellent - engaging, knowledgeable and very communicative with the students.
Our Year 11 and 13 students especially found the shows useful in terms of consolidation and application of ideas and knowledge for their upcoming exams.
We would love to have you back again to deliver to our new cohort and our feeder schools too! Thanks again. Mrs Kimi Bothamley - Head of Physics, Ferndown Upper School,

The greatest impact of the activity may have been on the staff and postgraduate students working on the Light Express show: Paul Gow; Alex Jantzen and Senta Scholl. Paul Gow was the 'Post Doc' staff member who arranged the visit in response to a request from the school teaching staff. He gained practical experience with managing an event with an external organisation, and on the post graduate students who presented the show. This show gave them the confidence they needed to present the laser show on television later in the year.

Over my university career the Light Express has impacted me in many ways. The show helped me to develop many skills over the years, from planning and execution of activities, to presentation and communication as well as laser safety and public speaking. The main skill I developed during this time was engagement. I learned to engage with a wide range of audiences on science and technology, using this to communicate my own research through my PhD. The skills I developed as a laserist on the Light Express helped me in other areas as well, such as during my time as a demonstrator in undergraduate labs teaching students and troubleshooting experiments. The communication and engagement skills I learned are still helping me with my current employment, through conferences, networking, public engagement and research proposals. Dr Paul Gow, Post Doc. ORC.

The Light Express has been a huge contributor in increasing; my skills in science communication, my ability to confidently speak to the public about science and my understanding of what makes educational science experiments. As a demonstrator and seeing the first hand impact that showing science rather than talking about it can have, it has really changed how I look to communicate complex topics. Before I started working on the Light Express and doing shows, I was incredibly nervous about standing in front of large audiences. It has since given me the opportunity to slowly evolve through the different stages of being part of the show to the point today where I will happily stand in the centre of a large public or even conference audience. It has truly been an activity that has given me the confidence to be confident. You don't have to take my word for it I won 1st place prize at the SPIE Optics Outreach Games in San Diego, hosted by SPIE. It also goes without saying that in opening someone's eyes to the awesome world of science, it is almost like a therapy for the soul. Alex Jantzen, Light Express Laserist.

My friends used to take little interest in my studies and research because they felt like they were not smart enough to understand what I am doing. In hindsight, this is not because they were genuinely not interested, but because I did not pitch my research very well. Being part of the Light Express team and learning from the experienced and encouraging team taught me how to communicate science in an accessible and interesting way, so that a non-technical audience can understand it and can be drawn into the excitement that I feel for it. This has a huge impact on my personal life: Knowing how to explain my research in an understandable way made me become more confident in sharing my research with my family and friends as well as with complete strangers rather than trying to hide what forms a big part of my life and my interest.

I also want to point out that I came from a very theoretical electrical engineering background and Light Express gave me the opportunity to gain some hands-on experience and to learn about setting up experiments, aligning lasers, handling fibre and solving problems in a very friendly, fun and supportive environment. I also learned a lot from the way the set up and experiments has been explained to me during the training sessions and I am trying to use similar ways when I explain experiments and answer questions to other PhD students back in my labs.
Light Express also reduced my fear of speaking in front of a large audience. I am usually quite happy to talk to a large group, but English is not my first language, so I always have to think twice and double check that I am using the right words, which made me a bit nervous. Light Express gave me the practice and the confidence of speaking in my second language. I realise the impact of this on a daily basis, when I am in meetings and have the courage to speak up and participate in group discussions rather than just sit there in silent because I may not use the right word.

Light Express also taught me a lot about leadership skills. The Light Express crew is an experienced and very well organised team. The team lead has full trust in the whole team and happily gives newer members (such as myself) responsibilities which help me personally grow. I see a fantastic example of good leadership and great team play in the way the Light Express team is lead and organised and I am very pleased to be part of this crew. Senta Scholl, PhD Student, Laserist in training.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.lightexpress.soton.ac.uk
 
Description Winchester Cathedral Primary Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Participation in 2016 Winchester Cathedral Primary Science Festival. Working with 2 regional schools and 130 students in UK year 5-6.

The work has resulted in presentation of activity at an international conference, as well as a change of attitude and assimilation of knowledge from the youths participating in the activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://blogs.unionsouthampton.org/blog/2016/11/25/opsoc-pgr-students-sheds-light-on-science-at-winc...
 
Description Workshop (Wuhan) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop "Optics Technology for Sensing Applications (OTSA)", ACP 2016, Nov. 2-5, 2016, Shangri-La Hotel, Wuhan, China co-organized and co-hosted by Dr M Petrovich
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016