Micro-Robotics for Surgery

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Institute for Global Health

Abstract

As minimally invasive surgery is being adopted in a wide range of surgical specialties, there is a growing trend in precision surgery, focussing on early malignancies with minimally invasive intervention and greater consideration on patient recovery and quality of life. This requires the development of sophisticated micro-instruments integrated with imaging, sensing, and robotic assistance for micro-surgical tasks. This facilitates management of increasingly small lesions in more remote locations with complex anatomical surroundings. The proposed programme grant seeks to harness different strands of engineering and clinical developments in micro-robotics for precision surgery to establish platform technologies in: 1) micro-fabrication and actuation; 2) micro-manipulation and cooperative robotic control; 3) in vivo microscopic imaging and sensing; 4) intra-operative vision and navigation; and 5) endoluminal platform development. By using endoluminal micro-surgical intervention for gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, lung and breast cancer as the exemplars, we aim to establish a strong technological platform with extensive industrial and wider academic collaboration to support seamless translational research and surgical innovation that are unique internationally.

Planned Impact

The project addresses effective healthcare impact partnership for device design and innovation. It will catalyse cross fertilisation of the academic disciplines involved with tangible contributions to knowledge transfer and potential clinical impact.

Impacts on Knowledge and Economy
The proposed project addresses an important clinical challenge in precision medicine with well-recognised social-economic values. Knowledge transfer and clinical translation with tangible healthcare outcomes would be an important focus of the project. It is expected that the technologies developed could have significant commercial impact on medical robotics. In addition to publications in respected academic journals and conferences, IPR will be reviewed at each milestone stage and any intellectual property arising will be protected and exploited via Imperial Innovations and in coordination with recommendations from the RSG (Research Steering Group) and EPSRC guidelines. The RSG will also provide critical review and management/technical recommendations to the team, and establish effective dissemination routes to academic and industrial communities. We will work with all stakeholders to identify potential opportunities for public dissemination and commercial exploitation throughout the duration of the project.

Impacts on People
The research staff of this project, particularly those early career researchers, will be encouraged to spearhead and take ownership of blue-sky idea generation with direct clinical interaction. The programme grant will significantly expand the capacity of the research team and create a unique environment involving both engineering and clinical researchers to work in an integrated research environment seamlessly linking different strands of research challenges. By leveraging the flexibility of funding provided by the programme grant, we will empower early career researchers to stimulate creative and adventurous research to ensure the research programme stays at the cutting edge of medical robotics internationally. Secondment to industrial collaborators and clinical partners will be arranged and staff will be encouraged to attend personal and career development workshops and courses provided by the Learning and Development Centre of Imperial College to develop the necessary managerial, vocational and entrepreneurial skills for career progression.

Impacts on Health
The project addresses some of the major issues in healthcare. It tackles the important issue of increased accuracy for cancer detection and direct therapeutic targeting of appropriate pathology. Through the clinical collaborators and industrial partners, the technologies developed will be introduced to patients and clinical communities throughout the development cycle. In partnership with Imperial IGHI's Centre for Health Policy, cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted to demonstrate cost effectiveness of the technologies to the NHS.

Communications, Engagement and Society
The project team will actively seek opportunities to showcase the project outcomes in public engagement events, such as Imperial Festival, Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition, and organising international workshops and conferences, including our flagship event of Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics, as well as the International Challenge on Surgical Robotics. In addition, the project will work with the UK-RAS Network for broader engagement of the research community and general public. We will work closely with Imperial's IGHI media team to use public lectures/exhibitions to maximise the potential impact of the project and its public engagement to ensure interaction with and exposure of our work to school children, who may wish to pursue a career in robotics.

Publications

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Description A custom fibre draw tower was constructed by the team for multi-material fibre production. This has enabled the creation of advanced prototype fibres for medical robotics. A steerable catheter has been developed that will enable dexterous movement within the surgical workspace. The i2snake has been advanced to remove motors from the shaft of the robot, replacing them with narrow bore tendons that enable the diameter of the robot to be reduced whilst increasing its manoeuvrability and increasing force transmission.


o Update 2019:

Fibre tower was further developed to create helical channels in the fibre which overcomes some of the challenges of tendon driven catheters. 3D printing technology was introduced to improve preform fabrication of various materials (including smart materials) and geometries to draw fibre robots from. 2 patents filed along these developments. Removal of material by laser ablation was utilized to create patterns on fibres making the fibre very flexible to be steered by tendons, and the process resulted in another patent application.

The i2snake which forms the proximal part of our nested robot is further advanced resulting in 2 different versions with different dimensions (length and radius), dexterity and degrees of freedom targeting different applications in surgery.

A wet transfer process our team developed allows very thin sensors (such as pressure sensors or biosensors) and other thin structures built externally to be transferred with micron precision onto fibres adding these functionalities to the fibres without much increase in thickness.
Sensors on a single layer graphene inside which is embedded inside a 3D printed micro-cage with ability to trap the bacteria are manufactured to enhance capacity of our sensors.

A probe based Confocal Laser Endomicroscope (pCLE) our team advanced allows getting microscope like images from the end face of bundles of fibres in higher speed, higher resolution and at different colours allowing to see different morphologies simultaneously.

On a micro scale, a piston is created that can be moved in the order of tens of microns (fraction of the thickness of a hair) and such controlled motion will be utilized in active micro-grippers.

The team has developed the building blocks of the fibre robot mentioned above and is working on integration of these blocks towards a steerable fibre robot that will have improved sensing and imaging capacity compared to current state of art to reach and interrogate distal ends of lumens of the body.


o Update 2020:

Our team developed a new protocol for simple, effective and reliable fabrication of miniature fibre-optic SERS probes, aiming to aid the diagnosis of lung infections in the near future. The probes use a technique called Raman spectroscopy and are thin enough to be inserted into the body through endoscopes, catheters or needles. This approach is based on a microscale 3D-printing technique known as two-photon polymerisation (2PP), which is commercially available (Nanoscribe GmbH, Germany).

A fabrication of biodegradable hydrogel and/or biopolymer materials for 3D printing of fibres has been developed for the creation of a new paradigm in fibrebots and fibre-based medical devices. These fibre devices may be used for the next generation of neuro-regeneration and also as injectable (injected/delivered from the end of a fibre bot) cylindrical fibre-based stents that unfold to reopen/repair damaged or collapsing alveoli/airways located at the small far distal branches of the lung.

In order to overcome the complexity of anatomical pathways and the limited dexterity of existing instruments in the endoscopic minimally invasive surgery, our research team designed articulated endoscopic instruments for possible interventions of endobronchial interventions and/or interventional bronchoscopy. A new robotic platform was proposed: the Intuitive imaging sensing navigated and kinematically enhanced (i2Snake) robot that aims to improve the field of endoscopic surgery. The proposed robotic platform includes a snake-like robotic endoscope equipped with a camera, a light-source and two robotic instruments, supported with a robotic arm for global positioning and for insertion of the i2Snake, and a master interface for master-slave teleoperation. The proposed robotic platform design focuses on ergonomics and intuitive control. The control workflow was first validated in simulation and then implemented on the robotic platform.

Our research team proposed a ''robust'' method for learning the mapping which is able to discard possible outliers in the dataset (outlier detection and rejection for input/output mapping in regression problems) in order to overcome the misinterpreted models, resulting from the current defective outliers of the sensor measurements.

The team developed a type of magnetic robots that coated with a thin layer of Nickel and Titanium make them magnetic responsive and at the same time biocompatible the requirements by which they can be manoeuvred through to body after insertion. The tethered microrobots/microactuators are to be fabricated from the same 2PP photoresists so the actuation can be controlled by magnetism, light or chemical gradients.

By using electrochemistry, optics and micro fluidic based biopsy, our team aims to realise a fibre-based sensor for biomarker detection to assist and accelerate diagnosis of lung disease during bronchoscopy procedures.

Our research team proposed an adapted graph convolutional network (GCN) to predict 3-D partially deployed marker references from 3-D fully deployed marker references, in order to improve the efficiency of the operations and reduce the risks of radiation exposure in fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (FEVAR). The coarsening layers of the original GCN are removed and the softmax function at the network end is replaced with linear mapping for regression. The derived 3-D marker references and the 2-D marker positions are used to instantiate the partially deployed stent segment, combined with the previous 3-D shape instantiation framework.

As robot-assisted endobronchial intervention requires accurate localisation based on both intra- and pre-operative data, our research team formulated the bronchoscopic localisation as a learning-based global localisation using deep neural networks. The proposed network consists of two generative architectures and one auxiliary learning component. The cycle generative architecture bridges the domain variance between the real bronchoscopic videos and virtual views derived from pre-operative CT data so that the proposed approach can be trained through a large number of generated virtual images but deployed through real images. The auxiliary learning architecture leverages complementary relative pose regression to constrain the search space, ensuring consistent global pose predictions. Most importantly, the uncertainty of each global pose is obtained through variational inference by sampling within the learned underlying probability distribution. Detailed validation results demonstrate the localization accuracy with reasonable uncertainty achieved and its potential clinical value.

o Update 2021:

Our researcher proposed a novel concept of implicit human-robot shared control, which means that the human operator can conduct surgical operation with the robot through an intelligent interface. The key components of master-slave mapping are explored, while adaptive mechanism is incorporated to the control framework to improve the efficiency of teleoperation. Context-awareness and human intention recognition are explored to implement an adaptive motion scaling framework, which enhances the surgical operation efficiency. A hybrid interface for microsurgical robot control is proposed to enable the combination of the advantages of different mapping strategies. For dexterous micromanipulation at cellular level, microrobots with complex shape for the implementation of out-of-plane control is investigated, which can serve as a dexterous tool for indirect micro/nano-scale object manipulation. Machine learning based vision tracking techniques for depth estimation and pose estimation are developed for microrobot monitoring during the optical manipulation. Two control strategies for distributed force control of optical microrobots were developed and verified. For smaller micromanipulation platforms that can conduct surgery in microscale, it's challenging to enable precise perception of the micro-tools and dexterous manipulation in 3D space. Therefore, new control strategies and vision techniques are worth to be explored. To develop smarter robotic platforms, machine learning techniques can be incorporated to the control scheme. By combing control commands generated by human operators and machine learning based autonomous control, this novel approach can enable efficient human-robot shared control for surgical operation.

Moreover, our research team developed and characterised in terms of electrical on mechanical and electromechanical properties (that conductive composited based on elastomers and carbon-based and silver powders) for stretchable sensors for wearables and robotics. Printing of these inks by using stencil printing are demonstrated and front-end amplifier electronics for tetrapolar impedance measurements are developed. Our researchers also characterised tetrapolar impedance sensors for tissue analysis, developed SERS Raman materials for biosensing, as well as developed method for inkless printing of flexible and stretchable sensors.

With regard to micro-manipulation and cooperative control, our research team developed and tested different robotic joint types including rolling joint, gear joint and rough ball joint, aiming to make the size of the robotic surgical instrument going smaller. Kinematic modelling of the miniaturised tendon driven manipulators using traditional and learning-based methods were developed, realising better modelling and control with challenging issues of nonlinearities and hysteresis. As for the work focuses on improving the modelling and control of tendon-driven surgical robots, specifically the Micro-IGES robot, our researchers have developed different machine learning techniques to model and control the system and employed the learnt models to improve the accuracy, precision, and safety of the control. The suturing and knot tying skills of professional surgeons can be transferred to the robotic systems through learn from demonstration. These skills can be further polished through reinforcement learning. Moreover, the nonlinear kinematics of the tendon-driven surgical robotic instrument can be modelled and controlled through the deep neural networks and type-2 fuzzy systems. The navigation and localisation of the tip of the instrument can be conducted through the vision-based approaches. In these approaches, the deep learning based techniques are essential to enhance the images obtained from the camera and improve the performance of the navigation and localisation.

In terms of fibrebot design and fabrication, open loop, close loop and real time controls for precise motion electrothermally actuated fibre robot are built. Diagnostic and therapeutic tools are integrated, and tissue mapping is demonstrated. MR safe catheter device integrated with a steering handle built, characterised and found to be mechanically comparable to commercial products (even non-MR safe ones that can use metals). This device is tested successfully under MRI, in phantom and in a pig by our collaborators in Germany. It is also integrated into a pneumatic robotic controller - early-stage results promising.


o Update 2022:

Our researcher proposed a novel 3D cell culture to model tumour cells. Current catheters are unable to reach to the micro-capillary system and perform intervention, whereas untethered M-bot can be used to deliver drug precisely to the targeted region. It prevents systematic exposure of other organs to the drug. Our researcher used 4T1 cell line as the tumour model, which is a triple-negative breast cancer with continues metastasis. To fabricate these micro-robots, our researcher used 2photon polymerisation technique to fabricate the M-bots, which were then loaded with therapeutic drug. To manoeuvre these M-bots, a magnetic actuation is used, which is a safer method compared to the other types of actuations. The M-bots are made of biocompatible materials. These M-bots degrade over time and don't leave any residue behind. The M-bots were loaded with Doxorubicin, which is a chemotherapeutic drug. The drug loading capacity of our M-bot is up to 250 ug/mL. To model the tumour microenvironment, 4T1 cancerous cells were 3D cultured to form a tumoroids. Following this, Elisa and PCR tests were performed to replicate the tumoroids microenvironment. The tumour's microenvironment was then modelled with 10 folds higher activity and our researcher compared the rate of drug release when M-bots were in saline solution. The drug release has been trigged by tumour microenvironment and following findings have been realised:
1. The drug release is triggered by microenvironment of tumour;
2. The rate of drug release is tuneable;
3. Prolong and steady release of drug up to 400h has been achieved, ideal for perfusion of chemotherapeutic drugs;
4. Minimal leach out of drug in saline solution is a manifesto of high selectivity of drug release mechanism.

A micro-capillary system has been replicated to characterise the actuation of the M-bots in a situation similar to the one when the M-bot is moving in the vein or artery. The finding suggested that the micro-robot is able to move against the flow (i.e. in the vein, it can withstand up to 2 mBar pressure) and we can move the M-bot against higher pressure if we apply grater magnetic field. In conclusion,
1. The M-bots are able to reach to a very high velocity (speed) of 1100 µm/s at 2.5 mT;
2. The M-bots are capable of being navigated in upstream and downstream satiations;
3. The M-bots can advance with an average speed of 500 µm/s in opposite direction of fluid with 2mBar pressure.

With regard to graphene-based field-effect transistors, our research team designed multiplexed graphene-based field-effect transistors deposited on Si substrates for detection of biomarkers in biological fluids and breath. Graphene-based field-effect transistors (GFETs) fabricated on a silicon substrate, creating an array of 7x2 sensing units with simultaneous back-gate stimulation. Our researchers carried out electrical characterisation of the graphene channel within each sensing unit (in terms of the measured drain-source current (IDS) with applied drain-source (VDS) and gate-source (VGS) voltage signals), making use of time multiplexed sensing and excitation approaches (electronic interface). GFETs array successfully tested with conductivity solutions in the interval between 84 and 1413 uS/cm (physiological range, neutral pH), revealing a conductivity-dependent shift in the charge neutrality point of dry graphene or Dirac point. In addition, the same measurement method and developed materials/platform have also been tested with vapours of clinically relevant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (e.g., acetone, ethanol, THF, chloroform, styrene, decane, isoprene), enabling their identification based on the variation of the resistance of the graphene channel over time (time measurements), I-VDS curves in the DC and AC mode of VDS excitation and spectral noise analysis in the lower frequency range (< 500 Hz). To conclude, Both VOC detection (for breathomics application) and conductivity/pH level assessment in biological solutions are important biomarkers for diagnosis of some neurodegenerative conditions, as well as cancer, respiratory, infectious, and immunologic diseases.

For fibre robot design and fabrication, our research team demonstrated fibre robots that can move with sub-micron precision. our researchers developed the safety and efficacy of the device to a certain level that can be used in surgical settings. The catheters we built by using fibre manufacturing technology were successfully tested in MR guided interventions in animals, and presented great potential for rapid low-cost development of such devices.

In terms of the application of micro-fibre robot fabrication, our researcher proposed a novel functional atraumatic self-shaping cochlear implant, aiming to aid patients suffering from hearing loss. It is a pre-curved CI that curls into the cochlea under the influence of body temperature. This pre-curved cochlear implant electrode array can function without external mechanisms with the benefit of miniaturising size that was reduced to straight implant size standards. The breakthrough of this research can be listed as follows:
1. Fabrication method to develop such implant;
2. Measured experimentally and in simulation that implant recovery forces are below the threshold to generate trauma;
3. Shape memory polymer can be modelled in COMSOL Multi-physics to study complex structures;
4. Impedance measurements sensory approach: Found in simulation that impedance measurements from the electrode array contacts can be used to estimate the pose of our implant during insertion.

Moreover, our research team carried out experimental and theoretical research (Design, fabrication, testing and modelling) on thermal pneumatic soft actuators for medical robotics. The devices are mainly fabricated by Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) casting on 3D-printed moulds. Actuation performances including actuation stain, temperature, driving voltage and current (for Joule-heating) were measured. Modelling is based on the static and dynamic mechanics models of PDMS and air. The key findings of this research can be concluded as follows:
1. By heating air enclosed in the chamber of a micro soft actuator, the produced pressure led to obvious deformation of the actuator profile. This thermal pneumatic actuation mechanism was used to design micro pneumatic actuators operating without gas pumps, which could minimise the scale and increase the safety of pneumatic actuator systems.
2. The actuation stroke was relatively low when the axial dimension (the direction of expansion and contraction) was comparable with radius dimension. The absolute stoke could be enlarged by increasing the aspect ratio of air chamber (axial dimension/radius dimension), which means it would be suitable for fibre-based micro actuator.
3. The respond speed was slow to thermal stimuli (tens of seconds). To decrease the response, soft composites with higher thermal conductivity were used and the speed was increase obviously.
4. The device could be driven by Joule-heating, which is meaningful for electrical integration.
5. Systematically analysed and compared the properties of various soft actuators for microsystem applications according to different actuation mechanisms, including shape memory polymers/alloys, pneumatic actuators, dielectric elastomers, ionic polymers, piezoelectric actuators and soft magnetic actuators.

For robotic learning and control, our research team focused on the optimised design, and the intelligent modelling and control for miniaturised flexible tendon-driven surgical robot manipulators for robots like the Micro-IGES and iSnake. Our researchers proposed the following approaches to tackle current existing challenges:
1. Kinematic parameter optimisation with controversy constraints and kinematic configuration optimisation;
2. Data-driven modelling and control subject to nonlinearities and uncertainties;
3. Task-based autonomy and high level intelligence for surgical robots.

The bimanual surgical task, for example, the surgical knot tying can be reconducted by the Yumi robotic system. At first, the skill or task can be demonstrated by the professional surgeon for a couple of time. The movements of the handled suturing device will be recorded through stereo camera and the movement of the joints of the Yumi robot will be calculated through the (inverse) kinematics, and then the joints' trajectories will be optimised through deep reinforcement learning. The research result suggested that the performance of the bimanual surgical task has the potential to surpass the level of the demonstrating surgeons. In addition, the intelligent control of the tendon-driven surgical robotic instrument can be achieved through generative adversarial imitation learning (GAIL). In the GAIL design framework, the control policy can be extracted directly from the kinematics data without knowing the reward functions.

Our researchers also investigated approaches to enhance accuracy of modelling and control techniques for tendon-driven systems like the Micro-IGES surgical robot, where nonlinearities caused by the tendon transmission and the complex design cause challenges in the control:
1. Our research team used Recurrent Neural Networks to model and control the robot in a black-box fashion;
2. Probabilistic Neural Networks and optimal control to exploit model uncertainty, and ensure high model confidence during control, thus increasing safety and accuracy;
3. Further developed a novel neural network architecture called AugNet and analysed how incorporating a priori knowledge about system's nonlinearities can help improve model learning in such complex systems.

Moreover, our researchers also developed open-source packages (Kalibrot and GlobDesPOt) for optimal robot design. Kalibrot and GlobDesPOt are both open-source Matlab packages, aiming to facilitate the robotics community in easily designing robotic structures for any required purpose and calibrating their design based on the measurements from the actual robotic system.

As for deep-learning-based lung navigation, our researcher investigated the navigation and localisation for the lung biopsy. The key findings of this research can be listed as follows:
1. The depth of the images can be recovered by the generative adversarial nets along with the CT model of the lung.
2. When the depth information is restored, the accuracy of the localisation will be improved significantly, and the navigation accuracy will be increased according.

In terms of fluorescence microscopy development in breast micro-ductoscope, our researchers designed and developed a flexible miniaturised breast micro-ductoscope to assess the ductal system, in order to improve in-vivo diagnostics, avoid exploratory breast tissue resections and facilitate minimally invasive interventions (e.g. papilloma excision). The probe has been tested on 81 freshly excised breast tissue specimens. Our research team investigated the diagnostic accuracy of high-speed fluorescence microscopy platform namely Line scan confocal laser endomicroscopy (LS-CLE) in determining virtual histology of the ductal system. Our researchers further demonstrated the utility of LS-CLE to provide cellular resolution images of breast ducts, progressing from normal ducts to DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma in real-time by comparison to conventional histopathology (which is the gold standard). Characteristic morphological features can be visualised at sub-cellular scale and assessed to distinguish normal/benign from neoplastic tissue sites.

As for fluorescence microscopy development in urology endomicroscope, our research team presented a high-speed line-scan confocal laser endomicroscope (LS-CLE) system integrated with a miniaturised flexible fibre-bundle of 0.91 mm diameter that can pass through the working channel of the cystoscope and achieve frame rates upto 120 fps, an order of magnitude improvement over commercial Cellvizio p-CLE system. Our researchers demonstrated the utility of LS-CLE to provide real-time cellular resolution images of bladder tissue and to discriminate between normal, benign and malignant urothelium with respect to histologic diagnosis. A preliminary study on 26 freshly excised human bladder specimens was conducted and the research result proved the effectiveness of LS-CLE as a flexible micro-cytoscope in identifying discernible features corresponding to normal, benign and neoplastic bladder urothelium.
Exploitation Route This project has the potential to bring many innovations to surgical robotics as it is taking a new approach of developing advanced fibres with integrated actuation, sensing and imaging capabilities. These novel technologies will be applicable to many domains throughout robotics and surgery.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Construction,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Electronics,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Other

 
Title 3D cell culture to model tumour cells 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Dr Meysam Keshavarz o 4T1 cell line were purchased from ATCC. According to the manufacturer's protocol, cells were grown using Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% antibiotic (pen-strep). cells were cultured using RPMI medium with 20% FBS and 1% antibiotic. Cells were incubated at 37 °C with a 5% CO2 supply. Monolayer cells were trypsinised and centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 5 min to generate spheres from cancer cells. The cell pellet was resuspended and seeded in ultralow attachment plates. The plates were incubated and maintained at 37 °C for 7 days. On alternate days, fresh spheroid medium was added. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact N/A (ongoing work) 
 
Title 3D printing, Origami Procedures and Piezoelectric-Actuation 
Description o Lead researchers of this research method: Chen Xu and Prof. Eric Yeatman o The method includes 3d printing to fabricate the mechanical part. Origami procedures provides 3D structure of the part. Piezoelectric benders are used to actuated the mechanical part for motion amplification. The combination of mechanical part and piezo-actuators serves as a manipulator. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Publication (under review): A paper "Delta 3-DoF Origami-Inspired Flexure-based Manipulator" was submitted to IROS 2022. 
 
Title A 3-D Printed Metallic Flexible Joint for Snake-Like Surgical Robot 
Description Snake-like robots have numerous applications in minimally invasive surgery. One important research topic of snake-like robots is the flexible joint mechanism and its actuation. Our research team designed and fabricated a new type of flexible joint mechanism that is enabled by metal powder bed additive manufacturing technique. Kinematics and static models of the flexible joint are presented, which can help in designing and controlling the flexible joint. As a compliant mechanism, the fatigue characteristics of the flexible joint is investigated. Finite element analysis (FEA) is performed aiming for optimizing the design process. This research tool/method was developed by Dr Yang Hu, Dr Lin Zhang, Wei Li and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact In the experiment section, model estimation, FEA, and experimental validation are conducted for further understanding the characteristics of the flexible joint. An example design that can survive after 100 000 full loading cycles is demonstrated. In addition, different design variations of the proposed method and a multi-section flexible endoscope using the proposed design are introduced. The proposed flexible joint has the potential not only in reducing the cost of manufacturing and assembling a snake-like surgical robot, but also benefits for developing of more sophisticated three-dimensional snake robotic structure that has an optimized space for embedded sensing and actuation. 
 
Title A Flexible Suturing Robot for Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery 
Description Suturing and knot tying in a confined space is a technically challenging yet clinically demanding task in minimally invasive surgery, which requires the use of highly articulated instruments passing through small incisions on the patient's body. Manually operating such instruments is usually very difficult, so robot-assisted methods have been introduced to reduce the burden of the surgeon. Our team proposed a robotic suturing system for simplifying suturing in a confined space. The main part of the suturing robot is a 6-mm flexible suturing instrument that consists of suturing probe and a customized flexible joint. A novel needle driving and locking mechanism have been proposed. For controlling the suturing robot with teleoperation, the kinematics of the robot and its differential Jacobian as well as inverse kinematics are provided. A working prototype of the suturing instrument is built and integrated into a teleoperated suturing system. Running stitch and knot tying experiments have been conducted to evaluate the robot's feasibility for suturing in a confined space, which mimics the transanal endoscopic microsurgery procedure. This research method/tool was developed by Dr Yang Hu, Wei Li, Dr Lin Zhang and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The most important part of this suturing robotic system for single-port TEMS is a flexible suturing instrument which consists of a needle switching probe and 2-DoF flexible joint. A novel needle driving and locking mechanism have been proposed. For controlling the suturing robot with teleoperation, the kinematics of the robot and its differential Jacobian as well as inverse kinematics are provided. A working prototype of the suturing instrument has been built and integrated into a teleoperated suturing system. Running stitch and knot tying experiments have been conducted to test the suturing robot's feasibility for suturing in a confined space which mimics the TEMS environment. The running stitch experiment shows that the suturing instrument can stitch in a faster and repetitive manner in various suturing orientations. 
 
Title A Graded and Preference Based Bayesian Approach for Gaze-Assisted Adaptive Motion Scaling Optimization 
Description A key component to the success of master-slave surgical systems is the quality of the master interface used to relay the surgeon's instructions to the slave robot. In previous work, our research team developed a gaze-assisted intention recognition scheme, allowing the system to dynamically adapt the motion scaling based on where the user is trying to reach. This allowed users to perform tasks significantly more quickly and with less need for clutching. However, the system possessed a number of core parameters that were manually optimized, potentially providing a non-optimal solution depending on the user. Our research team presented a Bayesian approach to the problem of optimizing a human-robot interface in a user-specific manner. Two Bayesian optimization methods are studied: one in which users are asked to grade robot behavior for a given set of parameters, and one where only preference relative to other parameter sets is expressed. This research method was proposed by Dr Gauthier Gras, Dr Carlo Seneci, Dr Petros Giataganas and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The performance of these optimizations is evaluated in a blind comparison user study, demonstrating that the optimized parameters are preferred to the manually optimized ones in over 90 % of cases after only 12 test samples. These parameters are further shown to perform at least as well as the manually optimized ones in all cases, and showing statistically significant improvement in the case of the graded optimization. 
 
Title A NFC-Powered Flexible Chest Patch 
Description A battery-less and flexible device to be worn as a chest patch for monitoring cardiac and hemodynamic parameters through electrical and acoustic measurements, combined with sweat pH level estimation and skin temperature, by swiping a smartphone over the patch area for enough time (?5 seconds) to allow adequate acquisition and estimation of the aforementioned parameters. This research tool was developed by Dr Bruno Miguel Gil Rosa, Dr Salzitsa Anastasova-Ivanova, Professor Guang Zhong Yang. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Fast screening of vital signals from patients in ambulatory or emergency scenarios can thus be achieved by this Near Field Communication (NFC) powered device, as well as home or office monitoring for those individuals suffering from diseases affecting the hemodynamic, cardiac and endocrine parameters detected by the proposed technology. 
 
Title A Novel Approach for Outlier Detection and Robust Sensory Data Model Learning 
Description In the past few decades machine learning and data analysis have been having a huge growth and they have been applied in many different problems in the field of robotics. Data are usually the result of sensor measurements and, as such, they might be subjected to noise and outliers. The presence of outliers has a huge impact on modelling the acquired data, resulting in inappropriate models. Our research team proposed a novel approach for outlier detection and rejection for input/output mapping in regression problems is presented. The robustness of the method is shown both through simulated data for linear and nonlinear regression, and real sensory data. This research method was developed by Francesco Cursi and professor Guang-Zhong Yang. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The algorithm takes inspiration from online learning and it allows to deal with outliers, and, thus, to have a more robust model learning. The performances of the method have been tested on simulated data for a linear and nonlinear mapping in case of one-dimensional input and one-dimensional output problem. 
 
Title A Reliable Label-Efficient Learning Framework for Biomedical Image Recognition 
Description The use of deep neural networks for biomedical image analysis requires a sufficient number of labeled datasets. To acquire accurate labels as the gold standard, multiple observers with specific expertise are required for both annotation and proofreading. This process can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, making high-quality, and large-annotated biomedical datasets difficult. Our research team proposed a deep active learning framework that enables the active selection of both informative queries and reliable experts. To measure the uncertainty of the unlabeled data, a dropout-based strategy is integrated with a similarity criterion for both data selection and random error elimination. To select the reliable labelers, we adopt an expertise estimator to learn the expertise levels of labelers via offline-testing and online consistency evaluation. The proposed method is applied to classification tasks on two types of medical images including confocal endomicroscopy images and gastrointestinal endoscopic images. The annotations are acquired from multiple labelers with diverse levels of expertise. This research method was proposed by Dr Mali Shen and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The experiments demonstrate the efficiency and promising performance of the proposed method compared to a set of baseline methods. Compared to previous work on active learning for medical data, both random errors and expertise errors have been taken into consideration. Our experiments on two medical image analysis tasks demonstrate that the expertise estimator can effectively identify the specific knowledge of each labeler and the similarity-based dropout measurement enables active selection of informative data as well as the elimination of random errors. The clinical significance of the work is that we have developed a systematic yet practical framework for dealing with labeling of ground truth training data for deep learning techniques. The method caters for different levels of expertise, labeling consistency, and random variations. These are important factors to consider for practical applications of CAD as most existing methods tend to treat manually labeled data as the ultimate ground-truth, which of course, is not true. The method allows the selection of both informative queries and reliable experts via offline-testing and online consistency evaluation, thus allowing annotations to be acquired from multiple labellers with different levels of expertise and improving the learning of CAD systems with noisy labels. 
 
Title A carbon-nanotube-coated 3D microspring force sensor 
Description Flexible electronic materials combined with micro-3D fabrication present new opportunities for wearable biosensors and medical devices. A novel carbon-nanotube-coated force sensor is developed by our research team. The device employs carbon-nanotube-coated microsprings with varying configurations and geometries for real-time force sensing. This research method was developed by Dr Bing Li, Dr Bruno Gil, Dr Maura Power, Dr Anzhu Gao, Dr Shen Treratanakulchai, Dr Salzitsa Anastasova and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This development successfully combined the advantages of flexible conductive nanomaterials and the versatility of two photon polymerization technologies for creating functional 3D microstructures. To demonstrate its practical value, the device has first been embodied as a patch sensor for transcutaneous monitoring of human arterial pulses, followed by the development of a multiple-point force-sensitive catheter for real-time noninvasive intraluminal intervention. The results illustrate the potential of leveraging advanced nanomaterials and micro-3D-printing for developing new medical devices. 
 
Title A dual-wavelength line-scan confocal endomicroscopy system for rapid molecular imaging 
Description Fiber-bundle based confocal laser endomicroscopy combined with fluorescent biomarkers has shown promise for high-resolution imaging of tissue microstructure in vivo and in situ. However, limited image acquisition speed and a restriction to single fluorescence agents (due to single channel excitation and fluorescence collection spectral bands) for most existing systems makes simultaneous visualization of multiple morphological and functional features difficult. Our research team proposed a high-speed dual-wavelength line-scan confocal laser endomicroscopy system suitable for multiplexed molecular imaging applications using 488 nm and 660 nm laser sources. The fluorescent confocal images are captured by a rolling-shutter CMOS camera at a constant frame rate of 120 Hz, with the rolling shutter of the CMOS camera acting as a virtual detector slit. Dual-wavelength imaging is achieved by switching between the laser sources for alternate frames, avoiding bleed-through, and providing an effective frame rate of 60 Hz. This research tool/method was developed by Dr Khushi Vyas, Dr Michael Hughes and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The two channels are pseudo-coloured and combined, and large area dual-wavelength mosaics are created by registering and stitching the image frames as the probe moves across the tissue. Preliminary images with a resolution of 1.2 µm are presented from fluorescently stained phantoms and ex vivo tissue, demonstrating the clinical feasibility of the technique. 
 
Title A flexible/stretchable multiparametric sensing device realized via a commercial process 
Description A novel flexible/stretchable device realized via a commercial process. this device is comprised of horseshoe interconnects, electrochemical sensor electrode arrays, a heater for thermotherapy/thermo-regulation, a temperature sensor, electrodes for recording/applying signals to tissues and a bioimpedance sensor. This research method was developed by Dr Panagiotis Kassanos, Dr Florent Seichepine, Dr Dominic Wales and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Electrochemical deposition and characterization of platinum black to the bioimpedance sensor and gold and subsequently IrOx for pH sensing to other electrodes, characterization of the temperature and bioimpedance sensors and heater are presented. 
 
Title A hybrid marker design combining circular dots and chessboard vertices for facilitating tracking cylindrical tools 
Description To provide an integrated visualisation of intraoperative ultrasound and endoscopic images to facilitate intraoperative guidance, real-time tracking of the ultrasound probe is required. State-of-the-art methods are suitable for planar targets while most of the laparoscopic ultrasound probes are cylindrical objects. A tracking framework for cylindrical objects with a large work space will improve the usability of the intraoperative ultrasound guidance. A hybrid marker design that combines circular dots and chessboard vertices is proposed for facilitating tracking cylindrical tools. The circular dots placed over the curved surface are used for pose estimation. The chessboard vertices are employed to provide additional information for resolving the ambiguous pose problem due to the use of planar model points under a monocular camera. Furthermore, temporal information between consecutive images is considered to minimise tracking failures with real-time computational performance. This research tool/method was developed by Dr Lin Zhang, Dr Menglong Ye, Dr Po-Ling Chan and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Detailed validation confirms that our hybrid marker provides a large working space for different tool sizes (6-14 mm in diameter). The tracking framework allows translational movements between 40 and 185 mm along the depth direction and rotational motion around three local orthogonal axes up to ±80°. Comparative studies with the current state of the art confirm that our approach outperforms existing methods by providing nearly 100% detection rates and accurate pose estimation with mean errors of 2.8 mm and 0.72°. The tracking algorithm runs at 20 frames per second for 960×540 image resolution videos. 
 
Title A laser-profiled continuum manipulator for the guidance of bronchoscopic instruments 
Description Bronchoscopic intervention, as a minimally invasive method for the diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases, has attracted more and more attention in recent years. However, existing endobronchial instruments lack the steerability accessing the peripheral airways with difficult bifurcations. Our research team proposed a novel wire-driven dexterous manipulator for the guidance of such instruments. Precision laser profiling is used to cut a stainless steel tube into multiple interlocked segments with revolute joints. The outer diameter of the manipulator is 2.20 mm which is small enough to be inserted into the working channels of most commercial bronchoscopes and distal airways, while keeping a large inner lumen with a diameter of 1.44 mm for passing various bronchoscopic instruments. The small bending radius provides enough flexibility to navigate inside the complex bronchial tree. Two kinematic models are proposed to predict the manipulator configuration from the translation of actuation wires. The former model is geometrically derived with the assumption of constant curvature bending and the latter one is statistically driven by capturing the motion trajectories of manipulator joints. This research method/tool was developed by Dr Ning Liu, Mohamed Abdelaziz, Dr Mali Shen and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A prototype of our low-cost add-on instrument guidance robot for bronchoscopic intervention is presented which can be easily integrated into current clinical routine. 
 
Title A micro-scale fiber-optic force sensor produced using direct laser writing (DLW) 
Description Fiber-optic sensors have numerous existing and emerging applications spanning areas from industrial process monitoring to medical diagnosis. Two of the most common fiber sensors are based on the fabrication of Bragg gratings or Fabry-Perot etalons. While these techniques offer a large array of sensing targets, their utility can be limited by the difficulties involved in fabricating forward viewing probes (Bragg gratings) and in obtaining sufficient signal-to-noise ratios (Fabry-Perot systems). Our research team presented a micro-scale fiber-optic force sensor produced using direct laser writing (DLW). The fabrication entails a single-step process that can be undertaken in a reliable and repeatable manner using a commercial DLW system. The sensor is made of a series of thin plates (i.e. Fabry-Perot etalons), which are supported by springs that compress under an applied force. At the proximal end of the fiber, the interferometric changes that are induced as the sensor is compressed are read out using reflectance spectroscopy, and the resulting spectral changes are calibrated with respect to applied force. This calibration is performed using either singular value decomposition (SVD) followed by linear regression or artificial neural networks. We describe the design and optimization of this device, with a particular focus on the data analysis required for calibration. This research method was developed by Dr Alex Thompson, Dr Maura Power, and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The force sensing capability is based on the use of reflectance spectroscopy to readout interferometric changes induced as the force sensor is compressed. To extract force measurements from the complex spectral data, we used both SVD-regression analysis and artificial neural networks, obtaining reliable and accurate force prediction in both cases. In some scenarios we observed errors in the optical force prediction, and the most serious of these discrepancies were attributed to differences between the calibration and test data that were not sufficiently detected or accounted for in the training algorithm. In conclusion, we demonstrate proof-of-concept force sensing over the range 0-50 µN, with a measurement error of approximately 1.5 µN. Overall, this work demonstrates the feasibility of the use of DLW for the fabrication of micro-scale dynamic structures for fiber-based sensing. Importantly, this involves a simple and repeatable fabrication protocol that allows for the production of forward viewing probes. 
 
Title A novel approach for stress condition monitoring using disposable flexible sensors 
Description By integrating flexible amplifiers with a commercially available flexible polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) mechanical deformation sensor and a pH-type chemical sensor, this proposed system proposed by our research team can detect arterial pulses from the neck and pH levels from sweat located in the back of the body. The system uses organic thin film transistor (OTFT)-based signal amplification front-end circuits with modifications to accommodate the dynamic signal ranges obtained from the sensors. The OTFTs were manufactured on a low-cost flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using a coater capable of Roll-to-Roll (R2R) deposition. This research tool/method was developed by Dr Salzitsa Anastasova, Dr Bruno Gil Rosa, Dr Benny Lo and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This proposed system can capture physiological indicators and data be interrogated by Near Field Communication (NFC) and has been validated with healthy subjects, demonstrating its application for real-time stress monitoring. 
 
Title A transfer recurrent feature learning framework for endomicroscopy image recognition 
Description Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is an emerging tool for epithelial cancer diagnosis, which enables in-vivo microscopic imaging during endoscopic procedures and facilitates the development of automatic recognition algorithms to identify the status of tissues. Our research team proposed a transfer recurrent feature learning framework for classification tasks on pCLE videos. At the first stage, the discriminative feature of single pCLE frame was learned via generative adversarial networks based on both pCLE and histology modalities. At the second stage, our researchers used recurrent neural networks to handle the varying length and irregular shape of pCLE mosaics taking the frame-based features as input. This research method was developed by Yun Gu, Dr Khushi Vyas and Professor Guang-zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The experiments on real pCLE data sets demonstrated that our approach outperforms, with statistical significance, state-of-the-art approaches. A binary classification accuracy of 84.1% has been achieved. 
 
Title Accuracy Enhancement for a Surgical Macro-micro Manipulator based on Probabilistic Neural Networks with Uncertainty Minimisation 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Francesco Cursi o Collaborators: Dr Weibang Bai, Prof. Eric Yeatman and Prof. Petar Kormushev o The method employs Probabilistic Neural Networks from modelling the Micro-IGES robot and optimal control technique to control macro-micro manipulator system consisting of an industrial serial-link arm and the Micro-IGES itself. The controller is capable of ensuring high model confidence, and thus improve motion accuracy and safety. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Improving robot modelling and control, thus enhancing safety in surgical procedures. Publication (under review): this work is currently under submission in IEEE Transaction on Automated Science and Engineering (TASE) 
 
Title An Intraoperative Robotic Device for Large-Area High-Speed Microscopic Imaging and Intervention 
Description Probe-based confocal endomicroscopy is an emerging high-magnification optical imaging technique that provides in vivo and in situ cellular-level imaging for real-time assessment of tissue pathology. Endomicroscopy could potentially be used for intraoperative surgical guidance, but it is challenging to assess a surgical site using individual microscopic images due to the limited field-of-view and difficulties associated with manually manipulating the probe. Our research team presented a novel robotic device for large-area endomicroscopy imaging is proposed, demonstrating a rapid, but highly accurate, scanning mechanism with image-based motion control, which is able to generate histology-like endomicroscopy mosaics. The device also includes, for the first time in robotic-assisted endomicroscopy, the capability to ablate tissue without the need for an additional tool. This research tool/method was developed by Dr Petros Giataganas, Dr Michael Hughes, Dr Christopher Payne, Dr Piyamate Wisanuvej, Dr Burak Temelkuran and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The device achieves preprogrammed trajectories with positioning accuracy of less than 30 µm, while the image-based approach demonstrated that it can suppress random motion disturbances up to 1.25 mm s -1 . Mosaics are presented from a range of ex vivo human and animal tissues, over areas of more than 3 mm 2 , scanned in approximate 10 s. Conclusion: This paper demonstrates the potential of the proposed instrument to generate large-area, high-resolution microscopic images for intraoperative tissue identification and margin assessment. Significance: This approach presents an important alternative to current histology techniques, significantly reducing the tissue assessment time, while simultaneously providing the capability to mark and ablate suspicious areas intraoperatively. 
 
Title An image retrieval framework for real-time endoscopic image retargeting 
Description Serial endoscopic examinations of a patient are important for early diagnosis of malignancies in the gastrointestinal tract. However, retargeting for optical biopsy is challenging due to extensive tissue variations between examinations, requiring the method to be tolerant to these changes whilst enabling real-time retargeting. Our research team presented an image retrieval framework for inter-examination retargeting. We propose both a novel image descriptor tolerant of long-term tissue changes and a novel descriptor matching method in real time. The descriptor is based on histograms generated from regional intensity comparisons over multiple scales, offering stability over long-term appearance changes at the higher levels, whilst remaining discriminative at the lower levels. The matching method then learns a hashing function using random forests, to compress the string and allow for fast image comparison by a simple Hamming distance metric. This research method was developed by Dr Menglong Ye and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A dataset that contains 13 in vivo gastrointestinal videos was collected from six patients, representing serial examinations of each patient, which includes videos captured with significant time intervals. Precision-recall for retargeting shows that our new descriptor outperforms a number of alternative descriptors, whilst our hashing method outperforms a number of alternative hashing approaches. Real-time performance also allows for practical integration without disturbing the existing clinical workflow. 
 
Title An optimization framework of a contact-aided continuum robot for endobronchial interventions 
Description A laser-profiled continuum robot (CR) with a series of interlocking joints has been developed in our centre to reach deeper areas of the airways. However, it deflects with constant curvature, which thus increases the difficulty of entering specific bronchi without relying on the tissue reaction forces. Our research team proposed an optimization framework to find the best design parameters for non-constant curvature CRs to reach distal targets while attempting to avoid the collision with the surrounding tissue. Methods: First, the contact-aided compliant mechanisms (CCMs) are integrated with the continuum robot to achieve the non-constant curvature. Second, forward kinematics considering CCMs is built. Third, inverse kinematics is implemented to steer the robot tip toward the desired targets within the confined anatomy. Finally, an optimization framework is proposed to find the best robot design to reach the target with the least collision to the bronchi walls. This research method was proposed by Dr Laura Ros-Freixedes, Dr Anzhu Gao, Dr Ning Liu, Dr Mali Shen and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Experiments are carried out to verify the feasibility of CCMs to enable the nonconstant curvature deflection, and simulations demonstrate a lower cost function value to reach a target for the non-constant curvature optimized design with respect to the standard constant curvature robot (0.11 vs. 2.66). In addition, the higher capacity of the optimized design to complete the task is validated by interventional experiments using fluoroscopy. The results of the verification experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework to find an optimized CR with nonconstant curvature to perform safer interventions to reach distal targets. 
 
Title Artificial Neural Networks, Bayesian neural Networks and Model Predictive Control 
Description The methods are employed to learn the kinematics model of robots and properly control the system, in order to guarantee accuracy and safety. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The methods are employed to learn the kinematics model of robots and properly control the system, aiming to guarantee accuracy and safety of the robotics system during the operation. 
URL https://doi.org/10.1109/LRA.2021.3062339
 
Title Augmented Neural Network for Full Robot Kinematic Modelling in SE(3) and SO(3) 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Francesco Cursi o Collaborators: Dr Weibang Bai, Weiyi Li, Prof. Eric Yeatman and Prof. Petar Kormushev o A novel Artificial Neural Network model to improve model learning 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Novel neural network architecture for robot model learning. The code for the model is open-source. - The work is currently under review in IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RAL), 2022. 
URL https://github.com/cursi36/AugNet_RobotKinematics
 
Title Bacteria cage 
Description A cage 3D printed by nanoscribe technology able to trap and accumulate bacteria. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A cage structure enhancing biosensing for the detection of bacteria such as motile bacteria. 
 
Title Controlled drug delivery and sensing 
Description We are developing a system with controllable local drug delivery and sampling combining multimaterial fibres, microfluidics, sensor technologies. Researchers with significant contribution: Antoine Barbot, Salzitsa Anastasova, Haijie Tan, Mohamed Abdelaziz, Burak Temelkuran. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact New to have impact, potential use for minimally invasive biopsy and controlled drug delivery. 
 
Title Development of fibre-optic SERS probes using two-photon polymerisation for rapid in vivo detection of bacteria 
Description Sensing elements developed on planar substrates and the tip of an optical fibre are demonstrated for rapid bacteria detection. This research method is led by Dr Jang Ah Kim. Internal collaborators: Dr Dominic Wales and Dr Alex Thompson. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This research can aid rapid in vivo infection diagnosis during minimally invasive interventions in the future to reduce time and cost burdens of diseases. A conference presentation/proceeding was out in 2019 and a journal article was published in 2020. 
 
Title Electrochemical deposition and functionalisation 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method/tool: Dr Salzitsa Anastasova o Dr Salzitsa Anastasova is developing sensing assays that are tested in vitro and after validation additional physiological assessment is done for the outcome measures. Additional improvements on the adhesion of the sensors towards the base of the implemented are achieved too. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Semi-implantable needle oxygen electrodes were used for forearm subcutaneous monitoring in human subjects undertaking high intensity cycling and fist clenching exercise. pO2 variations in the range between 40 and 100 mm Hg oxygen were seen. Superimposed on these were paradoxical rises in subcutaneous pO2, of up to 100 mm Hg which paralleled the scale of the exercise. This was indicative of increased blood flow through skin. Triton X-100 incorporated into the sensor polyurethane membranes helped to give faster responses and reduced the possibility of biofouling and drift. The sterilizable system, free from internal electrolyte film appears promising for future clinical monitoring. 
URL https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.202060242
 
Title Electronics tethered Microrobots 
Description Our team developed Electronics tethered Microrobots for tissue biopsy and for theranostic and regenerative application. The researchers first applied electronic patterning on tethered Micro-robots and designed two-level biphasic high voltage electroporation with simultaneous bioimpedance sensing. Following this, fibre integration of electroporation electrodes will be generated. This research tool is developed by Dr Panagiotis Kassanos, Dr Antoine Barbot and Dr Florent Seichepine 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The development of micro-manipulation and biopsy tools will be potential beneficial to fundamental biology study and micro-biopsy. The final goal is to fully integrate the tools into the continuum robot for the application of the micro-robotics surgery. 
 
Title Experimental and theoretical research (design, fabrication, testing and modelling) of thermal pneumatic soft actuators for medical robotics 
Description o Lead researchers of this research method: Prof. Eric Yeatman and Dr Mayue Shi o The devices are mainly fabricated by Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) casting on 3D-printed moulds. Actuation performances including actuation stain, temperature, driving voltage and current (for Joule-heating) were measured. Modelling is based on the static and dynamic mechanics models of PDMS and air. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Our research team is developing micro fibre-based soft actuator based on this thermal pneumatic actuation mechanism. 
 
Title Fabrication of SMP electrode array 
Description o Lead researchers of this research method: Daniel Bautista-Salinas and Dr Mohamed Abdelaziz o Methodology to fabricate a shape memory polymer-based cochlear implant electrode array prototype using a thermal drawing approach 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This fabrication method can to fabricate a more flexible polymer-based cochlear implant electrode array. 
 
Title Fabrication of biodegradable hydrogel and/or biopolymer materials for 3D printing of fibres: Poly(ionic liquid)-based materials 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Dr Dominic Wales 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact N/A (ongoing work) 
 
Title Fabrication of fibre-based IL-8 protein immune-sensor based on functionalised graphene 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Dr Haijie Tan o Collaborators: Dr Bruno Gil Rosa, Dr Dominic Wales, Dr Antoine Barbot, Dr Bing Li, Mr. Mohamed Abdelaziz, Dr Burak Temelkuran o Our researchers are working on the development of graphene immuno-sensor and its integration on a fibre for application in the lungs to detect inflammation biomarkers. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Method for fabricating such a tool can potentially lead to functional devices based on new materials that could be applied to in-situ diagnostics of patients 
 
Title Fabrication of stretchable and flexible sensing devices using additive fabrication approaches 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Dr Panagiotis Kassanos o Collaborator: Dr Dr Meysam Keshavarz o It is a family of methods and tools for the fabrication of stretchable sensing devices, Namely stencil printing and extrusion-based 3D printing for flexible and stretchable sensors using conductive composite elastomeric devices. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These fabrication approaches allow the fabrication of sensing skins for robots and wearables. 
 
Title Fibre based force sensing micro-gripper using Two Photon Polymerization printing 
Description 2-photon polymerization is used to produce a tethered, 3D, compliant grasper with integrated force sensing, the entirety of which is fabricated on the tip of an optical fiber. Optical interferometry combined with artificial neural networks facilitate real-time force estimation during manipulation tasks. Researchers contributed significantly to this project: Maura Power, Alex J. Thompson, Salzitsa Anastasova. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Such grippers could prove useful for the interrogation of biological microstructures such as alveoli, villi, or even individual cells. 
 
Title Fibre based probes with TPP 
Description Fibre-based Raman probe and optical tweezer are developed. Integration micro optics on tip of optical fibres (100 ~ 200 um dia.) built by two-photon polymerisation technique, as well as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) structures printed. Researchers with significant contribution: Jang Ah Kim, Maura Power, Salzitsa Anastasova. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Minimally invasive in vivo diagnosis and precise manipulation of cells and drug particles. 
 
Title Fibre based sensing method for diagnostic 
Description By using electrochemistry, optics and micro fluidic based biopsy, our team aims to realise a fibre-based sensor for biomarker detection to assist and accelerate diagnosis of lung disease during bronchoscopy procedures. This method is developed by Dr Antoine Barbot, Dr Haijie Tan, Dr Panagiotis Kassanos, Dr Salzitsa Anastasova, Dr Florent Seichepine, Dr Burak Temelkuran and Mohamed Abdelaziz. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact One of the challenges clinicians currently face is not being able to determine exactly which kind of abnormality lungs patients have using conventional bronchoscopes, and conventional biopsy results can usually take up to weeks and even months to obtain. Developing a fibre-based sensing method and tool for rapid diagnostic would be beneficial to the clinical application and compliment conventional bronchoscopes, which lack of such sensing capability. 
 
Title Fibre preform fabrication using 3D printing technology 
Description Ability to use 3D printer to print preforms from which fibres will be drawn. Allows introduction of multiple materials and in ways that is not possible by other techniques especially in longitudinally asymmetric structures - patent filed. Researchers with significant contribution: Mohamed Abdelaziz, Burak Temelkuran 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Tapered fibres, fibres with active elements inherintly present at the tip of a fibre device. 
 
Title Floating magnetic microrobots for fiber functionalization 
Description Minimally invasive surgery is increasingly used to target small lesions. Therefore, there is a growing demand for miniaturised tools-such as microcatheters, articulated microforceps, or tweezers-that incorporate sensing and actuation for precision surgery. Although existing microfabrication techniques have addressed the construction of these devices, accurate integration and functionalization of chemical and physical sensors represent major challenges. A microrobotic platform for the functionalization of fibers of diameters from 140 to 830 micrometers, with a patterning precision of 5 micrometers and an orientation error below 0.4°. Our research team developed two 2 millimeter-by-3 millimeter, 200-micrometer-thick microrobots to align floating electronic circuits on a fiber during a wet transfer process. The position and orientation of the microrobots were controlled at the air/water interface by a permanent magnet. The stiffness of the position controlled was 0.2 newton millimeter, leading to an average force of 0.5 newton. The nonhomogeneous magnetic field of the magnet, associated with different preferred magnetization directions recorded in the microrobots, allowed the distance between the two microrobots to be precisely controlled. This research method was developed by Dr oine Barbot, Dr Haijie Tan, Dr Florent Seichepine and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This extra degree of freedom was used to control the microrobot pair as a tweezer to grab and release floating electronic patterns, whereas the others were used to align the pattern position and orientation with the fiber. A model of this control, as well as the microrobots' interaction through surface tension, is proposed. Detailed performance validation is provided, and various exemplar sensor embodiments on a 200-micrometer-diameter fiber and three-dimensional devices are demonstrated. 
 
Title Fluorescence microscopy for rapid virtual histology of whole breast specimens - breast microductoscope 
Description o Lead researchers of this research method: Dr Khushi Vyas and Mr. Daniel Leff o The objective of conducting this research method is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of high-speed fluorescence microscopy platform namely Line scan confocal laser endomicroscopy (LS-CLE) in determining virtual histology of the ductal system. Our researchers demonstrate the utility of LS-CLE to provide cellular resolution images of breast ducts, progressing from normal ducts to DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma in real-time by comparison to conventional histopathology which is the gold standard. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Characteristic morphological features can be visualised at sub-cellular scale and assessed to distinguish normal/benign from neoplastic tissue sites. 
 
Title Fluorescence microscopy for rapid virtual histology of whole urology specimens - urology endomicroscope 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Dr Khushi Vyas o Team collaborator: Dr Ranan Dasgupta o Our researchers present a high-speed line-scan confocal laser endomicroscope (LS-CLE) system integrated with a miniaturised flexible fibre-bundle of 0.91 mm diameter that can pass through the working channel of the cystoscope and achieve frame rates upto 120 fps, an order of magnitude improvement over commercial Cellvizio p-CLE system. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Our researchers demonstrate the utility of LS-CLE to provide real-time cellular resolution images of bladder tissue and discriminate between normal, benign and malignant urothelium with respect to histologic diagnosis. 
 
Title GlobDesOpt: A Global Optimisation Framework for Optimal Robot Manipulator Design 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Francesco Cursi o Collaborators: Dr Weibang Bai, Prof. Eric Yeatman and Prof. Petar Kormushev o An open-source toolbox for optimal robot design based on different optimisation algorithms. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Our research team provides the research community with simple-to-use, open source toolbox for optimal robot design. 
URL https://github.com/cursi36/GlobDesOpt
 
Title Implicit human-robot shared control 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method/tool: Dr Dandan Zhang o Our researcher proposed the concept of implicit human-robot shared control, which means that the human operator can conduct surgical operation with the robot through an intelligent interface. The key components of master-slave mapping are explored, while adaptive mechanism is incorporated to the control framework to improve the efficiency of teleoperation. Context-awareness and human intention recognition are explored to implement an adaptive motion scaling framework, which enhances the surgical operation efficiency. A hybrid interface for microsurgical robot control is proposed to enable the combination of the advantages of different mapping strategies. For dexterous micromanipulation at cellular level, microrobots with complex shape for the implementation of out-of-plane control is investigated, which can serve as a dexterous tool for indirect micro/nano-scale object manipulation. Machine learning based vision tracking techniques for depth estimation and pose estimation are developed for microrobot monitoring during the optical manipulation. Two control strategies for distributed force control of optical microrobots were developed and verified. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact 1. Enhances the surgical operation efficiency: Context-awareness and human intention recognition are explored to implement an adaptive motion scaling framework, which enhances the surgical operation efficiency. 2. Enable the combination of the advantages of different mapping strategies: A hybrid interface for microsurgical robot control is proposed to enable the combination of the advantages of different mapping strategies. For dexterous micromanipulation at cellular level, microrobots with complex shape for the implementation of out-of-plane control is investigated, which can serve as a dexterous tool for indirect micro/nano-scale object manipulation. 
 
Title Kinematic modelling for uIGES instrument 
Description Endoscopic procedures have transformed minimally invasive surgery as they allow the examination and intervention on a patient's anatomy through natural orifices, without the need for external incisions. However, the complexity of anatomical pathways and the limited dexterity of existing instruments, limit such procedures mainly to diagnosis and biopsies. In order to overcome these obstacles, our research team designed articulated endoscopic instruments for possible interventions of endobronchial interventions and/or interventional bronchoscopy. A new robotic platform was proposed: the Intuitive imaging sensing navigated and kinematically enhanced (i2Snake) robot that aims to improve the field of endoscopic surgery. The proposed robotic platform includes a snake-like robotic endoscope equipped with a camera, a light-source and two robotic instruments, supported with a robotic arm for global positioning and for insertion of the i2Snake, and a master interface for master-slave teleoperation. The proposed robotic platform design focuses on ergonomics and intuitive control. The control workflow was first validated in simulation and then implemented on the robotic platform. This tool was developed by Dr Pierre Berthet-Rayne, Dr Gauthier Gras, Dr Konrad Leibrandt, Dr Piyamate Wisanuvej, Andreas Schmitz, Dr Carlo Seneci and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The proposed system contributes to the field of endoscopic surgical robots and could allow to perform more complex endoscopic surgical procedures while reducing patient trauma and recovery time. 
 
Title Kinematic parameter optimisation and Kinematic configuration optimisation 
Description o Lead researchers of this research method: Dr Weibang Bai and Prof. Eric Yeatman o Designing a miniaturised tendon-driven surgical instrument under necessary restraints based on dexterous workspace determination 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publications: - "Kinematic Parameter Optimisation of a Miniaturised Surgical Instrument Based on Dexterous Workspace Determination" by X. Zhi, W. Bai and E. M. Yeatman, proposes an approach based on dexterous workspace determination for designing a miniaturized tendon-driven surgical instrument under necessary restraints. The work is published in 2021 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics and Mechatronics (ICARM), 2021, and received the Best Paper Award Finalist. - "GlobDesOpt: A Global Optimisation Framework for Optimal Robot Manipulator Design" by F. Cursi, W.Bai, E.M. Yeatman, P. Kormushev proposes an open-source toolbox for optimal robot design based on different optimization algorithms. The work is published in IEEE Access 2022. - "Optimisation of Surgical Robotic Instrument Mounting in a Macro-Micro Manipulator Setup for Improving Task Execution" by F. Cursi, W.Bai, E.M. Yeatman, P. Kormushev proposes a novel framework that preoperatively identifies the best base configuration of orientation angles for the micro surgical instrument with respect to the macro serial-link manipulator's end-effector in order to achieve the maximum accuracy and dexterity in performing specified tasks. The work is under submission in IEEE Transactions on Robotics (TRO), 2022. 
 
Title LSTM-Based Kinematic Modelling and Control for a Tendon-Driven Flexible Surgical Robot 
Description o Lead researchers of this research method: Dr Weibang Bai and Prof. Eric Yeatman o Collaborators: Francesco Cursi o LSTM-based kinematic modelling approaches with task-based data for a flexible tendon-driven surgical robot to improve the control accuracy. This method utilises Recurrent Neural Networks in a black-box fashion for modelling and controlling tendon-driven robots like the Micro-IGES. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publications: W. Bai, F. Cursi, X. Guo, B. Huang, B. Lo, G.Z. Yang, E.M. Yeatman, "LSTM-Based Kinematic Modelling and Control for a Tendon-Driven Flexible Surgical Robot", IEEE Transaction on Medical Robotics and Bionics (TMRB), 2021. 
 
Title Laser-Profiled Continuum Robot with Integrated Tension Sensing 
Description Our research team proposed the use of optical fibres for both actuation and tension/shape/force sensing. It uses a model-based method with structural compensation, allowing direct measurement of the cable tension near the base of the manipulator without increasing the dimensions. It further structurally filters out disturbances from the flexible shaft. In addition, a model is built by considering segment differences, cable interactions/cross talks, and external forces. This research tool/method was developed by Dr Anzhu Gao, Dr Ning Liu, Dr Mali Shen, Mohamed E.M.K. Abdelaziz, Dr Burak Temelkuran, and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The proposed model-based method can simultaneously estimate the shape of the manipulator and external force applied onto the robot tip. Detailed modelling and validation results demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method for the miniaturized continuum robot for endoluminal intervention. 
 
Title Low cost method for mass-produced microfluidics 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method/tool: Dr Panagiotis Kassanos o Collaborators: Dr Florent Seichepine, Dr Meysam Keshavarz, Dr Ioannis Kassanos (NTUA, Greece) 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact N/A 
 
Title Low cost method for printed stretchable sensors for wearables and surgical robotics 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method/tool: Dr Panagiotis Kassanos o Collaborators: Minghao Hu, Daniel Elabd, Dr Benny Lo, Prof. Eric Yeatman, Prof. Etienne Burdet 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact N/A 
 
Title Magnetic Microrobots for Stem Cell and Drug Delivery 
Description The microrobots are small enough to be injected through the blood stream and overcome the impediments of reaching these delicate organs. A cage-like structure of these microrobots coated with a thin layer of Nickel and Titanium make them magnetic responsive and at the same time bio-compatible the requirements by which they can be manoeuvred through to body after insertion. An electromagnetic field will be exploited to guide the microrobots through the body with extreme accuracy. Our preliminarily experiments demonstrated that these microrobots can be successfully loaded with cells and being used as a payload of primary cells to the predetermined target organs. The first generation of this magnetic robots have been successfully fabricated using the commercial photo-resist and been coated with Ti and Ni for magnetic response. On the next step, these microrobots were seeded with HeLa cells and were maneuvered by exploiting a magnetic field. Based on the preliminary results, a need for synthesizing a custom-made photo resist to fabricate these microrobots was determined - since the commercial photo resist has deficient biocompatibility and therefore it has to be coated with metallic deposition. The second generation of this magnetic robots focuses on biocompatibility and an alternative for metallic deposition. Therefore, polyethylene glycol (PEG) based polymer has been used to overcome the biocompatibility issue of the first generation, at the same time magnetic nanoparticles were added into the PEG-based resist to circumvent the need for metallic deposition that hinders the degradation of these microrobots. In the following years, the untethered microrobots will be exploited for targeted delivery of cargoes such as drugs, stem cells and/or other therapeutic agents and the tethered microrobots/microactuators will be used for tissue biopsy at end of the fibres. As for the actuation, the first generation of untethered microrobots is focused on magnetic responsive actuation. We are also developing photo and chemo responsive resists as well - the microrobots will be steered by photo- or chemical gradients. The tethered microrobots/microactuators are to be fabricated from the same 2PP photo-resists so the actuation can be controlled by magnetism, light or chemical gradients. This research method is led by: Dr Meysam Keshavarz Internal Collaborators: Dr Dominic J. Wales, Dr Antoine Barbot and Dr Jang-Ah Kim 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The microrobots designed in this project contains micro-porous that help holding cells, using magnetic fields, that can guided to an organ of interest in the body where cells will start proliferating and regenerating damaged tissues. The first generation of the microrobots are coated with thin layer of nickel and titanium deposition. The nickel allows manipulation of the microrobot using an external magnetic field, while the titanium increases the biocompatibility of the structure, reducing its cytotoxicity. Another notable impact of this project is that our researchers successfully integrated the magnetic nano-particles into the PEG-based resist as well as generated the fabrication of the microrobots. This integration has hampered the feasibility of using microrobots for cell delivery application. 
 
Title Medical robotic design, fabricating, integration and control 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Dr Weibang Bai o Collaborators: Dr Wuzhou Hong, Dr Andreas Schmitz and Francesco Cursi o Weibang, Wuzhou and Andreas worked together on the updatation of the miniaturised surgical instruments, and developed the control system of the miniature tendon-driven instruments. Weibang and Francesco tried traditional and learning based methods to improve the modelling and control for the tendon driven instruments with nonlinear issues. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact With the exploration in miniaturization of the tendon driven robotic instrument for surgery, we can design more miniature surgical robot, which benefits the development of robotic MIS systems. 
 
Title Micro-manipulation and biopsy tools (cutting tissue, isolating tissue, retrieve tissue) 
Description A range of micro-manipulation and biopsy tools have been developed to aim to reach single cell surgery for fundamental biology study and micro-biopsy. This research tool is developed by Dr Antoine Barbot, Dr Hyun-Taek Lee and Dan-Dan Zhang 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The fiberbot approach have the capability to downsize the scale of the tools used in surgery. The development of micro-manipulation and biopsy tools will be potential beneficial to fundamental biology study and micro-biopsy. The final goal is to fully integrate the tools into the continuum robot for the application of the micro-robotics surgery. 
 
Title Miniature pressure sensor made of P(VDF-TrFE) for medical catheter and implantable device 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method/tool: Dr Bruno Miguel Gil Rosa o Collaborators: Dr. Bing Li (Department of Brain Sciences, Care Research and & Technology Centre, Imperial College London) o A force sensor made with a PVDF co-polymer was fabricated by Dr. Bing Li using spin-coating, annealing and material deposition techniques, followed by transference to the tip of a medical catheter and implantable device for intrabody and subcutaneous pressure monitoring. The high input impedance of the sensor was interfaced by proper signal conditioning electronics developed by Dr. Bruno Gil and allow real-time pressure readings through the computer or smartphone. The sensor was experimentally tested with synthetic anatomical models for the lungs (bronchoscopy) and subcutaneous tissue, as well as directly above the human carotid and radial arteries. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The publication was Editor's choice for that issue of the journal (ACS Applied Electronic Materials) and, since the publication date (August 2020), it has become the most read and downloaded manuscript from ACS. 
URL https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaelm.0c00538
 
Title Model Learning with Backlash Compensation for a Tendon-Driven Surgical Robot 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Francesco Cursi o Collaborators: Dr Weibang Bai, Prof. Eric Yeatman and Prof. Petar Kormushev o The method employs Artificial Neural Networks with a priori backlash modelling and compensation to analyse how such physical knowledge can help improving robot model learning and control. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Improving robot modelling and control, thus enhancing safety in surgical procedures. - This work is under submission in IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RAL), 2022. 
 
Title Model-Based Control Design and Deep Learning Based Methods 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Dr Bo Xiao o Collaborating with Dr WeiBang Bai for the experiments on the tendon-driven surgical instruments; collaborating with Charlie Tsai for the experiments on the ABB robotic system, collaborating with Dr Stamatia Giannarou (Matina) for the experiments of the lung navigation project. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The experiment hardware is essential to verify the algorithms and lead further research publications. 
 
Title Modelling Micro-IGES Dynamics 
Description In the past few decades machine learning and data analysis have been having a huge growth and they have been applied in many different problems in the field of robotics. Data are usually the result of sensor measurements and, as such, they might be subjected to noise and outliers. The presence of outliers has a huge impact on modelling the acquired data, resulting in inappropriate models. Our research team proposed a ''robust'' method for learning the mapping which is able to discard possible outliers in the dataset (outlier detection and rejection for input/output mapping in regression problems) This Research method was developed by Dr Francesco Cursi, Professor Guang-Zhong Yang. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This novel method for outlier detection and rejection for input/output mapping in regression problems is shown both through simulated data for linear and nonlinear regression, and real sensory data. Despite being validated by using artificial neural networks, the method can be generalized to any other regression method. 
 
Title Multiplexed graphene-based field-effect transistors deposited on Si substrates for detection of biomarkers in biological fluids and breath 
Description o Lead researchers of this research method: Dr Bruno Gil, Dr Dominic Wales, Dr Haijie Tan o Development of GFET arrays (Dr Haijie Tan) for detection of biomarkers carried by fluids or volatile organic compounds. The developed multiplexed electronic interface (Dr Bruno Gil) then combines electrical measurements in the DC and AC regimes of voltage excitation to fully characterise the different GFET sensing units, in combination with Dirac's point detection, time measurements and spectral noise analysis. A unique setup where VOCs are produced by the vapours of different solvents (Dr Dominic Wales) is used to study their interaction with the GFET array and influence of external factors (e.g., temperature, pressure, flow velocity) in order to optimise the detection capability. Attempts to measure GFETs response to liquids were also made with different physiological solutions (conductivity and pH levels), whereas the same electronic interface is likewise being used with other functionalised GFETs for detection of some disease biomarkers, as described in the collaborations section. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Conference presentation at the 2021 Biosensors & Bioelectronics Conference, with the title "Graphene-based field effect transistor array for detection of analyte concentrations in solution through impedance measurements". 
 
Title Real-Time 3-D Shape Instantiation for Partially Deployed Stent Segments 
Description In fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (FEVAR), accurate alignment of stent graft fenestrations or scallops with aortic branches is essential for establishing complete blood flow perfusion. Current navigation is largely based on two-dimensional (2-D) fluoroscopic images, which lacks 3-D anatomical information, thus causing a longer operation time and high risks of radiation exposure. Previously, 3-D shape instantiation frameworks for realtime 3-D shape reconstruction of fully deployed or fully compressed stent grafts from a single 2-D fluoroscopic image have been proposed for 3-D navigation in FEVAR. However, these methods could not instantiate partially deployed stent segments, as the 3-D marker references are unknown. Our research team proposed an adapted graph convolutional network (GCN) to predict 3-D partially deployed marker references from 3-D fully deployed marker references. The coarsening layers of the original GCN are removed and the softmax function at the network end is replaced with linear mapping for regression. The derived 3-D marker references and the 2-D marker positions are used to instantiate the partially deployed stent segment, combined with the previous 3-D shape instantiation framework. This research method was developed by Dr Jian-Qing Zheng, Dr Xiao-Yun Zhou, Celia Riga and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Validations were performed on three typical stent grafts and five patient-specific 3-D printed aortic aneurysm phantoms. Reasonable performances with average mesh distance errors from 1.0 to 2.4 mm and average angular errors around 7.2° were achieved. 
 
Title Robot learning for control and task autonomy and deep-learning-based lung navigation 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Dr Bo Xiao o Collaborating with Dr WeiBang Bai for the experiments on the tendon-driven surgical instruments, collaborating with Charlie Tsai for the experiments on the ABB Yumi robotic system, collaborating with Dr Stamatia Giannarou (Matina) for the experiments for the lung navigation project. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The experiment hardware, such as the Yumi robot and the phantom model of lung, is essential to verify the algorithms and lead further research publications. 
 
Title Rolling-Joint Design Optimization for Tendon Driven Snake-Like Surgical Robots 
Description The use of snake-like robots for surgery is a popular choice for intra-luminal procedures. In practice, the requirements for strength, flexibility and accuracy are difficult to be satisfied simultaneously. Our research team presented a computational approach for optimizing the design of a snake-like robot using serial rolling-joints and tendons as the base architecture for minimally invasive surgery. The method optimizes the design in terms of joint angle range and tendon placement to prevent the tendons and joints from colliding during bending motion. The resulting optimized joints were manufactured using 3D printing. The robot was characterized in terms of workspace, dexterity, precision and manipulation forces. The results show a repeatability as low as 0.9mm and manipulation forces of up to 5.6N. This research method/tool was developed by Dr Pierre Berthet-Rayne, Dr Konrad Leibrandt, Dr Kiyoung Kim, Dr Carlo Seneci, Dr Jianzhong Shang and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The key technical contributions of the work include a new bi-stable synchronous rolling-joint, a corresponding optimization algorithm that also consider collisions, and a spinal cord architecture with tendon routed in the center of the robot to reduce tendon cross-talk. The model of the rolling-joint for 3D motion is investigated, and the details of the algorithm to optimize the joint parameters are described. The resulting dexterity of the proposed device was studied in detail, demonstrating marked improvements compared to a previous prototype. An optimized joint was manufactured using additive manufacturing and characterized in terms of precision and manipulation forces. The results show manipulation forces up to 5.6 N but will need to be further characterized in a clinical scenario with an outer sheath and tools running inside the robot. 
 
Title Simple methods for plasmonic and non-plasmonic SERS template fabrication 
Description o Lead researchers of this research method: Dr Panagiotis Kassanos, Dr Meysam Keshavarz o Collaborators: Dr Florent Seichepine, Dr Jang-Ah Kim 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact N/A 
 
Title Simulation of SMP material 
Description o Lead researcher of this research method: Daniel Bautista-Salinas o Modelling of shape memory polymer material in a simulation environment (COMSOL Multiphysics) to analyse complex structures such as cochlear implant electrode arrays. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The simulation data is available online for research community. 
URL https://github.com/dan13b/SMP-COMSOL
 
Title Simulation of impedance measurements 
Description o Lead researchers of this research method: Daniel Bautista-Salinas and Dr Panagiotis Kassanos o Modelling impedance measurements from the contacts of a cochlear implant electrode array in a simulation environment (COMSOL Multiphysics) to estimate the pose of our implant during insertion. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publication: Daniel Bautista-Salinas, Mohamed E. M. K. Abdelaziz, Burak Temelkuran, Eric M. Yeatman, Charlie T. Huins, and Ferdinando Rodriguez y Baena, "Towards a Functional Atraumatic Self-Shaping Cochlear Implant", Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, October 2021. 
 
Title Soft, biodegradable and 3D printed fibres and device-cell interfaces 
Description A fabrication of biodegradable hydrogel and/or biopolymer materials for 3D printing of fibres has been developed for the creation of a new paradigm in fibrebots and fibre-based medical devices. This research method is led by: Dr Dominic Wales Internal Collaborators: Dr Meysam Keshavarz, Dr Panagiotis Kassanos, Dr Antoine Barbot, Dr Jang-Ah Kim and Dr Hyun-Taek Lee 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These fibre devices can be used for the next generation of neuro-regeneration and also as injectable (injected/delivered from the end of a fibre bot) cylindrical fibre-based stents that unfold to reopen/repair damaged or collapsing alveoli/airways located at the small far distal branches of the lung. 
 
Title Steerable fibre robot 
Description New fibre manufacturing techniques, novel materials, MEMS are investigated to introduce steerability to fibre catheters. Researchers with significant contribution: Mohamed Abdelaziz, Burak Temelkuran, Salzitsa Anastasova, Michail Kiziroglou. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Ability to steer a fibre with small dimensions will allow our robot to reach distal ends of the lumens of the human body which is among the main goals of this project. 
 
Title Surface Tension for Micro-Gripper Pneumatic Actuation 
Description The pistons are fabricated using two-photon polymerization (2PP), and they have an actuation around 20 microns The gas / liquid interface, which occurs around the circumference of the piston, creates a seal that can withstand a pressure of up to 200 mbar. The piston is actuated in an aqueous environment, with the pushing force generated by a microfluidic pump connected to the capillary tube. This design employs one physical phenomenon that works well across scales (pressure induced force) and another that is most prevalent at the microscale (surface tension). 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This design employs one physical phenomenon that works well across scales (pressure induced force) and another that is most prevalent at the micro-scale (surface tension). The proposed actuator could, in the future, serve as the basis for designing tethered micro-surgical tools, such as micro-grippers or local drug delivery systems. 
 
Title Task-based autonomy and high-level intelligence for surgical robots 
Description o Lead researchers of this research method: Dr Weibang Bai, Francesco Cursi and Prof. Eric Yeatman o Applying machine learning (AI) from demonstration to transfer operator manipulation skills to robots. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Publications (under review): - "Augmented Neural Network for Full Robot Kinematic Modelling in SE(3) and SO(3)" by F. Cursi, W.Bai, W. Li, E.M. Yeatman, P. Kormushev proposes a novel Artificial Neural Network model to improve model learning. The work is currently under review in in IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RAL), 2022. - "Automatic Trajectory Generation for Surgical Robots Based on Generative Adversarial Networks" by Z. Yang, W. Bai, Y. Ren et al. proposes a method to generate trajectories for surgical robotic task autonomy based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN), which uses a small number of demonstration samples to create more reliable imitated trajectories for performing the resulted surgical tasks. This work is currently under review in the 14th Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics, 2022. - "Reinforcement Learning for Path Generation for Surgical Robot Maneuver" by J. Chen, Z. Wang, R. Zhu, R. Zhang, W. Bai, B. Lo proposes a path generation method based on reinforcement learning to make full use of Learning from Demonstration as well as reduce the dependence on kinematics data. This work is currently under review in the 14th Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics, 2022. 
 
Title Using deep neural networks for the bronchoscopic generative localisation 
Description Robot-assisted endobronchial intervention requires accurate localization based on both intra- and pre-operative data. Most existing methods achieve this by registering 2D videos with 3D CT models according to a defined similarity metric with local features. Our research team formulated the bronchoscopic localization as a learning-based global localisation using deep neural networks. The proposed network consists of two generative architectures and one auxiliary learning component. The cycle generative architecture bridges the domain variance between the real bronchoscopic videos and virtual views derived from pre-operative CT data so that the proposed approach can be trained through a large number of generated virtual images but deployed through real images. This research method was developed by Dr Cheng Zhao, Dr Mali Shen and Professor Guang-Zhong Yang 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The auxiliary learning architecture leverages complementary relative pose regression to constrain the search space, ensuring consistent global pose predictions. Most importantly, the uncertainty of each global pose is obtained through variational inference by sampling within the learned underlying probability distribution. Detailed validation results demonstrate the localization accuracy with reasonable uncertainty achieved and its potential clinical value. 
URL https://youtu.be/ci9LMY49aF8
 
Title fibres with sensors 
Description Low profile fibres with various sensors are developed to interrogate the target region with biofouling prevention. Researchers with significant contribution: Salzitsa Anastasova, Mohamed Abdelaziz, Burak Temelkuran. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Early, easy and low cost detection of disease / infection. 
 
Title flexible continuum robot 
Description We are developing several techniques to make a flexible continuum robot from metal structures to polymers with outer diameters around 2mm and inner diameters around 1.4mm or several smaller channels to guide multiple instruments. Laser cutting of nitinol and polymeric fibre drawing and laser machining are methods developed. Researchers with significant contribution to this project: Ning Liu, Mohamed E. M. K. Abdelaziz, Mali Shen, Burak Temelkuran. Update 2019: Laser paterning of polymer fibres achieved flexible tips for fibre diameters as small as 1 mm. A patent is filed (2018). With plastic or glass based tendons, braiding performed inhouse, the resulting fibre catheter reached commercial level, with flexibility of material introduction for MR visibility and other features. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Part of the work is presented this year in conference. 
 
Title i2snake 
Description newly designed continuum robot with increased the stability and size of the working channels, an improvement to the existing iSnake. Researchers with significant contribution: Pierre Berthet-Rayne, Andreas Schmitz. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Significant reduction in size and cost compared to similar medical robots. 
 
Title micro-robots 
Description Control and fabrication of optically-driven micro-robots for cell manipulation. Researchers with significant contribution: Maria Grammatikopoulou, Salzitsa Anastasova 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Application of developed methodologies for single cell analysis, including cell manipulation, cell property characterization and cell assembly. 
 
Title multi-material multi-functional fibres 
Description Methods to fabricate fibres with smart materials, various geometries and functions tailored to unmet needs of medicine. Addition of a motor driven unit allows fabrication of helical channels in a fibre for improving tendon driven structures. Researchers with significant contribution: Mohamed Abdelaziz, Salzitsa Anastasova, Burak Temelkuran. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Fibre robots for medicine, MRI compatible steerable catheters and guidewires 
 
Title pCLE with dual wavelength and increased resolution 
Description probe based confocal laser endomicroscope which our team has increased the image acquisition speed significantly to allow large area scan has now 2 added features, improved resolution by added ability to shift the bundle in micron scale, and increased detection capacity by using dual wavelength. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It allows visibility of different morphological elements that are not always detectable by single wavelength, and with improved resolution to enable to see smaller structures and hence improves ability to identify target tissue such as cancerous ones. 
 
Title Augmented Neural Network for Full Robot Kinematic Modelling in SE(3) and SO(3) 
Description A novel Artificial Neural Network model to improve model learning 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Novel neural network architecture for robot model learning 
URL https://github.com/cursi36/AugNet_RobotKinematics
 
Title Dataset for paper: "Induced neural stem cell differentiation on a drawn fiber scaffold-toward peripheral nerve regeneration" 
Description This dataset contains the raw data and raw images that were used for the journal publication "Induced neural stem cell differentiation on a drawn fiber scaffold-toward peripheral nerve regeneration". A .txt file is included that states the contents of this dataset. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact To achieve regeneration of long sections of damaged nerves, restoration methods such as direct suturing or autologous grafting can be inefficient. Solutions involving biohybrid implants, where neural stem cells are grown in vitro on an active support before implantation, have attracted attention. Using such an approach, combined with recent advancements in microfabrication technology, the chemical and physical environment of cells can be tailored in order to control their behaviors. Herein, a neural stem cell polycarbonate fiber scaffold, fabricated by 3D printing and thermal drawing, is presented. The combined effect of surface microstructure and chemical functionalization using poly-L-ornithine (PLO) and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) on the biocompatibility of the scaffold, induced differentiation of the neural stem cells (NSCs) and channeling of the neural cells was investigated. Upon treatment of the fiber scaffold with a suspension of DWCNTs in PLO (0.039 g l-1) and without recombinants a high degree of differentiation of NSCs into neuronal cells was confirmed by using nestin, galactocerebroside and doublecortin immunoassays. These findings illuminate the potential use of this biohybrid approach for the realization of future nerve regenerative implants. 
URL https://data.hpc.imperial.ac.uk/resolve/?doi=7130
 
Title GlobDesOpt: A Global Optimization Framework for Optimal Robot Manipulator Design 
Description an open-source toolbox for optimal robot design based on different optimization algorithms 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact providing the research community with simple-to-use, open source toolbox for optimal robot design 
URL https://github.com/cursi36/GlobDesOpt
 
Title Raman spectra database 
Description The experimental data (Raman spectra) were collected by using a DXR2xi Raman Imaging Microscope (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) equipped with OMNICxi Raman Imaging software and a lab-built benchtop Raman spectrometer system including a spectrometer (QE Pro, Ocean Optics, Inc., Germany) equipped with lab-built LabVIEW measurement programme. Raman imaging data were taken by averaging for area of 10 µm x 10 µm sample square (400 spectra) and additionally averaging for nine of the sample squares (3,600 spectra). Data collection using the benchtop system were carried out by recording and averaging 10 to 100 spectra. This research database was collected by Dr Jang Ah Kim (internal collaborators: Dr Dominic Wales and Dr Alex Thompson) 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact A conference presentation/proceeding was out in 2019 and a journal article was published in 2020. Details available in the Publications section. 
 
Title Simulation of SMP material 
Description Modelling of shape memory polymer material in a simulation environment (COMSOL Multiphysics) to analyse complex structures such as cochlear implant electrode arrays. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The simulation data is available in GitHub for research community 
URL https://github.com/dan13b/SMP-COMSOL
 
Description 'Biohybrid prosthetic for nerve regeneration based on multi-functional fibre' Clinical Colaboration with Renji hospital in Shanghai 
Organisation Renji Hospital
Country China 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution The Hamlyn Centre is developing a new generation of microfabrication techniques, based on multi-functional fibre could improve the rehabilitation of patient by allowing for the implants to directly reconnect severed nerves. To achieve this, the growth of cultured nervous cells along an implant axes will be induced and enhanced by the mean of topological, electrical and chemical stimulations. A unique set of techniques has been developed in the Hamlyn Centre for the fabrication, functionalisation, electrical connection and fluid delivery capability of fibre designed and realised on site. Those fibres of tuneable diameter and length can be used to meet the requirement of nerve regeneration implants. Our research teams brought our current research results regarding neuro-regeneration, robotic assisted surgery for spinal cord surgery and wearable devices to our collaborators for further discussion.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators from Renji Hospital offered their advices to our research issues. This collaboration will be used to set up an experimental framework adapted toward our long term goal of in vivo study.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2019
 
Description A functional atraumatic self-shaping cochlear implant 
Organisation Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Our research team conducted the experiments.
Collaborator Contribution Our partner gave feedback on clinical relevance, clinical requirements and design requirements.
Impact - Journal contribution: https://doi.org/10.1002/mame.202100620 - Cover highlight: https://doi.org/10.1002/mame.202270002 - Conference poster: https://hamlynsymposium.org/app/uploads/2021/05/HS21Poster_DBS.pdf
Start Year 2020
 
Description Detection of biomarkers in biological fluids and breath 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr. Bing Li (UCL) has been supporting in the fabrication of multiplexed electrochemical sensors deposited on a single silicon array for detection of several biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases, whereas our research team at the Hamlyn Centre is responsible for providing the multiplexed electronic interface for signal acquisition, processing, and visualization. A post-doc researcher from Prof. Norbert Klein (Dr. Sami Ramadhan, ICL) is developing fast screening tools for detection of biomarkers in cancer diseases and COVID-19 infection, whereas our research team is responsible for providing the multiplexed electronic interface connected to the functionalized GFETs.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Bing Li (UCL) is designing and functionalizing the electrochemical sensors for detection of lactate, pH, and amyloid biomarkers in biological samples. Dr. Sami Ramadhan (ICL) is involved on the functionalization of GFETs with antibodies for the detection of the spike protein from virus-like-particles of COVID-19 and also specific exosomes from different types of cancer. The cancer cell samples for this latter study are provided by Dr. Bing Li (UCL).
Impact Two review papers on the journals Carbon and Biosensors & Bioelectronics entitled "Clinical detection of neurodegenerative blood biomarkers using graphene immunosensor" and "Multiplexed immunosensors for point-of-care diagnostic applications", respectively.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Development of fibre-optic SERS probes using two-photon polymerisation for rapid in vivo detection of bacteria 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Jang Ah Kim is leading the project by designing experiments; developing protocols; fabricating devices; conducting experiments; collecting, plotting and analysing data; writing papers.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Dominic Wales, who is an internal collaborator at the Hamlyn Centre, contributes to characterisation and improvement of surface chemistry of the developed devices; discussions on the experiments and data analysis; writing papers. Dr Alex Thompson, who is a lecturer in Department of Surgery and Cancer, contributes to designing and building optical systems and devices; providing access to microbiological/clinical samples and facilities; discussions on the experiments and data analysis; writing papers.
Impact A conference presentation/proceeding was out in 2019 and a journal article was published in 2020. Details available in the Publications section.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Development of graphene-based biosensors for the detection of lung disease biomarkers 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our researcher, Dr Haijie Tan, collaborate with Dr Bing Li (Edmond and Lily Safra Research Fellow, independent PI) from Department of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London on the development of graphene-based biosensors for the detection of lung disease biomarkers.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Bing Li (Edmond and Lily Safra Research Fellow, independent PI) from Department of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London works with our research team to develop graphene-based biosensors for the detection of lung disease biomarkers.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2019
 
Description Development of multiplexed force sensors for the medical catheter 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our researcher Dr Bruno Gil Rosa collaborates with Dr Bing Li (Edmond and Lily Safra Research Fellow, independent PI), Department of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London) on the development of multiplexed force sensors for the medical catheter.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Bing Li (Edmond and Lily Safra Research Fellow, independent PI), Department of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London) works with our researcher to develop multiplexed force sensors for the medical catheter.
Impact Bruno Gil, Bing Li, Anzhu Gao, Guang-Zhong Yang, Miniaturized Piezo Force Sensor for Medical Catheter and Implantable Device, ACS Applied Electronic Materials, 2, 2669, 2020. (ACS Editor's Choice and Most Read of the Year) DOI: 10.1021/acsaelm.0c00538 Bing Li, Bruno Gil Rosa, Maura Power, Anzhu Gao, Guang-Zhong Yang. Controllable Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube-coated Micro-spring Pressure Sensor for Medical Applications. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 11, 35577, 2019. (Q1, IF=8.76) DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b12237
Start Year 2019
 
Description Fabrication of fibre-based IL-8 protein immune-sensor based on functionalised graphene 
Organisation Franche-Comté Électronique Mécanique Thermique et Optique - Sciences et Technologies
Department Automatic Control and Micro Mechatronic Systems (AS2M)
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leading by Dr Haijie Tan, our research team works on fabrication of fibre-based IL-8 protein immune-sensor based on functionalised graphene. Dr Haijie Tan contributes to the experimental design, fabrication and integration of the graphene biosensing platform, by coordinating colleagues with expertise from electronics, biology and chemistry. he also helps with interpretation of our experimental results building upon knowledge about semi-conducting materials. Dr. Bruno Gil Rosa develops the sensor platform that is dealing with the signal read-out, processing and communication. Dr. Dominic Wales is responsible for carrying out chemistry-related experiments. Dr. Burak Temelkuran and Mohamed Abdelaziz work on the multi-functional fibre platform and map out the process for drawing of customisable multi-material fibres.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborator, Dr. Antoine Barbot (CNRS researcher at FEMTO-ST INSTITUTE), works on developing a wet transfer platform by utilising magnetic micro-robots for precise wet transfer. Dr. Bing Li (Edmond and Lily Safra Research Fellow, independent PI), on the other hand, develops graphene functionalisation steps for immobilising specified antibodies on graphene.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2019
 
Description Fabrication of fibre-based IL-8 protein immune-sensor based on functionalised graphene 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Division of Brain Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leading by Dr Haijie Tan, our research team works on fabrication of fibre-based IL-8 protein immune-sensor based on functionalised graphene. Dr Haijie Tan contributes to the experimental design, fabrication and integration of the graphene biosensing platform, by coordinating colleagues with expertise from electronics, biology and chemistry. he also helps with interpretation of our experimental results building upon knowledge about semi-conducting materials. Dr. Bruno Gil Rosa develops the sensor platform that is dealing with the signal read-out, processing and communication. Dr. Dominic Wales is responsible for carrying out chemistry-related experiments. Dr. Burak Temelkuran and Mohamed Abdelaziz work on the multi-functional fibre platform and map out the process for drawing of customisable multi-material fibres.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborator, Dr. Antoine Barbot (CNRS researcher at FEMTO-ST INSTITUTE), works on developing a wet transfer platform by utilising magnetic micro-robots for precise wet transfer. Dr. Bing Li (Edmond and Lily Safra Research Fellow, independent PI), on the other hand, develops graphene functionalisation steps for immobilising specified antibodies on graphene.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2019
 
Description Fibre Robot Animal Study 
Organisation Celal Bayar University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team brought our fibre robot instrument to be tested in an animal study,
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration with Dr Huseyin Uvet from Yildiz Technical University and Dr Gulsum Gencoglan from Celal Bayar University. They helped organize the animal lab and the study.
Impact The research teams are working on publication.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Fibre Robot Animal Study 
Organisation Yildiz Technical University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team brought our fibre robot instrument to be tested in an animal study,
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration with Dr Huseyin Uvet from Yildiz Technical University and Dr Gulsum Gencoglan from Celal Bayar University. They helped organize the animal lab and the study.
Impact The research teams are working on publication.
Start Year 2021
 
Description Fibre micro-robot (electrothermally actuated) 
Organisation Bispebjerg Hospital
Country Denmark 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Our research team develops Fibre micro-robot (electrothermally actuated) in-house, aiming to precise tissue mapping and laser ablation with continuous diagnostics until no tumour detected.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators provide their professional advices to support our research development. Brain: - Mr Dipankar Nandi, Professor of Practice (Neurosurgery), Department of Brain Sciences, ICL and Neurosurgery Consultant, Charing Cross Hospital - Dr Hanifa Koguna: junior neurosurgeon, ICL Breast - Daniel Leff, Clinical Senior Lecturer, ICL Colorectal - James Kinross, Clinical Senior Lecturer in Colorectal Surgery, ICL Head and Neck - tumour removal / tumour cavity scan - James Higgins - NIHR Doctoral Fellow, ICL Skin - Dr Catharina M. Lerche, senior scientist at Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen
Impact N/A
Start Year 2019
 
Description Fibre micro-robot (electrothermally actuated) 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team develops Fibre micro-robot (electrothermally actuated) in-house, aiming to precise tissue mapping and laser ablation with continuous diagnostics until no tumour detected.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators provide their professional advices to support our research development. Brain: - Mr Dipankar Nandi, Professor of Practice (Neurosurgery), Department of Brain Sciences, ICL and Neurosurgery Consultant, Charing Cross Hospital - Dr Hanifa Koguna: junior neurosurgeon, ICL Breast - Daniel Leff, Clinical Senior Lecturer, ICL Colorectal - James Kinross, Clinical Senior Lecturer in Colorectal Surgery, ICL Head and Neck - tumour removal / tumour cavity scan - James Higgins - NIHR Doctoral Fellow, ICL Skin - Dr Catharina M. Lerche, senior scientist at Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen
Impact N/A
Start Year 2019
 
Description M-bots fabrication, characterisation and magnetic actuation development 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our researcher Dr Meysam Keshavarz works on conceptualisation, methodology, validation, formal analysis, investigation, resources, writing - Original Draft, writing - Review & Editing, visualisation, supervision, project administration, funding acquisition
Collaborator Contribution Collaborators are Dr Jang Ah Kim and Dr Ali Anil Demircali. Dr Jang Ah Kim works on methodology, fabrication, characterisation and Dr Ali Anil Demircali works on magnetic actuation and characterisation.
Impact The research teams are working on publication.
Start Year 2021
 
Description MIT magnetic robots and low friction materials 
Organisation Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our team suggesting applications for the developed magnetic as well as low friction materials MIT team developed under Prof Xuanhe Zhao.
Collaborator Contribution 3D printed magnetic materials and low friction materials.
Impact Collaboration at early stage for any output.
Start Year 2018
 
Description MR safe steerable catheter 
Organisation Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team made the MR safe steerable catheter.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators, Professor Michael Bock and his team at the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, tested this device under MRI in phantom and pig.
Impact A conference presentation with a publication of an extended abstract: To be presented in 2021 ISMRM & SMRT Annual Meeting & Exhibition, abstract to be published in the proceedings. - M. E. M. K. Abdelaziz, L. Tian, T. Lottner, S. Reiss, K. Düring, G-Z. Yang, M. Bock and B. Temelkuran, "An MR Safe Steerable Catheter for MR-guided Endovascular Interventions", Accepted to be published in proceedings of ISMRM & SMRT Annual Meeting & Exhibition 2021.
Start Year 2020
 
Description MR-Guided Endovascular Interventions 
Organisation Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
Department Imperial College Healthcare NHS Charity
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our research team develops multi-material fibre steerable catheter and other surgical instruments for MR-Guided Endovascular Interventions.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators provide their professional advices to support our research development. University Medical Center Freiburg: - Michael Bock (Professor for Experimental Radiology) - Prof. Dr Med. Constantin von zur Mühlen (Chief Senior Physician, Head of Interventional Cardiology) - Prof. Dr Med. Constantin von zur Mühlen (Chief Senior Physician, Head of Interventional Cardiology) - PD Dr Med. Timo Heidt Imperial College London: - Celia Theodoreli Riga (Consultant Vascular Surgeon, Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer) - Colin Bicknell (Clinical Senior Lecturer, Hon Consultant Vascular Surgeon) - Dr Mohamad S Hamady (Honorary Senior Lecturer)
Impact N/A
Start Year 2019
 
Description MR-Guided Endovascular Interventions 
Organisation University Medical Center Freiburg
Country Germany 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Our research team develops multi-material fibre steerable catheter and other surgical instruments for MR-Guided Endovascular Interventions.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators provide their professional advices to support our research development. University Medical Center Freiburg: - Michael Bock (Professor for Experimental Radiology) - Prof. Dr Med. Constantin von zur Mühlen (Chief Senior Physician, Head of Interventional Cardiology) - Prof. Dr Med. Constantin von zur Mühlen (Chief Senior Physician, Head of Interventional Cardiology) - PD Dr Med. Timo Heidt Imperial College London: - Celia Theodoreli Riga (Consultant Vascular Surgeon, Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer) - Colin Bicknell (Clinical Senior Lecturer, Hon Consultant Vascular Surgeon) - Dr Mohamad S Hamady (Honorary Senior Lecturer)
Impact N/A
Start Year 2019
 
Description Material Characterization: novel materials for flexible batteries, oxygen plasma processing, contact angle measurements and mechanical characterisation of devices 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Bioengineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our researcher, Dr Panagiotis Kassanos, collaborates with Chandramohan George (Dyson School of Design Engineering), Rosalia Moreddu (Chemical Engineering), Nuria Oliva Jorge (Bioengineering), Michael Bruyns-Haylett (Bioengineering) for material characterisation on novel materials for flexible batteries, oxygen plasma processing, contact angle measurements and mechanical characterisation of devices.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Panagiotis Kassanos's collaboration with Dyson and Chemical Engineering are focused on material characterisation. The former on sheet resistance measurements of novel materials for flexible batteries and the latter on oxygen plasma processing, contact angle measurements and mechanical characterisation of devices. His collaboration with Bioengineering was first through a Julia Higgins Imperial postdoc research award together with Dr Meysam Keshavarz (another researcher in our team) and currently through a Rosetrees Seedcorn 2020 award as Co-I's for the development of cartilage regeneration technologies.
Impact Publication: 'Scalable Route to Electroactive and Light Active Perylene Diimide Dye Polymer Binder for Lithium-Ion Batteries', ACS Applied Energy Materials, February, 2020. DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.9b01225
Start Year 2019
 
Description Medical robotic design, fabricating, integration and control 
Organisation Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint Design: Our researcher, Dr Weibang Bai, developed rough ball joints, Wuzhou developed gear joints, Andreas developed rolling joints. Modelling: Dr Weibang Bai works on traditional DH model and learning based LSTM models for the miniaturized instruments, Francesco Cursi works on traditional DH model and some learning models on Micro-IGES robot arm.
Collaborator Contribution For the joint design and updating, Dr Wuzhou Hong, Dr Andreas Schmitz and Dr Weibang Bai worked together and helped each other to fabricate the instruments and prepare for the integration and test (ended). For the modelling using DH and learning models, Francesco Cursi and Dr Weibang Bai discuss and test the models together (still active).
Impact N/A
Start Year 2019
 
Description MicroElectroMechanical Multimaterial fibres 
Organisation Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Application of fibres to Medical Robotics and Confocal Endomicroscope
Collaborator Contribution Fabrication of fibres with piezoelectric polymers for actuation. They supported EPSRC programme grant "Micro-Robotics for Surgery" application.
Impact Multi-dicipllinary: Materials Science, Engineering, Physics, Robotics, Surgery
Start Year 2017
 
Description Microfluidics at Fibre Tip for Nanolitre Delivery and Sampling 
Organisation Franche-Comté Électronique Mécanique Thermique et Optique - Sciences et Technologies
Department Automatic Control and Micro Mechatronic Systems (AS2M)
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research teams collaborate with Dr Antione Barbot on the development of microfluidics at fibre tip for nanolitre delivery and sampling. Our researchers aim to realise a fibre-based sensor for biomarker detection using electrochemistry, optics and micro fluidic based biopsy, to assist and accelerate diagnosis of lung disease during bronchoscopy procedures.
Collaborator Contribution Our external collaborator, Dr Antione Barbot (CNRS researcher at FEMTO-ST INSTITUTE), works with our researchers to improve the fibre-optic sensors performance and enhance imaging quality of imaging probes, as well as localise treatment.
Impact Publication: Antoine Barbot, Maura Power, Florent Seichepine and Guang-Zhong Yang, 2020. 'Liquid seal for compact micropiston actuation at the capillary tip', Science Advances, 6(22), eaba5660. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aba5660
Start Year 2020
 
Description Miniature pressure sensor made of P(VDF-TrFE) for medical catheter and implantable device 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Division of Brain Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our researcher, Dr Bruno Miguel Gil Rosa, works on the development of the electronic interface for signal acquisition from the P(VDF-TrFE) sensor, amplification, and transmission to a recording platform (computer, smartphone) through a tethered or untethered (wireless) communication.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborator, Dr. Bing Li (Edmond and Lily Safra Research Fellow, independent PI) works on the development, fabrication, and transference of the P(VDF-TrFE) sensor.
Impact N/A
Start Year 2019
 
Description Modelling and control of tendon-driven surgical robots 
Organisation Sapienza University of Rome
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our researcher, Francesco Cursi, collaborates with researchers from Sapienza university of Rome on improving the modelling and control of tendon-driven surgical robots.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators provide their professional advices for supporting our research.
Impact Publication: Francesco Cursi, Valerio Modugno, Petar Kormushev, 2021. Model Predictive Control for a Tendon-Driven Surgical Robot with Safety Constraints in Kinematics and Dynamics, 2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS).
Start Year 2019
 
Description Multimaterial fibres for biosensing 
Organisation Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution (1) Functionalisation of fibres for bio-sensing, animal and clinical studies (2) Design and optical characterization of fibres, applications such as mass spectrometry
Collaborator Contribution Fabrication of fibres with novel metal electrodes (1) or waveguides (2)
Impact they supported EPSRC programme grant "Micro-robotics for surgery" application. There is a patent application (pending) they supported, led by our team. Disciplines involved: Materials science, Chemistry, Physics, Engineering, Microbiology, Surgery
Start Year 2017
 
Description Neuro interface with multimaterial fibres 
Organisation Virginia Tech
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are working with Prof Xiaoting Jia on advancing the interface to neurons using multimaterial fibre combined with our sensor capabilities.
Collaborator Contribution Her previous work and expertise on neural interface, listening / triggering to single neuron activity with her probes.
Impact This is a multidisciplinary work of physics, chemistry and material science to advance probes for neural interface. Work ongoing,
Start Year 2018
 
Title A DEVICE 
Description A surgical device (204) comprising a first tube (232) having an axis (233) and a wall with a channel extending axially within the wall, the first tube comprising a plurality of integrally-formed interlocking segments (234). 
IP Reference WO2020016577 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2020
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact N/A
 
Title A METHOD AND PREFORM FOR FORMING A DEVICE COMPRISING A SHAPE MEMORY POLYMER 
Description There is provided herein a method of manufacturing a device comprising at least a first fibre using a draw apparatus, the method comprising: providing a first preform comprising a shape memory polymer to the draw apparatus; heating a first portion of the first preform; and drawing, using the draw apparatus, the heated first portion in order to form the first fibre. 
IP Reference WO2020174248 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2020
Licensed No
Impact N/A
 
Title A SENSOR 
Description A sensor comprising an inlet and an outlet, a sensing chamber positioned between the inlet and the outlet, and a sensing element operatively connected to the sensing chamber, wherein the sensor comprises a first fibre formed from a drawable material, the fibre comprising a first channel extending between the inlet and the outlet, the sensing chamber being formed within the channel. 
IP Reference WO2020234579 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2020
Licensed No
Impact N/A
 
Title A device 
Description A surgical tube having an axis and a wall with an axial channel 345a,b within the wall, the first tube comprising a plurality of interlocking segments 334. The interlocking segments may have axial 338, 340 and tangential 344, 346 interlocks, each having complementary engaging parts. The segments may interlock such that they cannot be separated without breaking. A control tendon may extend through the channel. A second tube may be attached to the first tube and be integral thereto. The second tube may have a spiral channel having a path axis along the tube axis and aligned with the channel in the first tube. The tube is manufactured by drawing of a preform that may be glass or polymer and segmenting the drawn tube. Segmenting may be carried out by laser or mechanical cutting, chemical etching or lithography. The first and second tubes may be drawn in a continuous process. 
IP Reference GB2575675 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2020
Licensed No
Impact There is interest from a company in this invention.
 
Title FIBRE BASED SENSOR INCORPORATING ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSING 
Description A sensor (20) comprising an elongate member comprising an electrochemical sensor comprising an electrochemical filament extending along the length of the elongate member, wherein the elongate member comprises a fibre formed from a drawable material, the sensor may further comprise an optical sensor comprising an optical filament being formed from an optically transparent material. Further, a plurality of electrochemical and optionally optical filaments may extend through the elongate member with exposed areas being functionalized to allow electrochemical and optionally optical detection of target molecules. 
IP Reference WO2020201741 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2020
Licensed No
Impact N/A
 
Title LONGITUDINALLY NON-UNIFORM PREFORM AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME 
Description There is provided herein a preform for drawing fibres therefrom, the preform formed of at least a first material and having a non-uniform structure in the longitudinal direction and a method of forming the same. 
IP Reference WO2020174246 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2020
Licensed No
Impact N/A
 
Title Low temperature fibre draw tower 
Description The custom made fibre tower we built gives us the unique capacity to co-draw multiple materials with different functionalities into a single fibre for medicine. The field is new and the potential is unique, and our research spans a wide range from bio-sensors (current EPSRC programme grant) to fibre robots (new EPSRC programme grant Micro-Robotics for Surgery) 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact This equipment will enable us to fabricate fibres with various integrated functionalities. In addition to optical interface with the tip of the fibre that conventional fibres offer, these multimaterial fibres allow other means of communication with the sensors at the tip, such as electrical interface with metal elements in the fibre, and fluidic interface via micro-channels, all integrated into a single fibre. These fibres will help integrate and miniaturize multiple sensors, allow drug delivery, and will significantly enhance overall functionality of our sensors in this project. The emerging field of multimaterial fibers presents exciting opportunities and has potential to create many fundamental research areas 
 
Description 'Autonomous Intraluminal Navigation' workshop at the Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher gave a talk at the 'Autonomous Intraluminal Navigation' workshop at the Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics 2021 (RCS CPD accredited, total 2 CPD points).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://hamlynsymposium.org/events/autonomous-intraluminal-navigation/
 
Description 'Robot-Assisted Endoscopy At Scale' workshop at the Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our Co-I and researcher organised the 'Robot-Assisted Endoscopy At Scale' workshop at the Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics 2021 (RCS CPD accredited, total 1.5 CPD points).

This workshop brought together international experts from surgical, industrial and technology research areas to discuss the latest advances in the field of robot-assisted endoscopy. A comprehensive picture of the challenges of endoscopy will be drawn, marking the current state of practice. Focusing on endoscopy at scale, the most interesting research directions for the near future will be identified. Advances in flexible robotic endoscopic systems will be presented with special emphasis on the application of fetal surgery. Furthermore, autonomous navigation inside the bronchial tree will be explored. The workshop will end with a discussion session to summarise the key elements of robot-assisted endoscopy and the main challenges to be addressed in the coming years.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://hamlynsymposium.org/events/robot-assisted-endoscopy-at-scale/
 
Description 'Soft, Smart, Multifunctional, Agile And Aware Surgical Robots: Progress And Technologies' workshop at the Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher organised 3-day 'Soft, Smart, Multifunctional, Agile And Aware Surgical Robots: Progress And Technologies' workshop at the Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics 2021 (RCS CPD accredited, total 6 CPD points)

Day 1 - Learning outcomes:

Learning about the requirements of minimally invasive surgery, especially with regards to soft robots.
Knowledge of technologies and challenges in soft structures and materials for robots
Understanding of a range of actuation means for soft robot devices
Knowledge on fabrication methods, materials, device architectures and functionalities of soft robot devices.
Knowledge on integration of soft robots in a surgical setting.
Learning about navigation and control challenges for soft robots in surgical environments.

Day 2 - Learning outcomes:

Understanding the need for sensing in soft robotics, surgical robotics and robotics in general
Knowledge of technologies and challenges in flexible and stretchable sensing skins for robots
Application of sensing patches in wearables and physiological monitoring
Knowledge on fabrication methods, materials, device architectures and functionalities of soft sensing devices that can be applied to soft robotics.
Knowledge on the practical application of soft sensors to soft surgical robotics.
How sensing information can be used for clinical decision making in real-time or for robot control.

Day 3 - Learning outcomes:

To review the state of the art in modelling, learning and control of soft robots
Knowledge on mathematical kinematic modelling of soft and continuum robots
Application of deep learning and reinforcement learning to control soft robots.
Understanding open challenges in learning and control of continuum robots.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://hamlynsymposium.org/events/workshop-soft-smart-multifunctional-agile-and-aware-surgical-robo...
 
Description 'Towards Tumour Margin Assessment Using Raman Spectroscopy: Progress And Challenges' workshop at the Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our Co-I and researchers organised the 'Towards Tumour Margin Assessment Using Raman Spectroscopy: Progress And Challenges' workshop at the Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics 2021 (RCS CPD accredited, total 1 CPD points).

Learning Outcomes:

Knowledge of challenges associated with organ preserving cancer surgery.
Understanding the scale of positive margins.
Impact of positive margins on patient outcome and healthcare economy.
Review of existing solutions to tackle positive margins and their limitations.
Understanding of Raman spectroscopy and the opportunities it provides for clinical diagnostics.
Knowledge of application of Raman spectroscopy to cancer diagnostics, particularly for tumour margin assessment.
Knowledge of the challenges in translating Raman spectroscopy to the clinic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://hamlynsymposium.org/events/towards-tumour-margin-assessment-using-raman-spectroscopy-progres...
 
Description 2018 Hamlyn Symposium for Medical Robotics 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher, Dandan Zhang, presented a poster of her work 'An Ergonomic Interaction Workspace Analysis Method for the Optimal Design of a Surgical Master Manipulator'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 2019 Hamlyn Symposium for Medical Robotics (2019 HSMR) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher, Dandan Zhang, presented a poster of her work 'A Novel Hybrid Master-Slave Control Interface for Surgical Robot Remote Control"; "User Studies for the Determination of Master-Slave Mapping Strategy for a Compact Master Manipulator' at the 2019 Hamlyn Symposium for Medical Robotics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 2019 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (2019 ICRA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher, Dandan Zhang, presented her work 'A Self-Adaptive Motion Scaling Framework for Surgical Robot Remote Control' at the 2019 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (2019 ICRA).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (2019 IROS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher, Dr Dandan Zhang, presented her works at the 2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (2019 IROS):
a. "A Handheld Master Controller for Robot-Assisted Microsurgery"
b. "Design and Verification of a Portable Master Manipulator Based on an Effective Workspace Analysis Framework"
c. "WSRender: A Workspace Analysis and Visualization Toolbox for Robotic Manipulator Design and Verification"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://doi.org/10.1109/IROS40897.2019.8968542
 
Description 2019 International Conference on Manipulation, Automation and Robotics at Small Scales (2019 MARSS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher, Dandan Zhang, presented her work 'Towards Microrobot Out-of-Plane Control Via Planar Multi-Spot Optical Tweezer' at the 2019 International Conference on Manipulation, Automation and Robotics at Small Scales (2019 MARSS).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (2020 ICRA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher, Dr Dandan Zhang, presented her work 'An Ergonomic Shared Workspace Analysis Framework for the Optimal Placement of a Compact Master Control Console' at the 2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://doi.org/10.1109/LRA.2020.2974428
 
Description 2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (2020 IROS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher, Dr Dandan Zhang, presented her work 'Supervised Semi-Autonomous Control for Surgical Robot Based on Bayesian Optimisation' at the 2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://doi.org/10.1109/IROS45743.2020.9341383
 
Description 2020 International Academic Forum of Institute of Medical Robotics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher, Dr Dandan Zhang, presented her work 'Perception and Manipulation of Optical Microrobots' at the 2020 International Academic Forum of Institute of Medical Robotics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://imr.sjtu.edu.cn/en/news/686.html
 
Description 3D-printed Sensor on Fibre-Optic Probes for Rapid Bacteria Detection 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Fiber-Optic SERS Probes Fabricated Using Two-Photon Polymerization For Rapid Detection of Bacteria" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/234198/3d-printed-sensor-fibre-optic-probes-rapid-bacteria/
 
Description A Comparative Review of Artificial Muscles for Microsystem Applications 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Our publication "A Comparative Review of Artificial Muscles for Microsystem Applications" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/232334/comparative-review-artificial-muscles-microsystem-application...
 
Description A Cross-Domain Transfer Learning Scheme for Robot-Assisted Microsurgery 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Automatic Microsurgical Skill Assessment Based on Cross-Domain Transfer Learning" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/200414/cross-domain-transfer-learning-scheme-robot-assisted-microsur...
 
Description A Flexible/Stretchable Multiparametric Sensing Device 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Towards a Flexible/Stretchable Multiparametric Sensing Device for Surgical and Wearable" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/196214/flexiblestretchable-multiparametric-sensing-device/
 
Description A Guide of Tetrapolar Bioimpedance Sensor Measurement for Healthcare Application 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "A Comparison of Front-End Amplifiers for Tetrapolar Bioimpedance Measurements" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/203233/guide-tetrapolar-bioimpedance-sensor-measurement-healthcare/
 
Description A Human-Robot Interaction Analysis Framework for Minimally Invasive Surgery 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "An Ergonomic Shared Workspace Analysis Framework for the Optimal Placement of a Compact Master Control Console" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/199954/human-robot-interaction-analysis-framework-minimally-invasive...
 
Description A New Kinematic Model for A Surgical Robot Tool in Minimally Invasive Surgery 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Adaptive Kinematic Modelling for Multiobjective Control of a Redundant Surgical Robotic Tool" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/205113/new-kinematic-model-surgical-robot-tool/
 
Description A New Micro-robot Manipulation Model for Cell Surgery Applications 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Distributed Force Control for Microrobot Manipulation via Planar Multi-Spot Optical Tweezer" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/202713/new-micro-robot-manipulation-model-cell-surgery/
 
Description A Novel Bronchoscopic Localisation Approach for Lung Cancer Diagnosis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Generative Localization With Uncertainty Estimation Through Video-CT Data for Bronchoscopic Biopsy" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/197536/novel-bronchoscopic-localisation-approach-lung-cancer/
 
Description A Novel Flexible Wrist-Worn Thermotherapy and Thermoregulation Device 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Towards a Flexible Wrist-Worn Thermotherapy and Thermoregulation Device" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/197215/novel-flexible-wrist-worn-thermotherapy-thermoregulation-devi...
 
Description A Novel Functional Atraumatic Self-Shaping Cochlear Implant 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Towards a Functional Atraumatic Self-Shaping Cochlear Implant" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/231675/novel-functional-atraumatic-self-shaping-cochlear-implant/
 
Description A Novel Micro?uidics Design at Fibre Tip for Precision Drug Delivery & Sampling 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Microfluidics at Fiber Tip for Nanoliter Delivery and Sampling" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/217473/novel-microuidics-design-fibre-tip-precision/
 
Description A Novel Plasmonic Optical Fibre Approach for Bacterial Accumulation Behaviour 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Plasmonic optical fiber for bacteria manipulation-characterization and visualization of accumulation behavior under plasmo-thermal trapping" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/223513/novel-plasmonic-optical-fibre-approach-bacterial/
 
Description A Novel Subcutaneously Implanted Device for Cardiovascular Assessment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Feasibility Study on Subcutaneously Implanted Devices in Male Rodents for Cardiovascular Assessment Through Near-Field Communication Interface" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/226193/novel-subcutaneously-implanted-device-cardiovascular-assessme...
 
Description A Review of Optical Spectroscopy for in-vivo Medical Diagnosis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Optical spectroscopy for in vivo medical diagnosis-a review of the state of the art and future perspectives" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/203393/review-optical-spectroscopy-in-vivo-medical-diagnosis/
 
Description A Tutorial for Bioimpedance Sensors 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Bioimpedance Sensors: A Tutorial" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/231234/tutorial-bioimpedance-sensors/
 
Description A novel micro-pneumatic tool for targeted therapy and cell-based intervention 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Liquid seal for compact micropiston actuation at the capillary tip" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/197815/novel-micro-pneumatic-tool-targeted-therapy-cell-based/
 
Description A potential new route to future nerve regeneration technologies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Induced neural stem cell differentiation on a drawn fiber scaffold-toward peripheral nerve regeneration" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/197176/potential-route-future-nerve-regeneration-technologies/
 
Description Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Surgery 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Application of artificial intelligence in surgery" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/200673/application-artificial-intelligence-ai-surgery/
 
Description Conference presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Oral presentation at conference "Plasmonics in Biology and Medicine XVI" in SPIE Photonics West 2019 about development of SERS-on-a-tip (surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on an optical fibre tip) probes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://spie.org/conferences-and-exhibitions/photonics-west?SSO=1
 
Description Constrained-Space Optimisation and Reinforcement Learning for Complex Tasks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Constrained-Space Optimization and Reinforcement Learning for Complex Tasks" was featured on Imperial News.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/195574/imperial-robotics-papers-icra-2020/
 
Description EPSRC Scientific Advisory Board & Research Steering Group Bi-annual Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Scientific Advisory Board & Research Steering Group members came to the Hamlyn Centre for participating the bi-annual meeting to examine our current research progress. Our research teams presented a series of demos as well as current progress presentation to all the members for demonstrating our works.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://twitter.com/ICLHamlynRobots/status/1088766049590394880
 
Description Examining Carbon-Based Elastomeric Composites for Printed Sensors & Electronics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Electrical and Mechanical Characterisation of Carbon-Based Elastomeric Composites for Printed Sensors and Electronics" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/231117/examining-carbon-based-elastomeric-composites-printed-sensors...
 
Description Former Prime Minister Tony Blair Visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The former Prime Minister Tony Blair visited Imperial College and toured the Hamlyn Centre for Robotics, viewing demonstrations of surgical robots, 3D printed microrobotic tools and augmented reality technology for medical imaging.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/187036/former-pm-supports-lord-darzi-report/
 
Description Friends of Imperial Visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact The Hamlyn Centre participated in the programme of "Friends of Imperial Visit" as one of visit destinations. Our research teams demonstrated the latest research result to the "Friends of Imperial Visit" participants and answered their questions regarding the works.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.friendsofimperial.org.uk/Media/Documents/Current_Programme.pdf
 
Description Frontiers of Medical Robotics: From Concept to Systems to Clinical Translation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Frontiers of Medical Robotics: From Concept to Systems to Clinical Translation" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/195561/frontiers-medical-robotics-from-concept-systems/
 
Description Hamlyn Centre Christmas Showcase 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Hamlyn Christmas Showcase was an event for collaborators and affiliates of the Hamlyn Centre that showcased the latest research outputs of the Hamlyn Centre. The aim was to communicate our research findings and encourage deeper collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Hamlyn Centre Induction Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The Hamlyn Centre Induction Day was an event for creating better connectivity within the Hamlyn team of over 80 researchers. With talks, networking activities and discussions, this event enabled MRes students, PhD students, researchers and support staff to engage and share ideas for development of Hamlyn initiatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Hamlyn Centre Official Twitter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Hamlyn Centre Official Twitter account aims to reach out all types of audiences for demonstrating our research progress and result, promoting our events and sharing relevant information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com/ICLHamlynRobots
 
Description Hamlyn Symposium Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised this workshop on "Focused Energy Delivery & Precision Intervention", bringing clinical and technical speakers on the topic together.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Hamlyn Winter School on Surgical Imaging and Vision 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The Winter School focuses on both technical and clinical aspects of Surgical Imaging and Vision, with invited lectures, hands-on demonstrations, workshops, and mini-projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://hamlyn.doc.ic.ac.uk/winterschool/
 
Description Hamlyn Winter School on Surgical Imaging and Vision 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Hamlyn Winter School focuses on both the technical and clinical aspects of Surgical Imaging and Vision. Through invited lectures, hands-on demonstrations, workshops, and mini-projects, the purpose of our winter school is to help researchers familiarise with the cutting edge research of this rapidly expanding field covering key areas of:

Fundamentals and current state-of-the-art in surgical imaging;
Vision algorithms for tracking, 3D scene reconstruction and surgical navigation;
Intra-operative registration and retargeting;
Multi-modal image fusion and real-time augmented reality systems based on inverse realism;
Robot assisted large area microscopic imaging and mosaicing;
Dynamic active constraints with real-time vision;
Vision enabled surgical robot design and miniaturisation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/hamlyn-centre/news-and-events/hamlyn-winter-school-on-surgical-imaging-an...
 
Description INformative talk to international students of Revolutions in Biomedicine Summer School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Maura Power gave a talk to students taking part in the "Revolutions in Biomedicine Summer School" at Imperial College about the state of the art of microrobotics in medicine, and also discussed the published on-going work at the Hamlyn Centre (July 2018)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description ISMRM & SMRT Annual Meeting & Exhibition 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The work of our research team has been accepted to present in ISMRM & SMRT Annual Meeting & Exhibition 2021 and will be published in the proceedings of this event.

M. E. M. K. Abdelaziz, L. Tian, T. Lottner, S. Reiss, K. Düring, G-Z. Yang, M. Bock and B. Temelkuran, "An MR Safe Steerable Catheter for MR-guided Endovascular Interventions", Accepted to be published in proceedings of ISMRM & SMRT Annual Meeting & Exhibition 2021.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Infection Diagnostics: Miniature Fibre-Optic Probes for Rapid Bacteria Detection 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Fibre-Optic SERS Probes Fabricated Using Two-Photon Polymerisation For Rapid Detection of Bacteria" was featured on Advanced Optical Materials cover and the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/197315/infection-diagnostics-miniature-fibre-optic-probes-rapid/
 
Description Interactive presentation in ICRA 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We had an interactive presentation for 4 hours during the conference. We presented our work with posters and videos, and discussed with people who are interested.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Robotics Showcase 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A showcase of robotics for academia, industry and the public
The International Robotics Showcase will be part of the International Business Festival this year, and this will be held on Thursday 21st June 2018 at the Exhibition Centre Liverpool, Kings Dock, Liverpool Waterfront, L3 4FP.The full-day programme includes exclusive talks by world-renowned experts in science and technology, panel discussions, exhibitions, robot demonstrations and an award ceremony for competition winners demonstrating cutting-edge robotics innovation.

Exciting demonstrations of cutting-edge robotics technology;

Lively discussion and debate, covering ethical, legal and economic impacts of Robotics and AI;

The release of several new White Papers, covering the current research landscape in:
Urban Automation & Transport
AgriTech
The day also offers academics, industry, government organisations and the public, the opportunity to enjoy the fascinating and diverse exhibits by our sponsors, as well as provide a lively forum for discussion and discovery of some of the latest technological developments and research challenges in Robotics and Autonomous Systems.

The event will take place within the 2018 International Business Festival and a 9 day pass is included withi your registration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://hamlyn.doc.ic.ac.uk/uk-ras/robotics-week/showcase
 
Description Invited Talk- Prof Itaru Kitahara: 3D-CG Virtual Surgical Operation in University of Tsukuba 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our senior research fellow Dr Matina Giannarou invited Prof. Itaru Kitahara to share the experience about "3D-CG Virtual Surgical Operation in University of Tsukuba" with our researchers in the Hamlyn Centre. Prof. Itaru Kitahara is leading the Virtual Surgery research project at the University of Tsukuba, Japan and his research focuses on Computer Vision and Mixed Reality. During the talk, he not only introduced "3D CG Virtual Surgery", which aims to realise a navigation system of surgical operation using Computer Vision and AR/VR techniques, but also presented the collaboration between their research team and the medical doctors in our university regarding 3D CG Virtual Surgery.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://twitter.com/ICLHamlynRobots/status/1102943972790542336
 
Description Invited Talk- Prof Jackrit Suthakorn: the past, present and future of the BART LAB 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Jackrit Suthakorn, the BART LAB executive director and the department chair of Department of Biomedical Engineering at Mahidol University, visited the Hamlyn Centre on Monday 25th January 2019. He gave a talk regarding the development of the BART LAB as well as their current research areas and progress in robotics for extreme environment as well as rehabilitation to the Hamlyn Centre researchers and members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Laser-Profiled Continuum Robot with Integrated Tension Sensing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Laser-Profiled Continuum Robot with Integrated Tension Sensing for Simultaneous Shape and Tip Force Estimation" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/195974/laser-profiled-continuum-robot-with-integrated-tension/
 
Description Lecture in clinical engineering hub - "Fibres for Medical Robots to Medical Fibre Robots" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact As part of the clinical engineering program, Dr Temelkuran gave lecture. 10 students attended. 3 of them followed up with summer internship requests.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://clinicianengineer.com
 
Description Line-Scan Confocal Endomicroscopy for Rapid Digital Histology of Early Breast Cancer (Oral Presentation at CLEO 2022) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher, Dr Khushi Vyas, will give an oral presentation of the latest research result 'Line-Scan Confocal Endomicroscopy for Rapid Digital Histology of Early Breast Cancer' at CLEO 2022 on 19th May 2022 in San Jose, USA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.cleoconference.org/home/
 
Description London research envisages a future cochlear implant that self-curls into individual cochlea shapes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Towards a Functional Atraumatic Self-Shaping Cochlear Implant" was featured on Audiology WorldNews.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL http://www.audiology-worldnews.com/research/4284-london-research-envisages-a-future-cochlear-implant...
 
Description MARSS conference Nagoya Japan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A presentation "Surface Tension for Micro-Gripper Pneumatic Actuation" in MARSS conference Nagoya Japan 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description MIT Technology Review Arabia's Innovators Under 35 for 2021 - Dr Mohamed Abdelaziz 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our researcher Dr Mohamed Abdelaziz was named as one of MIT Technology Review Arabia's Innovators Under 35 for 2021. This news was featured on Imperial News.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/233477/comets-tail-crossing-supply-chain-challenge/
 
Description Making cochlear implants safer with self-shaping polymers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Towards a Functional Atraumatic Self-Shaping Cochlear Implant" was featured on Advanced Science News.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.advancedsciencenews.com/making-cochlear-implants-safer-with-self-shaping-polymers/
 
Description Materials Science for Medical Robotics 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Workshop Aims
The traditional concept of motor driven robots with mechanical transmission and computer control is still deeply rooted into our design workflow and hardware embodiment in robotics. However, exciting advances in materials science, including the development of smart materials, energy harvesting and actuation schemes, as well as the adoption of bio-inspired design principles can offer radically new ways to construct and operate robots. These are particularly relevant to the future development of medical robotics, integrating sensing, micro-scale tissue manipulation and targeted delivery. They challenge the physical limitation of mechatronics and are no longer limited by the degrees-of-freedom of traditional mechanisms. New materials that combine sensing, actuation, computation and communication offer a whole range of new opportunities for the design of new robots. New actuators made by these materials can react to its external environment by either changing their material properties or geometries and they can be electrically responsive, or react to temperature, light, magnetic field, pressure, mechanical loading or surrounding chemical properties (e.g. changes in pH). They are also sensitive to more local effects or fluctuations including surface tension, diffusion, induction pumping, ion-drag and conductive heterogeneity.

The goal of this workshop is to bring together researchers in medical robotics and materials science to explore new research opportunities and potential synergies in the development and application of new materials for medical robotics. The workshop will include several invited talks, and we also welcome submissions from Symposium attendees.
The workshop ended with several potential collaboration discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Micro Motion Amplification - A Review 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Micro motion amplification - A Review" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/196714/micro-motion-amplification-review/
 
Description Miniature Fibre-Optic Probes for Rapid Bacteria Detection 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Fibre-Optic SERS Probes Fabricated Using Two-Photon Polymerisation For Rapid Detection of Bacteria" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/195659/miniature-fibre-optic-probes-rapid-bacteria-detection/
 
Description Minister of State for Immigration Caroline Nokes MP and Cancer Research UK Visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Caroline Nokes MP, Minister of State for Immigration, visited Imperial in October 2018 and took a tour of the Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery. She was joined by representatives of Cancer Research UK and our college president Alice Gast. During the visit, Caroline Nokes was shown some of our latest robot technology in medicine, developments which have enabled healthcare professionals to conduct smarter operations with higher precision.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/188691/immigration-minister-sees-benefits-internationalism-imperial/
 
Description Novel Functional Atraumatic Self-Shaping Cochlear Implant 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Our publication "Towards a Functional Atraumatic Self-Shaping Cochlear Implant" was featured on Hearing Health & Technology Matters Newsletter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://hearinghealthmatters.org/blog/2021/researchers-propose-novel-functional-atraumatic-self-shap...
 
Description Novel Low-powered Implantable Devices for Breast Cancer Soft Tissue Monitoring 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Low-powered implantable devices activated by ultrasonic energy transfer for physiological monitoring in soft tissue via functionalised electrochemical electrodes" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/225293/novel-low-powered-implantable-devices-breast-cancer/
 
Description On-fiber printed sensor for label-free detection of bacteria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Fiber-Optic SERS Probes Fabricated Using Two-Photon Polymerization For Rapid Detection of Bacteria" was featured on Nanoscribe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.nanoscribe.com/en/news-insights/news/label-free-detection-of-bacteria
 
Description Patient speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact We had a patient speaker arranged with the help of Breast Cancer Now charity board member of this programme grant - Simon Vincent. The patient gave a talk which was:
- Motivational: Our young engineers always hear about survival rates, complications in surgery, infection, etc With her talk, all these are now linked to reality, and importance of their work is a lot more obvious to them. Anna's talk was quite motivative for the team.
- Inspiring: Anna being a researcher especially helped a lot. The team could comfortably discuss with her what could be technically improved based on her experience.
We also discussed her involvement throughout the project.
As a next step, we discussed inviting her to one of our demonstrations presenting our developments, possibly summer of 2019 during Hamlyn Symposium.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Patterning Precision with Floating Magnetic Microrobots 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Floating magnetic microrobots for fiber functionalisation" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/193129/patterning-precision-with-floating-magnetic-microrobots/
 
Description Professor Daniel Elson: Lighting Up The Operating Theatre 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Daniel Elson, our Hamlyn Centre Director of Studies, talked through a career that has mirrored the typical innovation translation pathway - from a PhD in laser physics, and time spent in the Faculty of Engineering developing imaging tools for key hole surgery, a move to the Division of Surgery saw him work directly with surgeons to begin translating those technologies into image guidance tools. He discussed progress made developing diagnostic methods and technologies, and the value of adopting a clinical, rather than purely technological driven, approach to innovation and problem solving, working with surgeons to identify challenges today and tomorrow.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOQz7HufVaQ&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Rapid digital histology of urothelial carcinoma using line-scan confocal laser endomicroscopy (Poster at 2022 Biophotonics Congress: Biomedical Optics) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our researcher, Dr Khushi Vyas, will present a poster of the latest research result 'Rapid digital histology of urothelial carcinoma using line-scan confocal laser endomicroscopy' at 2022 Biophotonics Congress: Biomedical Optics on 25th April 2022 in Forte Lauderdale, USA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://www.optica.org/meetings/osa_meetings/biophotonics_congress_biomedical_optics/
 
Description Robotics development (TV programme interview in Egypt) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our researcher Dr Mohamed Abdelaziz was interviewed by an Egypt TV programme - MBC MASR 1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://youtu.be/htJ0SIX20j4
 
Description School Robot Challenge 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The challenge will be run jointly by any interested UK-RAS partner universities, and is aimed at teams of schoolchildren of ages up to 16 (year 11). It will be published in the UK-RAS Robotics Week 2018 brochure and on the website, and will be distributed via each participating university's local schools' network.

The challenge will consist of 2 separate activities: the first involves schools working independently to develop and then submit a design(s) for a robot system to help older people. The deadline for submissions for this activity is 18/05/2018.

The best entries will then be chosen, with one winning team selected by each participating university (the proximity of school to university may or may not influence the decision), which will then invite that team to a special one-day event on 26/06/2018 (that is, the Tuesday of UK Robotics Week). After a tour of the robot labs, the teams will be set another similar care-themed challenge using whatever basic, programmable robotics equipment is to hand (e.g., Lego Mindstorms - there is no requirement for the same equipment to be used at each university). This activity will last from 10.30am until 3.30pm with a working lunch provided, and if possible live streaming of video from the other participating sites (also shown on the UK-RAS website). The goal of each team will be to produce a smartphone video of no longer than 1 minute's duration that describes the problem, the concept and design of their suggested solution, and - hopefully - shows their solution in action.

The videos will be uploaded to YouTube or similar. A panel of judges - one from each participating university - will view each of the videos, and then confer to select an overall winning team. (Some of) the winning team will then be invited to the UK Robotics Week Showcase event on Thursday 21st June, where they will receive a prize (budget permitting) on behalf of their school.

The suggested text publicising the challenge is below. (Note that it is not intended to be as explicit as the above text to allow for some flexibility in the format to take into account the number and quality of submissions, budget available, participating universities, etc., and all dates are subject to confirmation.)


The UK-RAS Health and Social Care Challenge 2018

We invite schools to submit their designs for a robotic system that addresses the challenge of how to help older people stay healthy and live independent lives. Submissions should be the work of teams of up to 8 children aged 16 or under. Entries can be in any format, should be no longer than 1000 words (or equivalent) in length, and each school may submit an unlimited number of entries.

The closing date for submissions is Friday 18th May. The judging panel will then select the best entries, with submissions being judged according to their usefulness, practicality and creativity. The winning teams will be invited to a special one-day event on Tuesday 26th June at their nearest UK-RAS University, during which they will visit our robotics facilities to learn more about our research, and then get to develop and test their own robots.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://hamlyn.doc.ic.ac.uk/uk-ras/events/school-robot-challenge
 
Description School Robot Challenge at Imperial Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interactive activity was provided at the Imperial Festival 2017, based on the School Robot Challenge organised by the Hamlyn Centre and the UK-RAS Network. This activity encouraged schoolchildren to be inspired by robotics and nature and create their own digital robotic insect. The children drew a robotic insect on paper and were then shown how to turn it into a 3D computer model.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://hamlyn.doc.ic.ac.uk/uk-ras/robotics-week-2018
 
Description Smart Sensing for Surgery 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Smart Sensing for Surgery: From Tethered Devices to Wearables and Implantables" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/201053/smart-sensing-surgery/
 
Description Surgical Robot Challenge 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The aim of this challenge is to exploit the unique expertise of the consortium in medical robotics to develop low-cost robot-assisted surgical and diagnostic devices that can benefit the NHS as well as be used as solutions for global health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://hamlyn.doc.ic.ac.uk/hsmr/events/surgical-robot-challenge-2017
 
Description Surrey University: To host the 18th TAROS 2017 as an official event of UK Robotics Week 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact TAROS is a platform for RAS researchers from worldwide, and welcomes paper submissions on a wide range of topics related to the principles and practice of robotics, including but not limited to:

Advanced applications of autonomous robots (industrial and research)
Advanced medical robotics; Robots for surgery; Assistive robotics; Intelligent prostheses
Applications development, hardware issues, devices and techniques, advanced sensors and actuators
Autonomous assembly robotics; Modular reconfigurable robots; Evolutionary robotics
Autonomous vehicles; driverless cars
Bio-mimetic and bio-inspired robotics; Bio-hybrid robotic systems; Humanoid robotics
Cognitive robotics; Developmental robotics
Ethical and societal issues in robotics; Robots in education, the arts and entertainment; Personal robotics
Field robotics, Space and planetary robotics
Human-robot interaction and interfaces
Learning and adaptation
Long-term interaction and operation
Modelling and analysis of robot models
Navigation, localization, map building and path planning; Analysis of robot-environment interaction
Robot autonomy including energy self-sufficiency; Robot control architectures; Robot vision, sensing and perception
Robot communication and language
Safety, verification and validation for robotic applications
Service robotics
Soft robotics
Swarm robotics; Collective robots
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.surrey.ac.uk/taros2017
 
Description Talk at SPIE / Photonics West LASE conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Maura Power gave a talk at SPIE / Photonics West LASE conference in San Francisco, US in one of the Laser 3D Manufacturing sessions on the topic of the many different applications and fabrication approaches with two-photon polymerisation for novel microrobot designs (January 2018).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk to CNRS students and researchers at FEMTO-ST in Besançon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Maura Power delivered a talk to CNRS students and researchers at FEMTO-ST in Besançon, France about her work on "Fabrication of tethered microrobot end-effectors using two-photon polymerisation", and other related published material at the Hamlyn Centre on microrobots (December 2018).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Hamlyn Centre Christmas Showcase 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact The Hamlyn Christmas Showcase is an event that showcased the latest research outputs form our research teams at the Hamlyn Centre. Every year we invite our collaborators and affiliates to participate this event in order to demonstrate our research findings and to discuss potential further collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com/ICLHamlynRobots/status/1073577685488754688
 
Description The Hamlyn Centre Official Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Hamlyn Centre Official website aims to engage with all types of audiences for introducing our centre purpose and structure as well as our research areas and environment. On the website, we also constantly update job opportunities, event information and News from our research teams as well as the Imperial College.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/hamlyn-centre/
 
Description The Hamlyn Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics (HSMR) provides an annual forum for surgeons and engineers from across the globe, to network and explore the latest developments in medical robotics. The Symposium has been successfully conducted for the past 11 years and has become a leading international conference on medical robotics, current clinical practice and emerging technologies in robotic surgery. Every year researchers, clinicians and engineers are invited to submit papers on a range of topics covering clinical specialities in Urology, Cardiac Surgery, Neuro Surgery, Thoracic Surgery, General Surgery, Gynaecology, ENT, Orthopaedic and Paediatric Surgery. The Hamlyn Symposium is composed of a series of workshops on various clinical and technical topics and the main conference with the participants from leading medical, science and technology institutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
URL https://www.ukras.org/hamlyn/
 
Description The future of robotic surgery - Hamlyn Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our researchers, Dr Mohamed Abdelaziz, Dr Meysam Keshavarz, Francesco Cursi and Daniel Bautista-Salinas, participated in the interview of "The future of robotic surgery - Hamlyn Centre" conducted by Italia 1 Channel, Mediaset.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://youtu.be/utPORLbYkW4
 
Description The i2 Snake Robotic Platform for Endoscopic Surgery 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "The i2Snake Robotic Platform for Endoscopic Surgery" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/195620/the-i2-snake-robotic-platform-endoscopic/
 
Description Towards a Functional Atraumatic Self-Shaping Cochlear Implant (a broadcast in Italy) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our researcher Daniel Bautista-Salinas was interviewed on a broadcast in Italian Television (Studio Aperto, Italia 1)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Transfer Recurrent Feature Learning for Endomicroscopy Image Recognition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "Transfer Recurrent Feature Learning for Endomicroscopy Image Recognition" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/196557/transfer-recurrent-feature-learning-endomicroscopy-image/
 
Description UK Robotics Week 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Acting autonomously or in close collaboration with humans, Robotics and Autonomous Systems (RAS) have a broad range of new and established applications. As the underlying technologies are further developed and translated from laboratory settings to real-world applications, RAS is playing an increasingly important role in the UK's economy and it's future growth.

The UK-RAS Network was established with the mission to provide academic leadership, expand collaboration with industry and integrate and coordinate activities at the EPSRC funded RAS capital facilities, Centres for Doctoral Training (CDTs) and partner universities across the UK.

We are delighted with last year's inaugural UK Robotics Week and proud to build on its success with this year's event. The UK Robotics Week provides a spotlight on the UK's technology leadership in RAS, and engages the nation's schools, colleges and universities in developing the digital skills needed to drive the UK's future economy.

The UK Robotics Week also acts as a forum for discussion of technological, commercial, legal, ethical and social aspects of robotics. The wide range of events covered, from symposia, workshops, conferences, festivals, competitions and hackathons, contribute to a thriving programme across the country. We endeavour to provide promotion to other robotics related events in the calendar and aim to ensure robotics remains high on the government's agenda as one of the transformative technologies of the present and future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://hamlyn.doc.ic.ac.uk/roboticsweek2017/welcome
 
Description Workshop in the Hamlyn Symposium: Clinical Photonics 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact With increasing maturity and clinical uptake of Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), the provision of technologies that provide in vivo morphological and functional characterisation beyond the exposed tissue surface has become an important research topic. Clinically, such technologies can further expand the functional capabilities of MIS in providing improved tissue detection, labelling, and targeting both at macro and cellular levels. Optical imaging and spectroscopy provide opportunities in this area, both in surgical environments and in other clinical scenarios (e.g. diagnostics, screening, monitoring, etc.). Point based spectroscopic approaches such as diffuse reflectance, Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy have been shown to be clinically useful for in vivo assessment of cancer, atherosclerosis and ischemia. Imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (pCLE), two photon excited fluorescence imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging have shown promising results for in vivo tissue characterisation for MIS.

This workshop will bring clinicians together with researchers in academia and industry to exchange ideas on the current state-of-the-art and future trends in clinical applications of photonics. The scope of the workshop is broad and includes both established and emerging technologies based on optical imaging and spectroscopy. While a variety of photonic technologies and clinical applications will be discussed, the workshop will maintain a focus on devices that can be seamlessly integrated with the surgical environment and that can be compatible with robot-assisted interventions. It will also include online decision support, content-based image retrieval/association, and optical pathology to enable real-time, in vivo tissue characterisation. The workshop will include several invited talks, and we also welcome submissions from Symposium attendees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Workshop in the Hamlyn Symposium: Emerging Learning Techniques for Robotics 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Learning is a rapidly advancing field in recent years, in terms of both methodological development and practical applications. In medical robotics, computational models are able to learn with supervision or without supervision to facilitate intricate medical interventions, i.e. cancer detection and autonomous suturing. It can implicitly capture task principles and repeat it with comparable accuracy, robustness and time-efficiency.

Whilst some of the technical challenges are still being addressed, including generative modelling, large-scale parameter optimisation, and handling heterogeneous multi-modal data with varying temporal dependencies and missing samples, its use for medical robotics has reached marked success. Examples include the use of deep learning for tissue characterisation and the use of reinforcement learning for catheter manipulation. Other applications include surgical vision, navigation, learning, adaptation and task automation.

The purpose of this workshop is to report the latest advances in the field of learning for medical robotics, addressing both original algorithmic development and new applications of deep learning.

Topics for this special issue include, but are not limited to:

Learning for surgical vision and navigation;
Learning for tissue characterisation, optical biopsy and margin assessment;
Learning for learning, adaptation and surgical task completion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ukras.org/hamlyn/workshops/emerging-learning-techniques-for-robotics/
 
Description Workshop in the Hamlyn Symposium: Focused Energy Delivery & Precision Intervention 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Accessing to human anatomy through natural orifices or small incisions (keyholes), navigating through lumens of body, medical robotics are advancing to overcome challenges associated with access and precision, allowing rapid diagnostics and precise localization of diseases of different stages. As the surgical tools you can bring to the robotic surgical site is quite limited due to space restrictions, the energy source for the precise and safe removal of these malignancies should be carefully selected to satisfy a number of criteria such as adequate target tissue interaction, critical anatomy protection, selected ablation, coagulation and even helping tissue identification. Selected energy source potentially brings further challenges associated with flexible and low-profile delivery mechanisms to be integrated with existing robotic technologies as well as with the new technologies under development.

In this workshop, we will hear from clinicians their preferred energy sources for different types of surgeries, what improvement they would like to see, and get their feedback on integration of these in robotic surgery, current state of art and their expectations from advancements in medial robotics. We will have technical talks on recent advancements in various energy sources currently used in medicine such as electrical, ultrasonic (harmonic scalpel, HIFU) and laser energies, their delivery mechanisms and the progress in integration of these technologies to medical robotics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://www.ukras.org/hamlyn/workshops/focused-energy-delivery-precision-intervention/
 
Description Workshop in the Hamlyn Symposium: e-skins and Advanced Materials for Soft Robotics 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact There is a growing need for electronic and sensing devices that can conform to non-flat surfaces and that can accommodate mechanical motions and stresses. Such devices are needed for wearable electronics applications such as physiological monitoring of patients and athletes, but also for prosthetic devices (artificial limbs), robotics and brain-machine interfaces. There is a particular need for such electronic skins for surgical robotic devices. To introduce flexibility and stretchability, a move away from traditional materials and fabrication processes is needed.

This has given rise to the field of flexible/stretchable electronics. This workshop will cover the aforementioned aspects within the context of realising e-skins that can introduce sensing intelligence to robotics, surgical tools, artificial limbs and wearable devices.

The workshop features researchers from leading medical, science and technology institutions covering topics including clinical needs and the latest developments of sensing technologies and new materials in medical innovation and healthcare and their application to robotics. There is still great potential for advancing the state of the art, with a need for further miniaturisation, increased functionality, in situ computation and signal processing and sensing capabilities.

What are the research directions we should focus?
What are the challenges yet to be addressed?
How does the future look?

An open panel discussion will summarise these and bring the workshop to a conclusion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019
URL https://www.ukras.org/hamlyn/workshops/e-skins-and-advanced-materials-for-soft-robotics/
 
Description Workshop on Capillary Micromanipulation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our research team (Dr Antoine Barrot, Dr Dominic Wales, Prof. Eric Yeatman and Prof. Guang-Zhong Yang) presented the latest result on the topic of 'passive valve microfluidic chip on capillary tip toward nanoliter drug delivery and sampling' and had further discussion in 'breakout rooms discussions' session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://events.femto-st.fr/wcm/en
 
Description Workshop on Human-Robot Interactions Applied to Health 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact As part of the Hamlyn Symposium 10th anniversary on Medical Robotics, a workshop was run. This workshop was for academics, industry and show casing the latest technologies for medical robotics and latest research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/5uobgz4tjq7c1ue/HSMR17_programme-FINAL.pdf?dl=0
 
Description Workshop on Image Guided Therapies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact As part of the Hamlyn Symposium 10th anniversary on Medical Robotics, a workshop was run. This workshop was for academics, industry and show casing the latest technologies for medical robotics and latest research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/5uobgz4tjq7c1ue/HSMR17_programme-FINAL.pdf?dl=0
 
Description Workshop on Micro-Robotics and Micro-Fabrication 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact As part of the Hamlyn Symposium 10th anniversary on Medical Robotics, a workshop was run. This workshop was for academics, industry and show casing the latest technologies for medical robotics and latest research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/5uobgz4tjq7c1ue/HSMR17_programme-FINAL.pdf?dl=0
 
Description Workshop on Next Generation Continuum Robots 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact As part of the Hamlyn Symposium 10th anniversary on Medical Robotics, a workshop was run. This workshop was for academics, industry and show casing the latest technologies for medical robotics and latest research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/5uobgz4tjq7c1ue/HSMR17_programme-FINAL.pdf?dl=0
 
Description Workshop on Robotic Catheters 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact As part of the Hamlyn Symposium 10th anniversary on Medical Robotics, a workshop was run. This workshop was for academics, industry and show casing the latest technologies for medical robotics and latest research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/5uobgz4tjq7c1ue/HSMR17_programme-FINAL.pdf?dl=0
 
Description Workshop on Soft Robotics Across Scales 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact As part of the Hamlyn Symposium 10th anniversary on Medical Robotics, a workshop was run. This workshop was for academics, industry and show casing the latest technologies for medical robotics and latest research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/5uobgz4tjq7c1ue/HSMR17_programme-FINAL.pdf?dl=0
 
Description Workshop on Surgical Robotics: First in Human - What does it take? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact As part of the Hamlyn Symposium 10th anniversary on Medical Robotics, a workshop was run. This workshop was for academics, industry and show casing the latest technologies for medical robotics and latest research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://hamlyn.doc.ic.ac.uk/hsmr/surgical-robotics-first-human-what-does-it-take
 
Description Workshop on Surgical Work?ow and Process Modelling 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact As part of the Hamlyn Symposium 10th anniversary on Medical Robotics, a workshop was run. This workshop was for academics, industry and show casing the latest technologies for medical robotics and latest research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.dropbox.com/s/5uobgz4tjq7c1ue/HSMR17_programme-FINAL.pdf?dl=0
 
Description X-Ray to MR: The Progress of Flexible Instruments for Endovascular Navigation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our publication "X-ray to MR: the progress of flexible instruments for endovascular navigation" was featured on the Hamlyn News via Imperial News platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/227773/x-ray-mr-the-progress-flexible-instruments/