TRansfer - Exposure - Effects (TREE): integrating the science needed to underpin radioactivity assessments for humans and wildlife

Lead Research Organisation: University of Stirling
Department Name: Biological and Environmental Sciences

Abstract

For all sources of radioactivity, radiological risk assessments are essential for safeguarding human and environmental health. But assessments often have to rely upon simplistic assumptions, such as the use of simple ratios in risk calculations which combine many processes. This pragmatic approach has largely arisen due to the lack of scientific knowledge and/or data in key areas. The resultant uncertainty has been taken into account through conservative approaches to radiological risk assessment which may tend to overestimate risk. Uncertainty arises at all stages of the assessment process from the estimation of transfer to human foodstuffs and wildlife, exposure and risk. Reducing uncertainty is important as it relates directly to scientific credibility, which will always be open to challenge given the highly sensitive nature of radiological risk assessment in society. We propose an integrated, multi-disciplinary, programme to assess and reduce the uncertainty associated with radiological risk assessment to protect human health and the environment. At the same time we will contribute to building the capacity needed to ensure that the UK rebuilds and maintains expertise in environmental radioactivity into the future.
Our project has four major and highly inter-related components to address the key goal of RATE to rebuild UK capacity and make a major contribution to enhancing environmental protection and safeguarding human health.
The first component will study how the biological availability of radionuclides varies in soils over time. We will investigate if short-term measurements (collected in three year controlled experiments) can be used to predict the long-term availability of radionuclides in soils by testing our models in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The second component will apply the concepts of 'phylogeny' and 'ionomics' to characterise radionuclide uptake by plants and other organisms. These approaches, and statistical modelling methods, are increasingly applied to describe uptake of a range of elements in plant nutrition, and we are pioneering their use for studying radionuclide uptake in other organisms and human foods. A particularly exciting aspect of the approach is the possibility to make predictions for any plant or animal. This is of great value as it is impossible to measure uptake for all wildlife, crops and farm animals. The third component of the work will extend our efforts to improve the quantification of radiation exposure and understanding of resultant biological effects by investigating the underlying mechanisms involved. A key aim is to see whether what we know from experiments on animals and plants in the laboratory is a good representation of what happens in the real world: some scientists believe that animals in the natural environment are more susceptible to radiation than laboratory animals: we need to test this to have confidence in our risk assessments. Together these studies will enable us to reduce and better quantify the uncertainties associated with radiological risk assessment.
By training a cohort of PDRA and PhDs our fourth component will help to renew UK capacity in environmental radioactivity by providing trained, experienced researchers who are well networked within the UK and internationally through the contacts of the investigators. Our students will be trained in a wide range of essential skills through their controlled laboratory studies and working in contaminated environments. They will benefit from being a member of a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to take placements with our beneficiaries and extensive range of project partners.
The outputs of the project will benefit governmental and non-governmental organisations with responsibility for assessing the risks to humans and wildlife posed by environmental radioactivity. It will also make a major contribution to improved scientific and public confidence in the outcomes of environmental safety assessments.

Planned Impact

Nuclear new-build and waste disposal require rigorous safety assessments of effects on the biosphere and human health to underpin decisions which often involve public consultation. The credibility of scientific evidence is open to challenge given the sensitive nature of radiological risk assessment. The publicity (www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-10819027) associated with scientific dispute on the environmental effects of radiation hinders informed debate on nuclear issues and will impinge upon the economic competitiveness of the UK by delaying decisions on future energy supplies and disposal. Unbiased scientific opinion, based on rigorous research, and demonstration of fitness for purpose of assessment approaches will aid debate in the UK and overseas thereby directly supporting the public, regulators and industry.
This project addresses 4 of the 5 priority areas identified by the RATE programme ensuring we will make major contributions to the programme's objectives. We will produce capacity that will benefit the RCUK Energy Plan whilst producing innovative, excellent science that will also underpin the commercial sector.
The consortium partners represent a significant proportion of current UK capability in the key radioecological fields identified by RATE. As part of the project, 4 PDRAs and a cohort of 7 PhD students with the skills to build on this capacity will be trained, enhancing the UK research capability and providing skilled practitioners for industry/regulators. Our summer school at Chernobyl and training programme will be open to PhD students from all RATE consortia, the European STAR radioecology Network of Excellence and our project partners.
NDA and EA will benefit from reduced uncertainty in wildlife and human assessment models. Key radionuclides identified in geological repositories assessments are the focus of soil-plant biogeochemical studies and development of phylogenetic models to predict activity concentrations in wildlife and human foodchain models. New data and phylogenetic-ionomic models will significantly improve transfer models for Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). They also have the potential to identify suitable surrogates for protected species for environmental monitoring and to be applicable to human and environmental assessment.
In particular EA will also benefit from the effects data obtained for some RAPs which will help fitness-for-purpose assessment of the ICRP's Derived Consideration Reference Levels. An improved understanding of biological effect mechanisms of radiation will be gained including the evaluation of trans-generation effects and how this may impact on populations. These outputs will feed into the derivation of robust, scientifically defensible numeric criteria for use in wildlife dose assessments at an international level and will expand basic knowledge on chronic low level radiation effects.
SEPA will benefit from improved approaches and reduced/quantified uncertainties for environmental and human foodchain assessments. Equivalent overseas agencies will similarly benefit through our input to key international organisations. For instance, the IAEA and ICRP who provide the guidance and recommendations on radiation protection used to define regulation at European and national levels. International guidance for ensuring the environment is protected from releases of radioactive substances is still developing and the outputs from TREE will provide key inputs. Close engagement of consortium members with national and international agencies and other beneficiaries will ensure that impacts will be realised immediately. Benefits will continue to be realised, and project outputs exploited, as international organisations and national regulators develop recommendations and decisions are made on nuclear related issues using the improved knowledge from this project.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description To date (currently in process of publication) we have found that radiation effects on bumblebees at lower dose rates than previously reported. This work will, once published, lead to impacts on the international benchmarks used for radiation protection of the environment. While we have found effects at lower dose rates than expected these are not going to affect the current regulatory situation in that the effects occur at dose rates higher than regulated releases are likely to generate.
Exploitation Route Once published, the research will be taken forward within a Task Group of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and will be used to help refine the current international benchmarks for risk assessment when considering the radiological impact on the environment.
Sectors Chemicals,Education,Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

 
Description BES Policy Group Review on pollinators
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description ICRP
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact The work in the TREE project has been used to date within the International Commission on Radiological Protection Committee 5 on Environmental Protection. So far the work has influenced the approaches being recommended for protection of the environment in existing exposure situations. Plans are underway for TREE outputs to be used in the development of the ICRP's Reference animals and plants.
URL http://www.icrp.org
 
Description Participation in an advisory committee - ICRP (2016)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Since 1928, ICRP has developed, maintained, and elaborated the International System of Radiological Protection used world-wide as the common basis for radiological protection standards, legislation, guidelines, programmes, and practice. ICRP has published more than one hundred reports on all aspects of radiological protection. Most address a particular area within radiological protection, but a handful of publications, the so-called fundamental recommendations, each describe the overall system of radiological protection. The International System of Radiological Protection has been developed by ICRP based on (i) the current understanding of the science of radiation exposures and effects and (ii) value judgements. These value judgements take into account societal expectations, ethics, and experience gained in application of the system. The outputs from the TREE project are now being incorporated into our current understanding of the radiation exposures and effects on wildlife and being used to influence new guidelines and recommendations.
URL http://www.icrp.org
 
Description Participation in an advisory committee - ICRP (2017)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Since 1928, ICRP has developed, maintained, and elaborated the International System of Radiological Protection used world-wide as the common basis for radiological protection standards, legislation, guidelines, programmes, and practice. ICRP has published more than one hundred reports on all aspects of radiological protection. Most address a particular area within radiological protection, but a handful of publications, the so-called fundamental recommendations, each describe the overall system of radiological protection. The International System of Radiological Protection has been developed by ICRP based on (i) the current understanding of the science of radiation exposures and effects and (ii) value judgements. These value judgements take into account societal expectations, ethics, and experience gained in application of the system. The outputs from the TREE project are now being incorporated into our current understanding of the radiation exposures and effects on wildlife and being used to influence new guidelines and recommendations. Interactions are now ongoing with 2 ICRP Task groups (99 and 105) where the TREE outputs are being used.
URL http://www.icrp.org
 
Description Provision of guidelines for the use of biomarkers in invertebrate ecotoxicology
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/news_146445.htm
 
Description British Ecological Society - Public Engagement
Amount £100 (GBP)
Organisation British Ecological Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
 
Description NERC Meta-analysis course (course fee, accommodation and travel costs covered)
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 01/2017
 
Description NERC Programme Grant
Amount £26,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description NERC programme grant
Amount £4,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description NERC-MDIBL Environmental Genomics and Metabolomics
Amount £2,700 (GBP)
Organisation University of Birmingham 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 03/2016
 
Description Research Council Policy Internships Scheme
Amount £0 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 05/2018
 
Description University of Stirling Studentship Scheme
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Stirling 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Title Irradiation facility 
Description Development and installation of an radiation exposure facility to conduct radiation exposure experiments on non-vertebrate plants and animals. The facility is one of a kind in the UK. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The facility is now available and is expected to generate impact in the next few years. 
 
Title Novel molecular tool for species identification for the model organism (Drosophilid) 
Description RFLP method for distinguishing between Drosophila melanogaster amd Drosophila simulans, which are commonly found in similar distributions and share a number of morphological characteristics. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This work has not generated notable impacts yet, it has been presented in talks and will be published in 2017 which will hopefully lead to impacts in the future. 
 
Title Bumblebee life history data 
Description Data from an experiment conducted in the University of Stirling's Irradiation Facility using commercial bumblebee boxes and long term radiation exposure. Life history traits such as reproduction and longevity were measured to test the effects of low dose chronic ionising radiation. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Data being used to produce a publication which is expected to influence the benchmark values used internationally for risk assessment of the impacts of ionising radiation released into the environment. This will be impact will be seen in the next 12-18 months at which point all the data will also be made available. 
 
Title Collection of data to support improved dosimetry estimates of wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone 
Description Mapping of radiation contamination across the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone using thermoluminescent dosimeters, portable sodium iodide detector, in situ beta measurements and in situ gamma measurements 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Not yet realised any impact 
 
Title Crithidia bombi parasite loads in Chernobyl bumblebees and from experiments in the laboratory 
Description Measurements of Crithidia bombi parasite infection in wild bumblebees caught in Chernobyl over two field seasons and laboratory experiment to test the interaction between radiation exposure and parasite (Crithidia bombi) infection. Individual measurements were taken over time to estimate condition, fitness and parasite infection. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet 
 
Title Jessica Goodman's data 
Description Jessica has now generated several datasets within her PhD studies and while these are not currently publicly available (which will happen once publications are in press) they are being used to generate a series of publications within the peer reviewed literature. The data sets are: 1) 2 years worth of life history data for Daphnia pulex populations from within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, 2) dose response relationships for reproduction and survival for Daphnia pulex exposed to ionising radiation under controlled conditions 3) data on Daphnia pulex individuals which have been exposed to ionising radiation through 6 generations. This includes data on individuals removed from the exposure to ionising radiation to establish any rates of recovery. 4) microsatellite data for populations of Daphnia pulex collected from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Not applicable yet. Impact will follow from the publications and release of the data sets. 
 
Title Wing wear in bees collected from the Chernobyl exclusion zone 
Description Data collected over three field seasons in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone scoring damage to bumblebee wings on a scale of one to seven as a proxy for age in wild individuals 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Not applicable yet 
 
Description James Hutton Institute 
Organisation James Hutton Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provided a MSc student to undertake the research project, provided samples of nematodes from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, provided access to the irradiation facility at Stirling to undertake experimental exposures of soils to investigate the effects of ionising radiation on nematodes from the Chernobyl exclusion zone.
Collaborator Contribution Provided expertise in nematode extraction, identification and quantitative analysis and the necessary equipment for the latter.
Impact The initial findings from the pilot study conducted have shown effects on the nematode species and their diversity under different radiation levels. The preliminary outputs are going to be used to seek further funding.
Start Year 2016
 
Description McMasters 
Organisation McMaster University
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Discussions over the biological effect measures that are being applied within the TREE project and agreement on sample collection for tests that McMasters will undertake.
Collaborator Contribution Discussions over the biological effect measures that are being applied within the TREE project and planned work on samples collected from within the Chernobyl Exclusion zone to expand the range of analytical tests being applied.
Impact Agreed methods to be applied to the samples from the Chernobyl exclusion zone
Start Year 2014
 
Description National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 
Organisation National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU)
Country Ukraine 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution External supervision of a MSc students in Ukraine, working together to collect and analyse sediment and water samples from lakes within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, specifically the extraction and identification of Daphnia ephippia. Anticipated joint publications will arise from this.
Collaborator Contribution Through the provision of MSc students undertaking survey work across the lakes within the Chernobyl exclusion zone and specifically collection and analysis of sediment cores and water samples from lakes within the Chernobyl exclusion zone to determine their radionuclide content.
Impact Exchange of data and information on the lakes so far. The collaboration is extending into summer 2017 and potentially beyond.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Edit A talk or presentation - Two talks - December 2017 Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Internal seminar given to academic staff, technical staff, postgraduate students and open to undergraduate students within the School of Natural Sciences. Approximately 70 people attended. The presentation sparked questions, discussion and debate over recent research findings and there have been continued interaction with colleagues within the School.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 4th International Conference on Radioecology and Environmental Radioactivity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Two posters (including short poster presentation) on the TREE effect studies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.icrer2017.com/
 
Description BES annual meeting 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation made to up to 1800 people present at the BES annual meeting. The presentation led to questions, suggestions and advice on the ongoing TREE work programme. Some continued interaction via Twitter and networking opportunities arising from the discussion have been taken forward.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bumblebee Working Group at University of Sussex 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenting and collating information related to conservation of bumblebees and research into environmental impacts on them. A number of questions and discussions arose from this work, established new network links to other researchers subsequently used in the project and increased interest in the work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description COGER 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation to research students and academics along with some policy makers and industry participants. The presentation sparked questions and has led to further work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description COGER 2016 (two talks) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation to research students and academics along with some policy makers and industry participants. The presentations sparked questions and has led to further work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description COGER 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Two talks on the TREE effects studies given at the annual COGER conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description COGER presentation 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The activities of the TREE project were described and lead to discussion and questions after the talk and during the subsequent meeting

None
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description COMET-TREE meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint European funded COMET and NERC funded TREE meeting to discuss the results of our research findings in the Chernobyl exclusion zone
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description December 2015 Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Internal seminar given to academic staff, technical staff, postgraduate students and open to undergraduate students (none attended on this occasion) within the School of Natural Sciences. Approximately 40 people attended. The presentation sparked questions, discussion and debate over recent research findings and there have been continued interaction with colleagues within the School.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description European Radiation Protection Week 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on transfer and effects studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone observatory site within the TREE project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.icrp-erpw2017.com/
 
Description Geowaste-RATE meeting 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on the TREE project made to the 70 or so participants of the GEOWASTE meeting following by questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Glasgow talk 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The staff and students of the IBAHCM attended a talk about our TREE research, sparking lively discussion afterwards. This has expanded our network regionally and introduced the research community to our skills and interests.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description IAEA Modaria Exposure Assessment 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Working group discussing aspects of environmental protection from ionising radiation looking at the exposure and effects of ionising radiation on wildlife. Working towards a full International Atomic Energy Agency publication on concentration ratios and their use along with advice and guidance on how to undertake assessments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/measuring-radiation-improved-models-help-correct-assessment
 
Description IAEA Modaria Modelling Activities 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Working group discussing aspects of environmental protection from ionising radiation looking at the exposure and effects of ionising radiation on wildlife. Working towards a full International Atomic Energy Agency publication on population modelling and it's role in environmental protection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/measuring-radiation-improved-models-help-correct-assessment
 
Description IAEA Modaria Modelling Activities 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Working group discussing aspects of environmental protection from ionising radiation looking at the exposure and effects of ionising radiation on wildlife. Working towards a full International Atomic Energy Agency publication on wildlife exposure modelling and effect studies and their role in environmental protection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ICHMET 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on the TREE work at the International Conference on heavy metals in the environment (ICHMET) 2018 conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://ichmet2018usa.org/
 
Description ICRP 90th Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on the future of environmental radiological protection to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)'s 90th anniversary colloquium which used some of our research outputs to demonstrate future challenges.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.stralsakerhetsmyndigheten.se/en/about-the-authority/international-work/icrp-icru-90/
 
Description International Commission on Radiological Protection 4th International Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation on radiological protection of the environment and the underpinning science. A paper will also be published as a result of this activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.icrp.org/page.asp?id=248
 
Description Interview for BBC Earth magazine article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview/comments on article on the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.
The article was summarised in Waitrose magazine [which has a larger readership c. 400,000 than BBC Earth]
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Manchester Science Festival 2017 - demonstrations 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Demonstration of University of Stirling outputs for the TREE project along with other activities from TREE consortia members to primarily members of the public. Lots of requests for additional information arose.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.manchestersciencefestival.com/
 
Description NATO workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation and discussion during workshop on scientific research in the field of radioecology and environmental radioactivity. A book will be produced from these activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Participation at GEOREP-NET meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Discussions sparked follow up actions and further sharing of information and activities.

None to date but expect further interactions with GEOREP-NET
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Presentation of TREE results at Chernihiv (Ukraine) workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of TREE WP2, 3 and 4 results during an international workshop held in the Ukraine discussing radiation effects on wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

Will be 2-5 TREE related papers in a special issue of J. Environ. Radioact. as a consequence of involvement in the workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.radioecology-exchange.org/content/workshops
 
Description RATE final event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation, demonstrations of research outputs and discussions with policymakers/funders and other interested parties on the TREE outputs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/rate/finalScienceMeeting.html
 
Description SRP Annual Meeting 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to the SRP Annual Conference on the TREE activities particularly the effects research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SRP Meeting: Radioactivity in the Scottish Environment 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on radioactivity in biota and recent developments including the TREE research programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://srp-uk.org/event/142/radioactivity-in-the-scottish-environment
 
Description TREE Annual meeting 2014/5 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Presentations in 2014 and 2015 on the work in WP4 of the TREE project explaining the studies being conducted on the biological effects of ionising radiation on wildlife. Questions and discussion followed leading to further work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description TREE Annual meeting 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Presentations in 2016 on the work in WP4 of the TREE project explaining the studies being conducted on the biological effects of ionising radiation on wildlife. Questions and discussion followed leading to further work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description TREE annual meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Talks given to the TREE annual meeting on the outputs of the research conducted within TREE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Two talks - December 2016 Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Internal seminar given to academic staff, technical staff, postgraduate students and open to undergraduate students within the School of Natural Sciences. Approximately 70 people attended. The presentation sparked questions, discussion and debate over recent research findings and there have been continued interaction with colleagues within the School.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description UAE meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on radiological protection of the environment to the First International Radiation Protection Week in the United Arab Emirates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://fanr.gov.ae/en/media-centre/events?g=fed3af09-43dc-448a-b5c0-7afcee0d611a
 
Description Winter symposium 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Internal symposium within the School of Natural Sciences but with invited external visitors and participants. On this occasion two poster presentations made on the current research project including an update on the latest findings coming from experimental work. One to one discussions during the event on the content of the posters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015