A Decision Framework for Integrated Green Grey Infrastructure (IGGIframe)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: College of Science and Engineering

Abstract

Increasing the amount of green space in our cities and towns is increasingly recognised as good for people and the environment, making it a healthier and nicer place for people and wildlife to live. Greening of our cities and towns can also help us adapt to the stresses of climate change and can often benefit the UK economy such as by saving councils and water companies money - thus providing more resources for other services we all depend on. Most of the emphasis on green infrastructure has focussed on buildings and the green spaces between them like parks and urban trees. For example, green roofs and rain gardens are increasingly common features in our urban landscape, which can save money and improve the environment at the same time. These multifunctional benefits are so significant that there is a big push by governments in the UK and worldwide to encourage the use of green infrastructure approaches over traditional grey methods in urban areas, where possible.

However, some parts of our cities and towns must remain grey such as roads, railways, bridges, perimeter fencing, garden walls, sea defences and sewage outfall pipes. But what if we could also green parts of these linear infrastructure systems, to provide more habitat for key species and to improve the quality of the environment for us and other species? This involves enhancing the 'multifunctionality' or 'ecosystem services' provided by hard infrastructure - which means enabling our grey infrastructure to perform more than one role for society. What if our foot bridges can also act as corridors for door mice? Or our seawalls can provide habitat for animals that commercial fish like sea bass eat? Solutions like these enable multifunctionality and can help stretch the government's purse further and make our cities and towns greener at the same time.

This project packages UK case studies that showcase best practice examples of greening our grey assets into a toolkit. The toolkit can be used by organisations such as Natural England, the Environment Agency, the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency and Natural Resources Wales to understand and present the costs and benefits of applying green infrastructure principles to hard infrastructure like bridges and estuary walls. Using the toolkit will enable them to win high-level support for applying these novel ideas. The toolkit we will create will also help small businesses such as landscape architecture firms generate new projects by providing a framework and case studies to demonstrate why and how to do this. Larger consultancy and engineering firms (e.g. Arup and Mott MacDonald) will also benefit from this tool, as they can better pitch opportunities, with firm costs, design criteria and a track record of success to prospective clients including housing and marina developers. It will also save them (and their clients) money as they can refer to the framework and case studies from this project, rather than having to search for this information on a project-by-project basis.

Planned Impact

The aim of this innovation project is to have direct, measureable benefits for end-users during and beyond the life of the project. One key end-user partner (Environment Agency (EA)) has been involved since the project's inception. Since initial conversations, we have worked closely together to co-design and co-produce this proposal via meetings, teleconferences and email exchanges, along with other key partners: Natural England, Arc Consulting, and Historic Environment Scotland as well as CIRIA. All have been actively involved in the design of the project and planned outputs ensuring delivery of key benefits and outcomes for all. The project has been designed to optimise the strong relationships between the Principle Investigator and key partners, and long-standing relationships between each other. During the project, the co-production of the critical success factors decision-support framework will ensure that key requirements of these partners (via an advisory board and input from key supporters including Southampton and Glasgow Councils, the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency and Spectrum Housing) are embedded into the design of the critical success factors framework and selection of case studies. This will enable the project outputs to directly benefit the strategic and operational practice of many organisations. This scales from national regulatory and conservation authorities through to a micro-SME, as evidenced in the case for support and accompanying letters.

The outputs will be sustainable and will generate economic and environmental improvement impacts. The development of the framework and a second project on river bioengineering supported by the same core partners (i.e. EA and CIRIA), will improve the outcomes and sustainability of this project. Working together with core partners, the advisory board and the HR Wallingford project, the IGGI framework will be demonstrated across urban, terrestrial, riverine and coastal landscapes. The framework and test case studies will be designed to meet critical user requirements (i.e. evidenced business case) for adopting IGGI approaches. Partner and supporting organisations have clearly articulated how they will make use of the outputs from this project, and in some cases, confirmed their willingness to assist in measuring the uptake and impacts arising this project.

This framework and case study design will improve efficiencies, as the coastal examples from this project will be more useable for future applications (e.g. planned Bioengineering Manual by the Working with Natural Processes Research Framework which forms part of the Joint EA/Defra Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management R&D Programme). Currently, the benefits associated with the inclusion of IGGI in flood and coastal protection infrastructure are rarely brought into the project business-case, viewed as costly post project add-ons. Implementation is ad-hoc and practice and experience rarely shared. Marshalling information on performance, benefits and costs will lead to significant efficiency savings for the EA and partner organisations as experience is shared, freeing up more resources for other priorities. For designers, consultants and engineers, the outputs from this project will lead to increased consideration and uptake of green grey approaches as part of future retrofitting, maintenance and development projects. This framework will provide an improved business case for IGGI helping organisations to apply these techniques to client projects saving money, as less research for these approaches would be required.
The proposed work will also enhance the impact of NERC funded and NERC-related science by developing the first set of case studies for improving ecosystem service provision on hard, linear, non-building infrastructure assets. This output would be globally unique and would help place NERC science and UK PLC at the forefront of green infrastructure research, policy and practice.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Edinburgh Shoreline project documentary 
Description This is a documentary produced by the Shoreline Project, details of the documentary can be found here: http://edinburghshoreline.org.uk/the-edinburgh-shoreline-project-is-1/ This documentary showcases the work completed on the Shoreline Project in the first year. It features two NERC funded projects led by Dr Larissa Naylor at the University of Glasgow (which are linked to this ResearchFish entry). 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact The documentary was launched in early March 2019 to over 50 attendees, where discussion panellists included the local MSP and Director of Place for the City of Edinburgh. 
URL https://youtu.be/i4G8jqpgu70
 
Title Greening the Grey Video 
Description This short film was one of films produced as part of the NERC Public Engagement Pilot project led by Royal Botanical Gardens of Edinburgh, which the University of Glasgow was a partner. Dr Larissa Naylor and her team contributed to this project, and the film showcased work related to two of her NERC funded projects (which this entry is linked to). The link to the wider project site is here: https://edinburghlivinglandscape.org.uk/2017/05/greening-the-grey/ 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact This output has helped the lead organisation (Royal Botanical Gardens of Edinburgh) help raise awareness and secure further funding for them from Heritage Lottery Funding, for The Shoreline Project: http://edinburghshoreline.org.uk/ We have used this video to help promote and showcase the potential for 'Greening the Grey' to national and international partners, including to Japan. The video is hosted by more than one site and the Scottish Wildlife Trust site has had 275 views (by 4 March 2019) and the Royal Botanics (95 view by 4 March 2019). 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJQdURjiztc
 
Description This was an innovation project designed to draw together and harmonise existing research and innovation developed by universities, companies, non-profit organisations and government agencies. The aim of this project was to help broaden the range of places in our cities and towns we can green our grey infrastructure to include common assets like pavements, street furniture, bridge, harbour walls and historic ruins. We call this 'greening the grey' or 'integrated green grey infrastructure. We did this by finding examples of greening the grey in urban, coastal and historic settings, and designing a method to compare the costs and benefits of using 'greening the grey' approaches instead of building grey infrastructure conventionally. For example, can we have flood walls that also provide homes for plants and animals, including nursery grounds for commercially important fish? Or can we change how we maintain things like road verges and flood embankments to save money, improve their value for wildlife and how nice they look for people - whilst still maintaining their main function? Examples from this project show that we can successfully and inexpensively 'green the grey'.
Exploitation Route Results of the project are being used to adapt everyday practice and to help influence policy, to encourage greater application of these 'greening the grey' ideas, examples and decision framework put forward in the project report. This ranges from influencing the scope of individual projects through to recommending that 'greening the grey' is explicit in the forthcoming flood alleviation and green infrastructure policies of devolved and/or local governments. Many of the examples in this project are simple and inexpensive, requiring only minor changes in practice to realise ecological and economic benefits. These benefits can be realised as part of strategic programmes, on going maintenance or in the design of new schemes. Practitioners designing or advising on new projects, can also use the decision framework developed in this project to help evaluate the costs and benefits of the 'green grey' solutions compared to conventional grey engineering practice.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/150672
 
Description This project was completed (December 2017) and as of early March 2019 there have been 2313 individual downloads and three academic citations of the key output from this project (eprints.gla.ac.uk/150672/). Key government partners involved in the project have already expressed a keen interest in making use of the project outputs, and have helped to shape the content, look and feel of these to improve the likelihood of uptake of the tool and case studies. Key UK infrastructure organisations outside of the immediate project team are interested in the outcomes of this project (after hearing about them at the Ecobuild 2017 Green Infrastructure Seminar Series, the Landscape Institute's Annual Conference 2017 and the Institute of Civil Engineer's Coastal Breakwaters Conference 2017). This has led to several follow-up meetings and active discussions for some of the measures in this report being adapted and included in the design of planned flood risk alleviation infrastructure. The NERC Innovation follow-on funding has been used as a catalyst to deliver direct impacts from this including references to this project's outputs in draft statutory policy, working with partners to actively shape operational practice (e.g. altering tender briefs to include consideration of greening the grey) and best practice (e.g. greening the grey is now referred to in internal best practice documents in government agencies). One of the SME partners in the project (Arc Consulting) has also benefitted financially from this project, as they were paid to be involved in the NERC Public Engagement Pilot Project led by Leonie Alexander at the Royal Botanical Gardens of Edinburgh. This will enable one of their most marketable products, the 'Vertipool' to be pilot tested in Scotland for the first time, allowing their product to be tested more widely than previously. This, as well as the public engagement activities, is helping give a micro SME exposure outside the south of England. These activities have led the SME partner to create a new company called, "Artecology" as an outcome of their involvement with this project. Staff within the Environment Agency are also using the outputs of this project, to help inform everyday practice in a range of teams. East Solent Coastal Partnership has also improved their confidence in application of ecological enhancements included in the report from this project: "The help and guidance that Dr Naylor has provided to the project has been invaluable. We as a team have learnt so much which we are now really enthused to put into practise. It has also given us the confidence that try enhancements which we were rather weary to try before. As we can now see how they have worked elsewhere and can also appreciate the wider benefits and costs of such measures, as detailed in the Greening the Grey Report . Dr Naylor has opened up avenues of research and contacts within the academic arena that we would not have been able to previously access. We are also now looking at possible ways that we can try and get universities involved to study the enhancements to give our work scientific rigour, whilst also furthering research in the field on a scale that would not have been open to academia, if we had not met up with Dr Naylor - a win-win situation. We really appreciate the advice that we have received and hope that we can continue a strong partnership going forward." Lucy Sheffield, Eastern Solent Coastal Partnership. This has now led to UofG leading a project to design the first ecoformliner for a coastal protection scheme, based on findings from relevant UK environmental science. This ecoformliner will be optimised to attract UK species within the schemes engineering requirements. The ecoformliner is currently included in the tender for the construction phase of the project.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Clyde Marine Plan: IGGI report is referred to in the draft (statutory) Clyde Marine Plan. The research team helped co-write the coastal processes, climate change and adaptation considerations in the draft statutory Marine Plan, directly shaping the policy.
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description Ecoformliner design for a coastal engineering scheme
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Developing the first ecoformliner design for a live coastal construction scheme with Portsmouth City council. UK-wide government agency interest in ecological net gain and enhancing hard coastal infrastructure is rapidly growing and designing an ecoformliner for the Portsmouth scheme would help close the gap between policy goals and practical implementation, with a product specifically designed to support UK ecology and cultural/aesthetic norms. This formliner is the first known to be designed based on UK science with the goal of improving habitat provision for intertidal species compared to a traditional plain cast concrete engineering design, which can also help provide some accommodation space for species affected by sea level rise. This design has been included in the tender brief for the construction phase of the project, the first known UK flood scheme to specify a formliner specifically designed to enhance ecology for a vertical seawall.
 
Description Environment Agency- Helping with the options appraisal process with a strategic flood risk planning and optioneering initiative (for the Humber Strategy), revising a tender brief for a live coastal protection scheme along the south coast to consider passive or active ecological enhancement and advising contractors working on Team2100 on rock armour enhancements listed in the IGGI report.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Changed a tender brief for a live coastal protection scheme along the south coast to consider passive or active ecological enhancement and advising contractors working on Team2100 on rock armour enhancements listed in the IGGI report. This is of significance as this form of enhancement had not been trialled before on a live coastal defence scheme and increases the range of options available on how to best enhance coastal infrastructure.
 
Description Initial blue space quality assessment methodology review to inform how Glasgow City Council address their blue space quality assessment as part of the open space mapping requirements to the Scottish Government.
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description International Guidelines on Natural and Nature-based Features for Coasts, Estuaries and Rivers. Co-lead of the chapter on Ecological Enhancements.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL https://ewn.el.erdc.dren.mil/nnbf-guidelines.html
 
Description International Guidelines on nature and nature-based solutions for coastal flood risk alleviation and improved coastal climate change adaptation. Through my leading the NERC IGGI project, I have been asked to co-lead the chapter on Environmental Enhancements with the US Corp of Army Engineers (USACE). The guidelines are being written by an international team and will be published in 2020.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Invited Member Haldon Green Bridge Steering Group
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description North Ayrshire Council- IGGI is noted as one of the environmental options being considered to help enhance the ecosystem services value of a planned flood alleviation scheme and provide mitigation for coastal squeeze associated with sea level rise risks.
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact North Ayrshire Council has listed IGGI /Greening the Grey as one of the environmental options being considered to help enhance the ecosystem services value of a planned flood alleviation scheme. This is being included at the options appraisal phase of the scheme's planning and design processes. It builds on the work of my student's PhD examining the interrelationships between geodiversity and biodiversty (funded by the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology and the University of Glasgow, which North Ayrshire Council provided logistical support for) and directly links to two of the examples in the IGGI report (AP-C7 and AP-C8). The main impact to date has been a change in practice to include consideration of ecological enhancements as part of the options appraisal process. If IGGI principles and techniques are used in the design for planned scheme there will likely be a mitigation of some construction impacts on ecology as new habitat will be created if implemented. It also has the potential to deliver net ecological gain. These impacts have yet to be realised but the inclusion in the options appraisal phase is promising.
 
Description Participation in an advisory committee - Climate Ready Clyde Sea Level Rise Steering Group
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Sat on Natural England's Green Infrastructure Forum and commented on documents including their Best Practice GI guidance to Local Authorities and Developers and their draft Second Green Infrastructure Position Statement.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Commented on Natural England's Best Practice GI guidance to Local Authorities and Developers; which references the IGGI report and additionally commented on their draft Second Green Infrastructure Position Statement. The IGGI/Greening the Grey report is now included in Natural England's Top Tips for Green Infrastructure Internal Document.
 
Description Scottish Natural Heritage- referred to the IGGI report in their second phase of GI funding and all 2nd phase proposals are being reviewed to see where IGGI can be added to enhance GI benefits
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact SNH 2nd phase proposals are being reviewed to see where IGGI can be added to enhance GI benefits, this highlights a greater awareness of IGGI and the need to incorporate this into proposals.
 
Description Welsh Government- Reference to IGGI report in Draft National Planning Framework Flood Risk Policy, called 'National Strategy for Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management' and FECRM Business Case Appraisal Guidance document. The team helped shaped these policy and guidance documents in collaboration with the Welsh Government team.
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description Engaging the UK public with the big issues of environmental science: 2016 public engagement funding call
Amount £39,912 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description MASTS Pecre Scheme for an incoming research visitor
Amount £3,950 (GBP)
Organisation Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 10/2016
 
Description NERC Innovation Follow-on Funding
Amount £100,791 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/R009236/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2019
 
Description Collaboration with several new organisations 
Organisation Concrete in the Classroom
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Via the NERC PE Pilot funding that I am a co-I on, several new collaborations have commenced with businesses and NGOs including: Royal Botanical Gardens Edinburgh, Edinburgh College of Art, Concrete in the Classroom and Scottish Wildlife Trust. This has also helped pave the way for conversations with key organisations including Reckli who make concrete formliners.
Collaborator Contribution This collaborative project has allowed my research to be extended into Edinburgh region and be used to underpin delivery of key initiatives in Edinburgh: Edinburgh Adapts and Edinburgh living landscapes. The core partners have extensive contacts with the council, local schools and the private sector which greatly facilitated the capacity to deliver KE related to my research and KE fellowship, well beyond what would have been possible for my own work.
Impact This collaborative project has extended the KE fellowship and NERC GI innovation project work into primary and secondary school classrooms in Edinburgh and beyond into the central belt of Scotland. Previous KE outputs have also been embedded into this curricula (e.g. www.shoreshapers.org and Counting the coast of climate change at the coast, produced when I was at the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research), providing further reach of these materials.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with several new organisations 
Organisation Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Via the NERC PE Pilot funding that I am a co-I on, several new collaborations have commenced with businesses and NGOs including: Royal Botanical Gardens Edinburgh, Edinburgh College of Art, Concrete in the Classroom and Scottish Wildlife Trust. This has also helped pave the way for conversations with key organisations including Reckli who make concrete formliners.
Collaborator Contribution This collaborative project has allowed my research to be extended into Edinburgh region and be used to underpin delivery of key initiatives in Edinburgh: Edinburgh Adapts and Edinburgh living landscapes. The core partners have extensive contacts with the council, local schools and the private sector which greatly facilitated the capacity to deliver KE related to my research and KE fellowship, well beyond what would have been possible for my own work.
Impact This collaborative project has extended the KE fellowship and NERC GI innovation project work into primary and secondary school classrooms in Edinburgh and beyond into the central belt of Scotland. Previous KE outputs have also been embedded into this curricula (e.g. www.shoreshapers.org and Counting the coast of climate change at the coast, produced when I was at the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research), providing further reach of these materials.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with several new organisations 
Organisation Scottish Wildlife Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Via the NERC PE Pilot funding that I am a co-I on, several new collaborations have commenced with businesses and NGOs including: Royal Botanical Gardens Edinburgh, Edinburgh College of Art, Concrete in the Classroom and Scottish Wildlife Trust. This has also helped pave the way for conversations with key organisations including Reckli who make concrete formliners.
Collaborator Contribution This collaborative project has allowed my research to be extended into Edinburgh region and be used to underpin delivery of key initiatives in Edinburgh: Edinburgh Adapts and Edinburgh living landscapes. The core partners have extensive contacts with the council, local schools and the private sector which greatly facilitated the capacity to deliver KE related to my research and KE fellowship, well beyond what would have been possible for my own work.
Impact This collaborative project has extended the KE fellowship and NERC GI innovation project work into primary and secondary school classrooms in Edinburgh and beyond into the central belt of Scotland. Previous KE outputs have also been embedded into this curricula (e.g. www.shoreshapers.org and Counting the coast of climate change at the coast, produced when I was at the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research), providing further reach of these materials.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with several new organisations 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Via the NERC PE Pilot funding that I am a co-I on, several new collaborations have commenced with businesses and NGOs including: Royal Botanical Gardens Edinburgh, Edinburgh College of Art, Concrete in the Classroom and Scottish Wildlife Trust. This has also helped pave the way for conversations with key organisations including Reckli who make concrete formliners.
Collaborator Contribution This collaborative project has allowed my research to be extended into Edinburgh region and be used to underpin delivery of key initiatives in Edinburgh: Edinburgh Adapts and Edinburgh living landscapes. The core partners have extensive contacts with the council, local schools and the private sector which greatly facilitated the capacity to deliver KE related to my research and KE fellowship, well beyond what would have been possible for my own work.
Impact This collaborative project has extended the KE fellowship and NERC GI innovation project work into primary and secondary school classrooms in Edinburgh and beyond into the central belt of Scotland. Previous KE outputs have also been embedded into this curricula (e.g. www.shoreshapers.org and Counting the coast of climate change at the coast, produced when I was at the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research), providing further reach of these materials.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Ecoformliner development with Portsmouth City Council 
Organisation Portsmouth City Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Working on designing a cost effective, ecologically and aesthetically suitable eco-formliner for pre-cast or in situ construction of a concrete vertical coastal flood defence wall on North Portsea Island (Eastern Road).
Collaborator Contribution To advance UK research and innovation from small-scale examples of green infrastructure to a realisable commercial fecoormliner designed for UK ecology, an opportunity like the North Portsea Island Scheme is needed. Designing the ecoformliner as part of the scheme now, will enable research council funding to be sought to monitor and advance development to a commercially available formliner for widespread use by the ESCP, other local authorities, the Environment Agency and allied government agencies in devolved regions.
Impact 1. Autocad design file and artist drawing of the design for the seawall 2. Prototype small-scale (max 300 mm2) master and sample of eco-formliner to provide to formliner and/or bespoke precast company. 3. Scaling up of small-scale designs to commercial formwork. This work was multi-disciplinary and involved the following: a) Scientists: ecologists and biogeomorphologists to advise on the ecological specifications required by the design. b) Designer/Makers: to advise on the mould parameters influencing the scope of the design; to make the CAD drawings and to test the mould design for suitable 'release' quality and timeliness for both pre-cast and in situ construction applications. c) Concrete Technologist: to advise on concrete/construction requirements at the scale of the project's build to the science/artist/designer teams, and liaise with key formliner companies / bespoke pre-cast companies to inform the specific design criteria and test moulds. d) Portsmouth City Council and engineers
Start Year 2018
 
Description Environment Agency - IGGI 
Organisation Environment Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I have helped with the options appraisal process with a strategic flood risk planning and optioneering initiative (for the Humber Strategy). In addition to this, I worked on revising a tender brief for a live coastal protection scheme along the south coast to consider passive or active ecological enhancement and advised contractors working on Team2100 on rock armour enhancements listed in the IGGI report.
Collaborator Contribution Working with these partners to develop briefs and strategies for IGGI can be used for future case studies and informing policy and also strengthens the IGGI document by creating more examples of green infrastructure in the UK that can be used to inform future policy or research.
Impact • Helping with the options appraisal process with a strategic flood risk planning and optioneering initiative (for the Humber Strategy) • Revising a tender brief for a live coastal protection scheme along the south coast to consider passive or active ecological enhancement • Advising contractors working on Team2100 on rock armour enhancements listed in the IGGI report.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Evidence gathering of enhancements at Hartlepool 
Organisation Hall Construction Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We advised on the ecological enhancements for this coastal defence scheme and are providing monitoring via a PhD. It also forms a case study for this GI innovation project.
Collaborator Contribution They provided 24 concrete blocks free of charge (Poundcast) and installed them on site (Hall Construction). This has helped us improve the scientific robustness of the enhancement as we can now monitor text blocks of 'business as usual' vs the 'enhanced' concrete blocks. Without this support we would have only been able to measure the new wall fabric without a comparator (as the old walls were of variable construction/ages and state of decay, which limited use as a control).
Impact Too early for an outcome from this part of the case study. The other key enhancement (passively enhanced rock armour) is being used as a case study in the NERC IGGI project.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Glasgow City Council- Blue Space 
Organisation Glasgow City Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I worked with Glasgow City Council on their initial blue space quality assessment methodology review to inform how they address their blue space quality assessment as part of the open space mapping requirements to Scottish Government.
Collaborator Contribution N/A
Impact Initial blue space quality assessment methodology review to inform how the council address their blue space quality assessment as part of the open space mapping requirements to Scottish Government. Multi-disciplinary- working with Glasgow City Council
Start Year 2018
 
Description Natural England- Green Infrastructure 
Organisation Natural England
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Sat on the Green Infrastructure forum for Natural England and commented on their Best Practice Green Infrastructure guidance to Local Authorities and Developers, which references the IGGI report. I additionally commented on their draft Second Green Infrastructure Position Statement.
Collaborator Contribution They have included the IGGI/Greening the Grey work is now included in Natural England's internal document for Top Tips for Green Infrastructure which increases the reach and applicability of the IGGI project and further highlights the variety and importance of green infrastructure across the UK.
Impact The IGGI/Greening the Grey work is now included in Natural England's internal document for Top Tips for Green Infrastructure.
Start Year 2018
 
Description North Ayrshire Council- IGGI 
Organisation North Ayrshire Council
PI Contribution IGGI /Greening the Grey is listed as one of the environmental options being considered to help enhance the ecosystem services value of a planned flood alleviation scheme. This is being included at the options appraisal phase of the scheme's planning and design processes.
Collaborator Contribution Strengthens the outcomes of the research by utilising existing data and understanding from IGGI examples.
Impact This collaboration builds on my student's PhD funded by the University of Glasgow and the Marine Alliance of Science and Technology for Scotland and directly links to two of the examples in the IGGI report (AP -C7 and AP-C8).
Start Year 2018
 
Description Scottish Natural Heritage- IGGI report mentioned 
Organisation Scottish Natural Heritage
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Scottish Natural Heritage has referred to the IGGI report in their second phase of green infrastructure funding and all 2nd phase proposals are being reviewed to see where IGGI can be added to enhance GI benefits
Collaborator Contribution Increasing the reach of the IGGI project by including the IGGI report in their funding and proposals.
Impact The IGGI report has been referenced in Scottish Natural Heritage proposals and GI benefits are being more widely considered.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Vertical greening systems: collaboration with Multiplex, Arup and Mobilane 
Organisation Arup Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Development of the green screens at the University of Glasgow and subsequent monitoring of the water and air pollutant captured by the screens and compare them to control tests. This will allow us to establish how much of a benefit these screens may be able to provide and provide evidence on whether these types of greening systems should be established in urban areas all over the world.
Collaborator Contribution Discussions are underway with Bam Construction for a second trial and this work is being used for a PhD study that will inform on the effectiveness of these green screens globally. All set-up and maintainence costs will be funded by BAM Construction and the University of Glasgow and BAM Construction will take responsibility for any liabilities in the public realm and all potential health and safety/disability issues.
Impact Collaboration is multi-disciplinary working with the city council and various consultancies and engineers. The outputs of this are as follows: 1) the trial will contribute to the council's 'Avenues' project and is the first of it's kind in Scotland, presenting a unique opportunity for Glasgow to establish itself at the forefront of urban design and innovation, both nationally and internationally. 2) The council may also become a partner and the results of the trial can be used to inform future policy and practice by Glasgow City Council. Direct outcomes are being used for a student's PhD which involves monitoring of the green screens.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Vertical greening systems: collaboration with Multiplex, Arup and Mobilane 
Organisation Multiplex Construction
PI Contribution Development of the green screens at the University of Glasgow and subsequent monitoring of the water and air pollutant captured by the screens and compare them to control tests. This will allow us to establish how much of a benefit these screens may be able to provide and provide evidence on whether these types of greening systems should be established in urban areas all over the world.
Collaborator Contribution Discussions are underway with Bam Construction for a second trial and this work is being used for a PhD study that will inform on the effectiveness of these green screens globally. All set-up and maintainence costs will be funded by BAM Construction and the University of Glasgow and BAM Construction will take responsibility for any liabilities in the public realm and all potential health and safety/disability issues.
Impact Collaboration is multi-disciplinary working with the city council and various consultancies and engineers. The outputs of this are as follows: 1) the trial will contribute to the council's 'Avenues' project and is the first of it's kind in Scotland, presenting a unique opportunity for Glasgow to establish itself at the forefront of urban design and innovation, both nationally and internationally. 2) The council may also become a partner and the results of the trial can be used to inform future policy and practice by Glasgow City Council. Direct outcomes are being used for a student's PhD which involves monitoring of the green screens.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Welsh Government- IGGI report mentioned in key documents 
Organisation Government of Wales
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution > IGGI report and greening the grey (green grey engineering) concept is included in two key Welsh documents > Draft National Planning Framework Flood Risk Policy, called 'National Strategy for Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management' mentions the IGGI report: Whilst we acknowledge that some flood and coastal defence assets need to remain predominantly grey, research from Glasgow University 'Integrated Green Grey Infrastructure'[1] demonstrates the opportunity to 'green the grey' and add wider benefits to a traditional scheme. [FN 1: Naylor, L. A. , Kippen, H., Coombes, M. A., Horton, B., MacArthur, M. and Jackson, N. (2017) Greening the Grey: A Framework for Integrated Green Grey Infrastructure (IGGI). Technical Report. University of Glasgow, Glasgow] > FECRM Business Case Appraisal Guidance document mentions IGGI report
Collaborator Contribution The inclusion of the IGGI report in these documents increases its reach with audiences and further highlights the variety and importance of green infrastructure across the UK.
Impact Including/mentioning the IGGI report and greening the grey (green grey engineering) concept in two key Welsh documents: > Draft National Planning Framework Flood Risk Policy, called 'National Strategy for Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management' and the FECRM Business Case Appraisal Guidance document
Start Year 2018
 
Company Name Artecology Limited 
Description Artecology Limited was incorporated as a micro-SME in 2015 and was designed to bring together ecological consultants Arc Consulting with public artists Eccleston George. The company has grown through their involvement with the NERC projects, collaboration with local Universities, and from winning high profile national awards and commendations from CIRIA's BIG Biodiversity Challenge in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The company has said, "Arc has benefitted greatly from involvement in both the [NERC] IGGI Framework itself and the Public Engagement pilot work with the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. The primary result for us has been the creation of a new company, Artecology Ltd., through which we can develop the business potential of constructed habitats for the built environment. It is, I think, unlikely that Arc [Consulting] would have been able to build a partnership of industry and academic support sufficient to take this step without the NERC projects, but this has been much more than just access to good 'contacts'. The NERC collaborations have exposed us to critical thinking and analysis, robust testing and data collection, along with the individuals who have helped us to embed these methods into our work. Artecology is all about innovation in achieving ecological gains, finding new ways to deliver a biologically favourable urban realm; it's what we find most exciting and what we consider most urgent. The extensions of this work into climate change adaptation and indeed the evolution of 'small' wildlife in the urban world are compelling; and we will undoubtedly be better able to pursue these leads into yet more interesting territory with your help and that of the IGGI network." 
Year Established 2015 
Impact This company's notable impacts include recent National awards and commendations (CIRIA BIG Challenge). They have also extended their geographical reach from involvement in the NERC projects. The are, most notably, the only known UK company that makes commercial products for enhancing the ecological value of hard coastal infrastructure (e.g. http://www.artecology.space/vertipools/) and one of only a handful of companies doing this worldwide. What makes Artecology especially unique is that they extend these ideas across the landscape to help green the grey and often do this involving disadvantaged or vulnerable groups, with arts-based engagement activities designed to enthuse these groups to design multifunctional hard infrastructure that benefits wildlife and society. As they stated above, they have benefited and grown from their involvement in the NERC projects.
Website http://www.artecology.space
 
Description Training/Awareness Raising: Webinars on IGGI 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A series of webinars were run in 2018 with different organisations hosting and participating in these activities, where well over 300 people participated in these webinars.
- Natural Resources Wales helped arrange two webinars on coastal and urban/historic IGGI in June 2018 for their staff, the Welsh Government and local authorities in Wales.
- Webinars at the Environment Agency on Coastal and urban/historic IGGI were delivered to participants from multiple teams and offices.
- Natural England arranged a webinar for several teams where approximately 60 people attended and 9 survey responses were received. Feedback has been positive, with some responders asking for specific worked through examples of IGGI in practice and a database of case studies.
- Outcomes: Recorded webinars have been circulated for further training via partners like NRW.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Edinburgh 2050 Coastal Climate Change Vision (Dec 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact We were invited by the Edinburgh Adapts team to write a blog post for the Edinburgh 2050 blog, which has been created to help generate ideas and interest in the City of Edinburgh's 2050 Vision for the city which is currently being created. It is part of a series of activities designed to help raise the profile of Edinburgh as a coastal city and the need to consider coastal adaptation to climate change to maintain ecosystem services and improve resiliency of the city to coastal climate change.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://edinburgh.org/blog/urban-coast-adapt/
 
Description Edinburgh Shoreline Exhibition with Edinburgh Living Landscapes/City of Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Edinburgh Living Landscapes/City of Edinburgh has showcased Greening the Grey and Coastal Climate Change adaptation in a public exhibition running from June - October 2018; this is being evaluated by their project. 43,065 people saw the exhibition . The ideas presented in the exhibition resulted in 48/51 participants having a slightly improved or improved understanding of the cultural and environmental significance of Edinburgh as a coastal city. Of those surveyed, 92.16% had some degree of improvement in their understanding of coastal climate change and 80.40% stated they would 'certainly' think differently about how coastal climate change would impact Edinburgh after the exhibition. In addition, by raising awareness of the value and risks to Edinburgh as a coastal city, participants said they were likely to visit the shoreline as a result of the exhibition (45.10%) in addition to those who already visit the shoreline regularly (29.41%) and stated that they were either possibly (43.14%) or certainly (50.98%) more likely to actively work on protecting the Edinburgh shoreline as a result of the exhibition. Those surveyed were across a varied age range from under 16 to over 65 and the majority lived within Edinburgh, highlighting this exhibition's success increasing awareness in understanding the value of Edinburgh's shoreline.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://edinburghshoreline.org.uk/events/edinburgh-shoreline-exhibition/
 
Description Environment Agency - Training and talks with Thames Area, National Environmental Assessment Service and NCPMS staff 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Environment Agency - Training and talks with Thames Area, National Environmental Assessment Service and NCPMS staff
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Greening Grey pitch to shortlisted masterplanners 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I was invited by the estates team at the University to present ideas on greening grey infrastructure to the two firms shortlisted as the contractors for University of Glasgow's ambitious redevelopment plans for their Western Infirmary Site (it will be the largest capital development project in Scotland). The pitches were arranged by the University Estates team to help influence shape of the final bids by the shortlisted contractors to include innovations and links to the potential for a research-linked capital infrastructure programme, so that the campus redevelopment could be seen as a living laboratory to test new approaches to green grey infrastructure solutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ICE Breakwaters Talk on Greening the Grey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the Institute of Civil Engineer's Bi-annual Coastal Breakwaters Conference. There have been a few outcomes from this meeting: a) new connections with SMEs, contractors and key flood risk consultancies (e.g. JBA consulting); b) invited onto the scientific steering committee for the ICE's Coastal Management Conference in France in 2019 and most influentially, c) follow-up invitation to advise and on-going discussions with Solent East Coastal Partnership about schemes they are developing where ecological enhancements or urban coastal climate change adaptation might be possible. This interaction has helped influence local flood risk planning decisions by identifying further areas suitable for managed realignment and discussed ideas for ecological enhancements, which are on-going. The main impact thus far has been behavioural change:
"We initially contacted Dr Naylor after seeing her give an inspirational talk at an ICE conference, and thought that she could help us to priorities selection of enhancement measures on a FCERM scheme that is in the detailed design stage. Dr Naylor came down for a site visit and has since provided follow up advice. The help and guidance that Dr Naylor has provided to the project has been invaluable. We as a team have learnt so much which we are now really enthused to put into practise. It has also given us the confidence that try enhancements which we were rather weary to try before. As we can now see how they have worked elsewhere and can also appreciate the wider benefits and costs of such measures, as detailed in the Greening the Grey Report. Dr Naylor has opened up avenues of research and contacts within the academic arena that we would not have been able to previously access. We are also now looking at possible ways that we can try and get universities involved to study the enhancements to give our work scientific rigour, whilst also furthering research in the field on a scale that would not have been open to academia, if we had not met up with Dr Naylor - a win-win situation. We really appreciate the advice that we have received and hope that we can continue a strong partnership going forward," East Solent Coastal Partnership Staff Member
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.samhallsbyggarna.org/media/392089/ice-breakwaters-2017-complete-brochure.pdf
 
Description Invited lecture at LINet Annual Conference (Spring 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to give a lecture at the second annual Linear Infrastructure Network (LINet) Annual Conference by Dr. Nick White of Natural England who chairs the network. This lecture was on the topic of Greening the Grey and is directly linked to this project. This gave me the opportunity to present the concept of Integrated Green Grey Infrastructure to the Linear Infrastructure Network which is a network of nearly 100 practitioners looking at green infrastructure options for linear asset owners (e.g. Network Rail). The event also allowed me to meet key people who are supporters of this project, and to build initial connections or relationships with them, which has aided data collection for this project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with project partners and advisors to co-produce the products arising from a NERC innovation grant. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This activity was a joint meeting with external partners and advisors on this and a sister NERC Green Infrastructure Innovation Project. The purpose of the meeting was to aid co-production of the outputs from the innovation projects, and synergies between the two projects identified to improve the interconnectedness of the outputs. Several key decisions were made to help shape the direction of the research, including refinement of the business case framework (one of the key outputs) and agreement to design an alternative case study template for comment. Following the meeting, we commissioned a graphic designer to work with us to create a new layout for the second main output from the two projects: case studies. The entire group of project partners, advisors and supporters (from government agencies and business across the UK, as well as academic advisors), were asked to choose the case study layout they preferred. All but one respondent preferred the new layout which is now being adopted for both NERC GI projects. A third NERC GI project is also considering using this format for the outputs from their project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description NERC GI innovation project pre-launch training event at CIRIA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A training workshop was run at CIRIA for practitioners to share the preliminary outputs from this NERC Innovation project alongside the River Biogengineering project led by HR Wallingford. Over 50 people attended this event where they obtained CPD training credits. Follow-on activities emerged from this event, including being asked to participate in co-leading a chapter on Environmental Enhancements in forthcoming international guidelines on working with nature and nature-based solutions in coastal and riverine environments, led by the US Corps of Army Engineers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ciria.org/News/CIRIA_news2/NERC_projects_-_Delivering_Green_lnfrastructure_(GI)_in_the_U...
 
Description NERC Unearthed Sessions on Turning the Tides and National Coastal Change Assessment Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I assisted with the University of Glasgow contribution to coastal climate change risks and nature-based solutions to managing flood and storm risks at the NERC Unearthed Event at Dynamic Earth in Edinburgh. It was estimated that 3000-4000 people participated in the event, where feedback collected by the NERC Unearthed Team showed an improved understanding of environmental science, and coastal climate change risks and adaptation specifically.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://unearthed.nerc.ac.uk
 
Description Plenary Talk at Landscape Institute's Annual Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited plenary talk at the Landscape Institute's Annual Conference, held in Manchester in June 2017. Talk was entitled, "Natural Capital: how understanding the value of landscape can unlock its full benefits"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.landscapeinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/conference-2017-brochure.pdf
 
Description Presentation to the EA's Technical Advisory Group for Flood Risk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to the EA's Technical Advisory Group for Flood Risk (April 2018), to c. 30 people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to the Scots Group (Flooding) Spring 2016 Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to the Scots Group (c. 50 delegates) of coastal and river engineers on the topics of coastal climate change adaptation and improving the multifunctionality of hard coastal structures. This activity led to follow-up from engaged members of the Scotsgroup to find out more about my on-going projects. The opportunity to meet this key group of Scottish stakeholders also aided delivery of the Information Sharing event at ScotFlood in 2017, as I was able to make use of this network to garner interest in our event at the 2017 Scottish Flood Conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Pub talk: The future of Edinburgh's coastline - discussions on climate change impacts and green infrastructure 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk in a pub in Edinburgh to approximately 20-30 people about the future of Edinburgh's coastline and potential adaptation and mitigation strategies e.g. IGGI in the face of a changing climate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Scottish Flood Conference Information Sharing and Consultation Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A pop-up awareness raising and consultation stall was set-up at the Scottish Flood conference on 7th of February 2017. This pop-up stall shared science linked to three NERC-funded projects; the two which this report is tethered too along with a NERC Public Engagement Pilot led by Leonie Alexander at the Royal Botanical Gardens of Edinburgh (http://www.nerc.ac.uk/latest/news/nerc/funded-pe-projects/), which I am supporting as part of my NERC KE fellowship. This event was designed to help highlight some of the challenges and solutions for helping to enhance or maintain ecosystem services along highly urbanised coasts where hard infrastructure is used to support policy decisions to 'hold the line'. As part of the event we asked participants to complete a short survey to let us know about their prior knowledge of how concrete can be modified to improve ecological outcomes at the coast. Several expressed an interest in learning more about these ideas and/or were unaware of them prior to meeting with us on the day. We've been asked to follow-up with Scottish consultancies and local government teams around this topic as an outcome of this engagement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sniffer.org.uk/knowledge-hubs/resilient-catchments/flood-risk-management/flood-risk-manag...
 
Description Training workshop with Scottish Natural Heritage 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 35-40 people attended a training session/workshop in February 2018 on Urban Design with Nature- Sharing Good Practice Event . The workshop link can be found here:
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.greeninfrastructurescotland.scot/news/urban-design-nature-sharing-good-practice-event-21...
 
Description Welsh Government and Natural Resources Wales - Invited presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Welsh Government (WG) and Natural Resources Wales: invited presentation to c. 150 delegates at ICE Wales National Flooding Conference on 3 May 2018. Link:
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ice.org.uk/eventarchive/wales-national-flooding-conference-2018