Planetary Science and Technology

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Oxford Physics

Abstract

This proposal covers a wide range of coordinated research and technology development aimed at improving our understanding of the evolution, interaction and the current behaviour of the atmospheres and surfaces of planetary bodies in the solar system. This understanding permits an intercomparison between the planets and the Earth that will enhance our understanding of our own planet and its climate. Recent technology developments have concentrated on miniaturisation of radiometers and spectrometers which are now mature and we are turning our attention towards improving the measurement sensitivity by developing cooling technologies to allow us to use more sensitive detectors. This is an area where we have had success in the past but we now need lower mass long-life devices suitable for planetary missions. The Diviner Lunar Radiometer, launched last year, is now returning detailed thermal infrared maps of the lunar surface for the first time measuring the full range of lunar temperatures (>400K to <50K). However, matching the measured temperature variations to those derived by 3D thermal models of the surfaces requires detailed laboratory measurements to be made of minerals under conditions that are as lunar like as possible. Two new sets of lab data in particular are needed, mineral thermal emission spectra and measurements of the light scattering properties of minerals and mixtures. The CIRS instrument on the Cassini spacecraft continues to return excellent observations of the surfaces of Saturn's moons and we propose to use these observations to investigate the endogenic heat flow through these surfaces and the surface composition to determine how these bodies interact. In particular these measurements will help constrain the possible mechanisms causing the geyser seen at Enceladus' south pole, and whether these imply the presence of liquid water. Cassini CIRS observations of the atmospheres of Saturn and Titan have greatly improved our understanding of these worlds. Their north polar regions have been in darkness for the last 15 years, but sunlight has returned and dramatic and rapid changes are expected in the atmospheric circulation patterns of both. These high polar regions are very difficult to view from the Earth at this season so Cassini offers a unique, ringside seat to observe the expected fascinating changes, which will be used to constrain dynamical models of these atmospheres. We propose to make new ground-based observations of Uranus and Neptune to track seasonal changes, especially on Uranus, which passed through its northern spring equinox in 2007. In addition, we plan to continue our programme of observations of Jupiter and Saturn to understand better transient changes, the interaction of eddies and provide contextual information for our Cassini CIRS Saturn observations. We have recently developed models for the gas giant planets, based on the UK Met Office climate model for Earth, that can simulate the atmospheric circulation in the cloudy 'weather layers' on both Jupiter and Saturn, including direct representations of cloud formation and transport. These models will be extended to global coverage to investigate nonlinear turbulent mechanisms for the spontaneous formation of zonally banded jets and clouds. These will form some of the most realistic simulations of these atmospheres so far obtained, and will be evaluated by direct comparisons with the observations discussed above from Cassini CIRS. We plan to upgrade our Mars climate model with the help of our collaborators in Paris and the Open University to improve the representation of dust lifting and transport, the hydrological cycle and sub-surface volatile reservoirs to enable processes linking these cycles to be investigated. We will also make available a newly completed assimilated record of Mars weather from the Mars Global Surveyor mission and extend this record using data from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Publications

10 25 50
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Antuñano A (2019) Potential Vorticity of Saturn's Polar Regions: Seasonality and Instabilities in Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets

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Aplin K (2011) Asteroid electrostatic instrumentation and modelling in Journal of Physics: Conference Series

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Aplin K. L. (2011) Asteroid electrostatic instrumentation and modelling in Journal of Physics Conference Series

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Arnold J. A. (2013) Enhanced Compositional Analysis of the Moon using Diviner's Long Wavelength Channels in European Planetary Science Congress

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Arnold J. A. (2013) Plagioclase-Olivine Mixtures in a Simulated Lunar Environment in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

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Barstow J (2015) Erratum: Transit spectroscopy with JWST: systematics, star-spots and stitching in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

 
Description Objective 1.1 Investigate the dynamical processes and energetics in the tropospheres & stratospheres of Jupiter and Saturn that lead to zonally banded winds and cloud via improved numerical circulation models

- A major study of turbulent motions using cloud-tracked wind measurements of Jupiter from the Cassini orbiter was completed during this phase of the project. This revealed some important new features of the energetics of Jupiter's cloudy atmosphere, confirming the role of eddies in feeding energy into powerful zonal (east-west) jet streams (which was already well known) but also indicating the presence of a self-similar isotropic pattern of turbulence at scales smaller than around 5000 km with a power law in kinetic energy with an index of -5/3. This is the classical
spectral slope associated with 3D turbulence, though (as on Earth) this is unlikely to be associated with real 3D motions but may reflect a different mechanism that is yet to be revealed or understood. These results were also used to make further progress in developing our numerical circulation model of Jupiter's atmosphere.

Objective 3.1 Analysis and interpretation of seasonal changes in the atmospheres of Saturn and Titan observed by the Cassini spacecraft as sunlight returns to the northern polar regions and understanding the links between composition, aerosols and temperature.

- In the 2011-2013 time frame we published several papers on Saturn and Titan studies. Most were led by Dr Leigh Fletcher, who at that time was at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, but there were also papers from Dr Nick Teanby (recently moved to Bristol University) and Prof Irwin. Oxford scientists were co-authors on all these papers thanks to the NEMESIS radiative transfer software developed at Oxford. The main event to be observed by Cassini was the northern mid-latitude stratospheric beacon on Saturn, following on from the tropospheric northern springtime disturbance. We also published papers via our connection with Dr Conor Nixon and colleagues at Goddard Spaceflight Center on seasonal variations of the gaseous abundances in the atmospheres of both Saturn and Titan.

3.2 Analysis and interpretation of seasonal changes and transient features in the atmospheres of the giant planets from ground-based telescope observations.

- Work was completed on Gemini observations of Uranus and Neptune. Prof. Irwin published papers on the vertical cloud structure of both planets, notably detecting deep ephemeral clouds near Neptune's south pole, which have not been seen since. New methane spectral line data was used to analyse Uranus H-band observations at much higher spectral resolution than hitherto and so to determine a new estimate for the D/H ratio, which was consistent with ISO determinations.

Objective 2. Perform an inter-comparison of the climates of the terrestrial planets based on new models of zonal mean temperature fields

We have shown that the gross structure of the four terrestrial-style atmospheres (of Mars, Venus, Titan and the Earth) can be accounted for with the same basic physics and that this allows inferences about long-term changes in the climate on each in response to external or compositional changes.

Objective 4.1 Use a combination of laboratory measurements and data returned from the Diviner instrument on the Lunar reconnaissance Orbiter to investigate the composition of the Lunar surface.

- Use was made of a remote sensing instrument on NASA's Lunar Diviner Mission to map the surface composition of the Moon in the thermal infrared. Laboratory work led to several publications that help constrain surface composition from remote sensing data. Further work includes combining near-infrared measurements from the M3 instrument on Chandrayaan-1 with thermal data from the Diviner instrument on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. This work was followed up with measurements (still on going) of a comprehensive suite of Apollo lunar soils from NASA to allow cross calibration of remote sensing data and laboratory experiments. The development of a space environment goniometer allowing measurements of the effects of surface roughness on directional emissivity for the first time. Development of a novel thermal-transfer model allowing direct comparison between synthetic mineral thermal emission spectra and lab data.
Exploitation Route There are many scientific impacts of this work. Results of our observations are being used to constrain conceptual and mathematical models of planetary dynamics and evolution. Results are also being used by others to design new spacecraft and telescopic campaigns to solar system planets.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Environment

 
Description The development of novel laboratory spectroscopy experiments have led to further involvement in asteroid sample return missions such as NASA OSIRIS-REx (launch September 2016). The vacuum goniometer was made available to industry (UK and internationally) for characterisation of surface properties in the thermal infrared and under a space environment for the first time.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Environment
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description ESA Mars Climate database contract
Amount £69,613 (GBP)
Organisation European Space Agency 
Sector Public
Country France
Start 06/2015 
End 02/2018
 
Description EUHiT
Amount € 5,000 (EUR)
Funding ID Beta-WTD2 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 03/2015 
End 05/2015
 
Description Leverhulme Trust Research Grant
Amount £244,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RPG-2012-814 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2013 
End 03/2016
 
Description Planetary Science at Oxford Physics 2019
Amount £1,261,196 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/S000461/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 03/2022
 
Title Annulus dataset 
Description This dataset contains 11 1/2 hours of horizontal velocity measurements from four experiments using AOPP's 'small annulus' thermally-driven rotating annulus laboratory experiment. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This dataset was the basis for recent work on rotating annulus data assimilation and predictability 
URL http://dx.doi.org/10.5287/bodleian:dr26xx49n
 
Title Cassini wind fields 
Description Four global horizontal wind fields for Jupiter's weather layer near closest approach during the flyby of NASA's Cassini spacecraft in December 2000, produced by tracking clouds from Cassini images to produce wind vectors. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Ongoing work studying turbulence and dynamics in Jupiter's atmosphere. 
URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103513003837
 
Title Jupiter GCM 
Description A numerical model of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere of Jupiter's atmosphere, based on the MITgcm and including physical parametrizations relevant to Jupiter such as radiation, vertical diffusion, clouds, and moist convection. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have recently (early 2016) completed a series of numerical experiments investigating jet spin-up and turbulence in Jupiter's weather layer under dry and moist atmospheric conditions. 
 
Title MACDA 
Description A database providing complete analyses of the state of the Martian atmosphere from measurements obtained by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer instrument on board NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, assimilated into the UK/LMD Mars global climate model. Fields contained represent atmospheric and surface temperatures, winds, pressure and suspended dust amounts, sampled globally every 2 hours for nearly 3 Mars years (~5 Earth years). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A substantial number of other scientists downloading data from this source for use in further research studies of Martian atmosphere and climate. 
URL http://catalogue.ceda.ac.uk/uuid/01c44fb05fbd6e428efbd57969a11177
 
Title MORALS 
Description Met Office / Oxford Rotating Annulus Laboratory Simulation, a Boussinesq model of the thermally-driven rotating annulus. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2007 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Ongoing work studying the rotating annulus theoretically and in the laboratory. 
URL http://www2.physics.ox.ac.uk/research/geophysical-fluid-dynamics/morals
 
Title NEMESIS 
Description NEMESIS (Non-linear optimal Estimator for MultivariatE Spectral analysIS) is a general purpose radiative transfer and retrieval tool that has been developed to model the infrared spectra of planets in our solar system and around other stars, and also invert such measured spectra to determine the properties of these atmospheres. The FORTRAN code has been distributed to a number of collaborators in the USA and continental Europe and is widely seen as a benchmark against which other models are tested. The code is updated continually as new approaches are developed and by being completely general in its setup, improvements made to model, say, the spectrum of Neptune can then be used to model the spectra of any other planet. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2008 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact NEMESIS has been at the root of the bulk of my group's research output over the last decade. It also gives us unique access to data from several other groups in the world, who need to collaborate with us to interpret their data. 
URL http://users.ox.ac.uk/~atmp0035/nemesis.html
 
Description Analysis of Giant Planet Observations. 
Organisation University of Leicester
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of NEMESIS radiative transfer and retrieval tool. Help with analyses and co-author papers.
Collaborator Contribution Partner has access to high quality telescopic observations, which they reduce and calibrate.
Impact Several papers, mostly led by Leigh Fletcher, appear in the publications list.
Start Year 2015
 
Description CASE Studentship with the Spectroscopy Group, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department Space Science and Technology Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a joint studentship, supported by the STFC CASE scheme. The student receives academic support from my team in Oxford and technical/instrumentation support from RAL.
Collaborator Contribution Opportunity to adapt a novel remote sensing instrument developed at the RAL for use in planetary Exploration.
Impact Joint presentation of instrument concept at an ESA sponsored conference in 2009
Start Year 2008
 
Description Cassini CIRS team 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Goddard Space Flight Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Analysis and interpretation of observations and measurements of the atmospheres of Saturn and jupiter from the Cassini Orbiter. Also model simulations of atmospheric dynamics for comparison with measurements. Previously we provided contributions to the hardware of the instrument (cooler and focal plane assembly). Also, contributions to mission logistics and planning.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of the instrument (mainly by GSFC), engineering logistics and calibration, and data analysis and interpretation (by both French and US teams).
Impact Many publications in the open literature. Also outreach and publicity events.
 
Description Cassini CIRS team 
Organisation Observatory of Paris
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis and interpretation of observations and measurements of the atmospheres of Saturn and jupiter from the Cassini Orbiter. Also model simulations of atmospheric dynamics for comparison with measurements. Previously we provided contributions to the hardware of the instrument (cooler and focal plane assembly). Also, contributions to mission logistics and planning.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of the instrument (mainly by GSFC), engineering logistics and calibration, and data analysis and interpretation (by both French and US teams).
Impact Many publications in the open literature. Also outreach and publicity events.
 
Description Comparison of cloud tracking methods 
Organisation Hampton University
Department School of Science
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Wind fields calculated from cloud tracking.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborator is coordinating an international comparison of the various methods used for extracting wind fields from images of cloud motions in various planetary atmospheres, particularly Jupiter and Saturn.
Impact Conference papers: AGU Fall Meeting 2010, AGU Fall Meeting 2012
Start Year 2010
 
Description ISSI Exoplanet team 
Organisation International Space Science Institute (ISSI)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a study team to investigate the use of modelling tools to evaluate the habitability conditions on extra-solar planets. My team is contributing simplified global circulation model simulations for comparison with other team members' models.
Collaborator Contribution The MPI team is contributing 1D energy balance model results for comparison with other models. The team also includes around 12 other scientists from across Europe who are all providing model input or expertise for their interpretation.
Impact None yet, though research publications will be prepared in due course.
Start Year 2011
 
Description ISSI Exoplanet team 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a study team to investigate the use of modelling tools to evaluate the habitability conditions on extra-solar planets. My team is contributing simplified global circulation model simulations for comparison with other team members' models.
Collaborator Contribution The MPI team is contributing 1D energy balance model results for comparison with other models. The team also includes around 12 other scientists from across Europe who are all providing model input or expertise for their interpretation.
Impact None yet, though research publications will be prepared in due course.
Start Year 2011
 
Description ISSI Zonal Jets 
Organisation Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Department Department of Mechanical Engineering
Country Israel 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am contributing sections on (1) Cassini observations of Jupiter, and (2) future work, to a chapter on giant planets, to be included in a book called Zonal Jets to be published in 2014. I am also contributing to a section on zonostrophic turbulence for the same publication.
Collaborator Contribution The book is being published by ISSI and edited by the collaborator at the University of South Florida. I am co-authoring the sections on Cassini observations of Jupiter with the collaborator from NASA Goddard. I am co-authoring the section on future work with the collaborator from Weizmann Institute of Science. The chapter on giant planets is being coordinated by the collaborator from the Universidad del Pais Vasco. The section on zonostrophic turbulence is being co-authored with the collaborators from Ben Gurion University and the University of South Florida.
Impact Book on Zonal Jets to be published in 2014.
Start Year 2012
 
Description ISSI Zonal Jets 
Organisation International Space Science Institute (ISSI)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am contributing sections on (1) Cassini observations of Jupiter, and (2) future work, to a chapter on giant planets, to be included in a book called Zonal Jets to be published in 2014. I am also contributing to a section on zonostrophic turbulence for the same publication.
Collaborator Contribution The book is being published by ISSI and edited by the collaborator at the University of South Florida. I am co-authoring the sections on Cassini observations of Jupiter with the collaborator from NASA Goddard. I am co-authoring the section on future work with the collaborator from Weizmann Institute of Science. The chapter on giant planets is being coordinated by the collaborator from the Universidad del Pais Vasco. The section on zonostrophic turbulence is being co-authored with the collaborators from Ben Gurion University and the University of South Florida.
Impact Book on Zonal Jets to be published in 2014.
Start Year 2012
 
Description ISSI Zonal Jets 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Goddard Space Flight Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am contributing sections on (1) Cassini observations of Jupiter, and (2) future work, to a chapter on giant planets, to be included in a book called Zonal Jets to be published in 2014. I am also contributing to a section on zonostrophic turbulence for the same publication.
Collaborator Contribution The book is being published by ISSI and edited by the collaborator at the University of South Florida. I am co-authoring the sections on Cassini observations of Jupiter with the collaborator from NASA Goddard. I am co-authoring the section on future work with the collaborator from Weizmann Institute of Science. The chapter on giant planets is being coordinated by the collaborator from the Universidad del Pais Vasco. The section on zonostrophic turbulence is being co-authored with the collaborators from Ben Gurion University and the University of South Florida.
Impact Book on Zonal Jets to be published in 2014.
Start Year 2012
 
Description ISSI Zonal Jets 
Organisation University of South Florida
Department College of Marine Science
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am contributing sections on (1) Cassini observations of Jupiter, and (2) future work, to a chapter on giant planets, to be included in a book called Zonal Jets to be published in 2014. I am also contributing to a section on zonostrophic turbulence for the same publication.
Collaborator Contribution The book is being published by ISSI and edited by the collaborator at the University of South Florida. I am co-authoring the sections on Cassini observations of Jupiter with the collaborator from NASA Goddard. I am co-authoring the section on future work with the collaborator from Weizmann Institute of Science. The chapter on giant planets is being coordinated by the collaborator from the Universidad del Pais Vasco. The section on zonostrophic turbulence is being co-authored with the collaborators from Ben Gurion University and the University of South Florida.
Impact Book on Zonal Jets to be published in 2014.
Start Year 2012
 
Description ISSI Zonal Jets 
Organisation University of the Basque Country
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am contributing sections on (1) Cassini observations of Jupiter, and (2) future work, to a chapter on giant planets, to be included in a book called Zonal Jets to be published in 2014. I am also contributing to a section on zonostrophic turbulence for the same publication.
Collaborator Contribution The book is being published by ISSI and edited by the collaborator at the University of South Florida. I am co-authoring the sections on Cassini observations of Jupiter with the collaborator from NASA Goddard. I am co-authoring the section on future work with the collaborator from Weizmann Institute of Science. The chapter on giant planets is being coordinated by the collaborator from the Universidad del Pais Vasco. The section on zonostrophic turbulence is being co-authored with the collaborators from Ben Gurion University and the University of South Florida.
Impact Book on Zonal Jets to be published in 2014.
Start Year 2012
 
Description ISSI Zonal Jets 
Organisation Weizmann Institute of Science
Department Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences
Country Israel 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am contributing sections on (1) Cassini observations of Jupiter, and (2) future work, to a chapter on giant planets, to be included in a book called Zonal Jets to be published in 2014. I am also contributing to a section on zonostrophic turbulence for the same publication.
Collaborator Contribution The book is being published by ISSI and edited by the collaborator at the University of South Florida. I am co-authoring the sections on Cassini observations of Jupiter with the collaborator from NASA Goddard. I am co-authoring the section on future work with the collaborator from Weizmann Institute of Science. The chapter on giant planets is being coordinated by the collaborator from the Universidad del Pais Vasco. The section on zonostrophic turbulence is being co-authored with the collaborators from Ben Gurion University and the University of South Florida.
Impact Book on Zonal Jets to be published in 2014.
Start Year 2012
 
Description ISSI team on Zonal jets 
Organisation International Space Science Institute (ISSI)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am co-chair of a study team at ISSI, Bern, on the dynamics of zonal jets in planetary atmospheres and magnetized plasmas. This team is tasked to review the subject area and ongoing research, and to prepare a monograph for publication. I am co-editor of this monograph and will also co-author two of the chapters.
Collaborator Contribution ISSI is hosting the team and providing financial support to participants for their accommodation. They also provide logistical support for the production of publications. My co-editor is from USF and is also contributing a chapter to the book. There are then around 20 other scientists from around the world who form the study team and will co-author various parts of the book.
Impact None yet, but the book is in preparation.
Start Year 2011
 
Description ISSI team on Zonal jets 
Organisation University of South Florida
Department College of Marine Science
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am co-chair of a study team at ISSI, Bern, on the dynamics of zonal jets in planetary atmospheres and magnetized plasmas. This team is tasked to review the subject area and ongoing research, and to prepare a monograph for publication. I am co-editor of this monograph and will also co-author two of the chapters.
Collaborator Contribution ISSI is hosting the team and providing financial support to participants for their accommodation. They also provide logistical support for the production of publications. My co-editor is from USF and is also contributing a chapter to the book. There are then around 20 other scientists from around the world who form the study team and will co-author various parts of the book.
Impact None yet, but the book is in preparation.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Jupiter cloud tracking 
Organisation Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Department Department of Mechanical Engineering
Country Israel 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of Jupiter's wind fields using cloud tracking techniques on data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.
Collaborator Contribution Production and analysis of Jupiter's turbulent energy spectra using our wind fields.
Impact Paper on analysis of Jupiter's kinetic energy spectra, published in Icarus in 2014 (10.1016/j.icarus.2013.08.030). Contributions to book on Zonal Jets to be published in 2014.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Jupiter cloud tracking 
Organisation University of South Florida
Department College of Marine Science
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of Jupiter's wind fields using cloud tracking techniques on data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.
Collaborator Contribution Production and analysis of Jupiter's turbulent energy spectra using our wind fields.
Impact Paper on analysis of Jupiter's kinetic energy spectra, published in Icarus in 2014 (10.1016/j.icarus.2013.08.030). Contributions to book on Zonal Jets to be published in 2014.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Team 
Organisation Brown University
Department Planetary Geosciences Group
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Access to laboratory facilities, analysis of samples, data analysis and inter comparisons, development of new laboratory experiments and facilities
Collaborator Contribution provision of mineral samples, graduate students, collaboration on successful Apollo sample consortium proposal.
Impact Proposal for Apollo Samples to CAPTEM, numerous publications. Collaboration is multi-displinary bringing together physics, geophysics and geology.
Start Year 2009
 
Description Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Team 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Access to laboratory facilities, analysis of samples, data analysis and inter comparisons, development of new laboratory experiments and facilities
Collaborator Contribution provision of mineral samples, graduate students, collaboration on successful Apollo sample consortium proposal.
Impact Proposal for Apollo Samples to CAPTEM, numerous publications. Collaboration is multi-displinary bringing together physics, geophysics and geology.
Start Year 2009
 
Description Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Team 
Organisation Stony Brook University
Department Earth and Space Sciences
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Access to laboratory facilities, analysis of samples, data analysis and inter comparisons, development of new laboratory experiments and facilities
Collaborator Contribution provision of mineral samples, graduate students, collaboration on successful Apollo sample consortium proposal.
Impact Proposal for Apollo Samples to CAPTEM, numerous publications. Collaboration is multi-displinary bringing together physics, geophysics and geology.
Start Year 2009
 
Description Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Team 
Organisation University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
Department Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Access to laboratory facilities, analysis of samples, data analysis and inter comparisons, development of new laboratory experiments and facilities
Collaborator Contribution provision of mineral samples, graduate students, collaboration on successful Apollo sample consortium proposal.
Impact Proposal for Apollo Samples to CAPTEM, numerous publications. Collaboration is multi-displinary bringing together physics, geophysics and geology.
Start Year 2009
 
Description MRO/MCS team 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Assimilation of Mars Climate Sounder measurements of the Martian atmosphere. Corresponding model simulations of Martian atmospheric circulation and studies of Martian dust transport. Analysis and interpretation of data. Earlier, the Oxford team provided some hardware input to the instrument and design.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of main instrument. Basic analysis of raw data and initial retrievals of geophysical parameters. Data analysis and interpretation. Also, some parallel efforts on data assimilation.
Impact Mostly papers in the open literature on new science results for Mars. Also, some outreach and publicity based on Mars measurements and modelling.
 
Description Mars Climate Database 
Organisation Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Studies of Martian dust storms and transport, and their representation in the European Mars Global Circulation Model that is used within the collaborative partnership. E.g. see Mulholland DP, Read PL, Lewis SR (2013), Simulating the interannual variability of major dust storms on Mars using variable lifting thresholds, Icarus, 223(1):344-358
Collaborator Contribution Our French colleagues lead the collaboration, which is jointly funded by ESA and the French Space Agency. They develop and maintain the main web interface for the database and model codes. They develop much of the model codes, though with contributions from the other partners, run the main model simulations and compile the climate database, using codes developed sometime ago by the UK teams in Oxford and Open University. The Spanish team provide expertise and codes representing the upper atmosphere of Mars (above 100km altitude).
Impact Production of a web-based database of Martian climate statistics, including data access and visualisation tools, for use by scientists and mission design engineers. The database is also provided on request as a standalone facility (on DVD) for serious professional users. Records indicate that there have been 94 requests for professional copies of the current database since 2008, or whom 46 were from national space agencies or industrial contractors for use in engineering design studies, the remainder being for scientific research.
 
Description Mars Climate Database 
Organisation Open University
Department School of Physical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Studies of Martian dust storms and transport, and their representation in the European Mars Global Circulation Model that is used within the collaborative partnership. E.g. see Mulholland DP, Read PL, Lewis SR (2013), Simulating the interannual variability of major dust storms on Mars using variable lifting thresholds, Icarus, 223(1):344-358
Collaborator Contribution Our French colleagues lead the collaboration, which is jointly funded by ESA and the French Space Agency. They develop and maintain the main web interface for the database and model codes. They develop much of the model codes, though with contributions from the other partners, run the main model simulations and compile the climate database, using codes developed sometime ago by the UK teams in Oxford and Open University. The Spanish team provide expertise and codes representing the upper atmosphere of Mars (above 100km altitude).
Impact Production of a web-based database of Martian climate statistics, including data access and visualisation tools, for use by scientists and mission design engineers. The database is also provided on request as a standalone facility (on DVD) for serious professional users. Records indicate that there have been 94 requests for professional copies of the current database since 2008, or whom 46 were from national space agencies or industrial contractors for use in engineering design studies, the remainder being for scientific research.
 
Description Mars Climate Database 
Organisation Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
Department Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Studies of Martian dust storms and transport, and their representation in the European Mars Global Circulation Model that is used within the collaborative partnership. E.g. see Mulholland DP, Read PL, Lewis SR (2013), Simulating the interannual variability of major dust storms on Mars using variable lifting thresholds, Icarus, 223(1):344-358
Collaborator Contribution Our French colleagues lead the collaboration, which is jointly funded by ESA and the French Space Agency. They develop and maintain the main web interface for the database and model codes. They develop much of the model codes, though with contributions from the other partners, run the main model simulations and compile the climate database, using codes developed sometime ago by the UK teams in Oxford and Open University. The Spanish team provide expertise and codes representing the upper atmosphere of Mars (above 100km altitude).
Impact Production of a web-based database of Martian climate statistics, including data access and visualisation tools, for use by scientists and mission design engineers. The database is also provided on request as a standalone facility (on DVD) for serious professional users. Records indicate that there have been 94 requests for professional copies of the current database since 2008, or whom 46 were from national space agencies or industrial contractors for use in engineering design studies, the remainder being for scientific research.
 
Description Mars climate database 
Organisation Open University
Department School of Physical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Assimilation of observations of dust in the Martian atmosphere to create new analyses of the atmospheric state. Contributions to development and testing of new schemes within a joint Mars climate model. Joint publications.
Collaborator Contribution Development of assimilation methods for applications to the Martian atmosphere. Development and access to advanced models for the Martian atmosphere. Joint publications.
Impact A number of publications in the open literature (see publication lists). Production of the joint Mars Climate Database with the European Space Agency - widely used by aerospace industry for
 
Description Modelling of Mars Surface UV Spectra 
Organisation Open University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of Nemesis retrieval tool and modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of PhD student to run Nemesis to simulate surface UV spectra to be measured by Mars surface landers.
Impact Posters have been presented at recent workshops and meetings, but no publications yet.
Start Year 2012
 
Description NASA Goddard Radiative Transfer 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Goddard Space Flight Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have provided the NEMESIS radiative transfer and retrieval tool to several collaborators at NASA Goddard and have co-authored numerous papers on Gas Giant and Titan atmospheric studies using Cassini/CIRS and ground-based observations.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators have provide continued data reduction and calibration services and also telescope data.
Impact Numerous papers. Also building contacts with GSFC to work on future spacecraft missions.
 
Description OSIRIS-REx 
Organisation University of Arizona
Department Lunar and Planetary Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Laboratory experiments to support the OSIRIS-REx sample return mission.
Collaborator Contribution Access to meteorite samples
Impact Internal reports to the OSIRIS-REx project, multi-displinary physics/geology
Start Year 2011
 
Description Technology Development for EChO 
Organisation Cardiff University
Department School of Physics and Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Definition and study for the Long Wave IR spectrometer for the EChO mission payload
Collaborator Contribution Overall project management (RAL), Detector technology testing (Cardiff), instrument development, science co-ordination (UCL), mechanical design (UCL)
Impact Proposal to ESA in November as part of the wider EChO instrument consortium (successful).
Start Year 2011
 
Description Technology Development for EChO 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department Space Science and Technology Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Definition and study for the Long Wave IR spectrometer for the EChO mission payload
Collaborator Contribution Overall project management (RAL), Detector technology testing (Cardiff), instrument development, science co-ordination (UCL), mechanical design (UCL)
Impact Proposal to ESA in November as part of the wider EChO instrument consortium (successful).
Start Year 2011
 
Description Technology Development for EChO 
Organisation University College London
Department Department of Physics & Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Definition and study for the Long Wave IR spectrometer for the EChO mission payload
Collaborator Contribution Overall project management (RAL), Detector technology testing (Cardiff), instrument development, science co-ordination (UCL), mechanical design (UCL)
Impact Proposal to ESA in November as part of the wider EChO instrument consortium (successful).
Start Year 2011
 
Description Technology Development for EChO 
Organisation University College London
Department Mullard Space Science Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Definition and study for the Long Wave IR spectrometer for the EChO mission payload
Collaborator Contribution Overall project management (RAL), Detector technology testing (Cardiff), instrument development, science co-ordination (UCL), mechanical design (UCL)
Impact Proposal to ESA in November as part of the wider EChO instrument consortium (successful).
Start Year 2011
 
Description Titan Atmospheric Retrievals 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Goddard Space Flight Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Supply of Nemesis radiative transfer and retrieval tool and atmospheric modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Extraction of data from Cassini/CIRS database. Analysis of ALMA Titan observations and science lead on the atmospheric modelling.
Impact Several papers led by Nick Teanby, Martin Cordiner, Conor Nixen and others, listed in publications.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Titan Atmospheric Retrievals 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of Nemesis radiative transfer and retrieval tool and atmospheric modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Extraction of data from Cassini/CIRS database. Analysis of ALMA Titan observations and science lead on the atmospheric modelling.
Impact Several papers led by Nick Teanby, Martin Cordiner, Conor Nixen and others, listed in publications.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Uranus and Neptune Line by line modelling 
Organisation Observatory of Paris
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration with partners at the Paris Observatory to use new line data to model near-infrared spectra of Uranus and Neptune. Our role was to use our Nemesis tool to model Gemini/NIFS and VLT/CRIRES spectra using new line data supplied by our partners.
Collaborator Contribution Supply of line data, supply of high resolution VLT/CRIRES data and contributory knowledge of ice giants.
Impact One paper on Uranus published in 2012. New paper on Neptune published in 2014.
Start Year 2011
 
Title Space Environment Spectroscopy chambers 
Description A novel space environment (vacuum and cooled vacuum) chamber for use in simulated lunar and asteroid thermal emission spectroscopy. 
Type Of Technology Physical Model/Kit 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact Experimental data from the Oxford designed system have provided new data to support remote sensing of the Moon made by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. 
 
Description ANHSO public lecture 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Evening lecture at Ashmolean Natural History Society of Oxfordshire, about planetary exploration in general and in particular the search for life. Talk was well-received and there were many interesting questions from the audience.

None
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.anhso.org.uk
 
Description Appearance on Sky at Night 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Appeared on BBC's Sky at Night programme, talking about the atmosphere of Uranus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Atmospheres exhibition MHS 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public exhibition opened in November 2012 and continues until April 2013. This is the main topical exhibition hosted by the Museum of the History of Science at present.

VIsited by members of the public - increasing awareness of research in atmospheric and planetary science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description BBC World News Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview on BBC World News on 'Water on Mars' (salt deposits on Recurrent Slope Linae, detected by MRO/CRISM).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Chasing Comets 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a talk, organised by "Science Oxford" on the ESA Rosetta Mission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Juno outreach talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a talk at an event organised by "Science Oxford" describing the Juno missions and the UK's involvement in supporting ground-based observations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Merseyside Astronomy Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Attended by around 100 members of the public as part of a wider event with other speakers. Lively discussion and questions.

QUestionnaire circulated with audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Oxford Alumni Weekend 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Gave a talk at Oxford University's Alumni weekend on "Several papers have already been published (as listed in the publications) and more are in the pipeline", talking about planetary and exoplanetary research at Oxford University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Participation in Rosetta exhibit for Royal Society Summer Exhibition 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Part of consortium that displayed the exhibit "A Comet Revealed", which described the ESA Rosetta mission and the UK's contribution to it.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Pythagorus' Trousers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact An interview was recorded on the purpose and results from NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars to study its atmosphere. The edited interview was broadcast and then released online as a podcast on the Cardiff University Pythagorus Trousers website.

Too early to tell as this has only just gone public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://blogs.cardiff.ac.uk/physicsoutreach/2014/11/05/pythagorean-astronomy-maven-to-mars/
 
Description School Visit (European School, Culham, Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Telescope Observing Night. We looked at planets and nebulae.

I was asked back to give a presentation a few months later.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description School Visit (European School, Culham, Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Presented talk about observing the planets and infrared astronomy.

The was much interest in the talk and I had lots of questions after.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description School visit (Ashton Keynes) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk on a tour of the planets, given to year 5 and 6 pupils at a primary school in Wiltshire.

Very enthusiastic response with lots of questions from the students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description School visit (Charterhouse) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Around 30 6th form students attended. Led to lively questions and discussion.

Lively questions and discussion. Application to Oxford from bright students to read Physics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description School visit (Cheltenham College) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact At least 50 pupils in year groups from 4th form to lower 6th attended a talk on "Ice ages on Mars". The talk generated a lot of interest and lively questions from the audience, a number of which expressed an interest in pursuing courses in Physics and Mathematics at undergraduate level.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description School visit (Stowe) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Around 20 6th form students attended a talk on climate change on Mars and the Earth.

Lively questions and discussion following the talk. Questionnaire left with teacher to provide feedback from the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Sky at Night appearance (2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview and lab demonstration of fluid dynamical processes relevant to Jupiter's weather and atmosphere, with presenter Dr Helen Czerski. Broadcast on BBC4's The Sky at Night in February 2014.

Clip is now a permanent link on the BBC Sky at Night website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Star Gazing Oxford Open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Event was very well attended with over 1200 people attending through out the day. Stimulated lots of discussions.

Posters produced and demonstrations developed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Stargazing Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Open evenings / days at Oxford Physics to coincide with the BBC Stargazing Live programmes. Open days had ~1200 attendees, open evenings ~250. In 2013 I ran a stall about planets and the planetary science done at Oxford (with comet-making demo, thermal infrared camera, planisphere, etc.), and since 2014 have coordinated the Science Cafe, which contained several stalls of this type. Direct interaction with the public over several hours, particularly with schoolchildren.

Multiple emails from visitors to the event thanking us and praising the event, particularly from those we took infrared photos of and sent them afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
URL https://www2.physics.ox.ac.uk/events/2016/01/16/stargazing-oxford-2016
 
Description Stargazing Oxford flash talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A 15-minute 'flash talk' on our work simulating planetary atmospheres in our fluid dynamics laboratory. This was part of the Stargazing Oxford event in January 2014 and was later uploaded as a podcast on the University website. The podcast audience (estimated above) was significantly larger than the original live audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://podcasts.ox.ac.uk/spin-doctors-creating-planets-atmosphere-lab
 
Description Stratford upon Avon Astronomical Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk on the climate and circulation of Solar System and extra-solar planets. Talk sparked a lot of questions and animated discussion.

An increase in general interest in how the climate system works - including on Earth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk to Astronomical Society (Farnham) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk given to Farnham Astronomical Society, attended by at least 50 people with very diverse backgrounds and interests, on the climate of extra-solar planets. Much lively discussion and questions ensued and several people reported how this had changed their views and understanding of planetary climate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk to astronomical society (Swindon) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk on the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, to inform and engage members of the public about recent research. Around 40 people attended a meeting of the Swindon Stargazers, which sparked many questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk to day centre (Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk given to an elderly persons' day centre in Oxford on an introduction to the Solar System, attended by approximately 15 people plus carers, which sparked some lively discussion and many questions. 2 members of the audience requested further information at the end.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Weymouth Astronomical Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk on modeling the climate and circulation of Solar System and extra-solar planets. Talk stimulated a lot of interest and discussion among a number of the participants.

A number of people were clearly engaged and seemed interested to learn more about atmospheric science and climate - including the Earth's climate system.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014