Astrophysics and Planetary Science at Oxford 2013-16

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Oxford Physics

Abstract

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is a cornerstone of cosmology and its precise measurement is of the highest importance but it is heavily polluted by emission from our Galaxy. We propose a new measurement of that foreground radiation at low frequencies which will lead to a more precise interpretation of the data from the Planck satellite. Combining insights from this work with results from other CMB telescopes will lead to a better understanding of the inflationary epoch and dark Universe. To probe the distribution of dark matter we have developed state of the art techniques for the measurement and interpretation of the minute distortions of the images of distant galaxies that arise from matter along the line of sight. This work exploits current surveys but is looking towards future involvement in ESAs EUCLID satellite. We are actively pursuing complementary approaches to measuring the structure of the Universe and the parameters that describe it. From time-domain surveys we will discover distant supernovae and strive for a better understanding supernova physics. The imprint of the large scale structure is revealed through the distribution of galaxies, and we are measuring this over a range of epochs to track how the structure evolves.

Supernovae and active galactic nuclei regulate star formation and deposit huge amounts of energy into interstellar gas. We will observe directly galaxies less than one billion years after the Big Bang to see when they formed their first stars and the effect they have on their surroundings. We can even probe the CO gas in and around galaxies at these early epochs. We will model these complex processes in a cosmological setting using advanced techniques of high performance computing. We will use the same techniques to study the origin of magnetic fields and the acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova remnants. We are proposing to utilise our citizen science infrastructure to characterise galaxies from the HST CANDELS survey and search for the causes of activity in galaxies.

New instruments will enable us to apply the diagnostics we developed for local galaxies to galaxies seen when the Universe was half its present age. By studying galaxies in both the densest clusters and in the most rapidly star-forming dusty galaxies we will explore the dependence of galaxy evolution on mass and the local neighbourhood. Our Galaxy should place some of the strongest constraints on cosmology, but all observations of it are strongly biased by our position within it. We will map the three-dimensional distribution of extinction in the Galaxy and develop new dynamical models of our Galaxy. Presently our models are constrained by data from ground-based surveys but our work will be used to interpret data from ESA's Gaia satellite.

Astronomers have discovered several hundred planetary systems. One technique searches for extremely small but regular dips in brightness that indicate the presence of a planet occulting light from a star. By developing advanced analysis techniques we propose to use these `transits' not only to discover new planets - including ones resembling the Earth - but also to study the structure and composition of their atmospheres. By undertaking careful modelling of the passage of radiation through planetary atmospheres we will rigorously test the validity of such conclusions and assist in the design of future experiments. The atmospheres of the giant planets in the Solar System exhibit surface features, banding and cyclonic spots of unknown origin, furthermore the difference between the gas giants and the ice giants remains to be understood. We intend to apply modelling using high performance computing to the results from planetary missions to investigate the physical mechanisms that underpin these phenomena. Finally we seek to understand the surface composition of the closest astronomical object, the Moon, through comparative spectroscopy and modelling.

Planned Impact

Our work addresses some of the biggest questions in modern science, bringing benefits in understanding, curiosity, and an introduction to science to a very wide section of the public. The research proposed here has particularly strong lines of impact in the public understanding of science and uptake of science and engineering education:
1. The search for and study of exoplanets has the potential to change quite radically the way we think of our place in the Universe, and it may do so in the next very few years.
2. Our Citizen Science projects, GalaxyZoo, MoonZoo and Planet Hunters, allow members of the public to participate in scientific research, learn how interpretations of data lead to real scientific discoveries and increase their interest and engagement with astronomy. The projects already have more than 480,000 registered users.
3. Research into planetary surfaces and atmospheres has clear parallels with the understanding and measurement of Earth's atmosphere, from instruments for remote sensing to atmospheric modelling and planetary science. This in turn has societal impact through wider understanding, monitoring and knowledge of our own climate. Outreach opportunities in this field will soon be enhanced by our IR remote sensing instrument for TechDemoSat.
4. High-tech instrumentation in both planetary missions and experimental cosmology has a fascination of its own, and through our own telescope in Oxford we can help make links from simple observations to the science and technology of research techniques.
5. Increased synergies between groups within this consolidated proposal that will benefit education and outreach, such as the opportunity to link thermal rock abundance data from the Diviner instrument to the rock and boulder counts from MoonZoo, while maintaining routes for engaging schools and the general public.

There are also a number of areas where our research will have impact in industry, including
6. benefits from our involvement in space missions to companies building hardware for use in space and in other demanding environments, including satellites and space exploration, ranging from conceptual advances to flight testing and heritage.
7. instrumentation developed through our research that may have great benefit in other sectors (e.g. microwave antennae, optics, cryogenics, interferometry), often through its high sensitivity, constraints of cost, size or weight and techniques for advanced manufacture and testing.
8. challenges in fusion energy, particularly electron energy transport in inertial confinement fusion, that share underlying physics with that of cosmic rays and plasmas and so benefit from the advances in hybrid codes developed to gain insight into the high energy universe.
9. advances in data processing capabilities,from citizen science to GPUs and supercomputing, that are driven by the requirements of our science but can be applied to industrial and societal problems.
10. synergies between radio astronomy and commercial satellite communications, typified by our involvement with the redevelopment of the former BT ground station at Goonhilly.
11. Insights from the application of climate modelling codes to planetary atmospheres that can be exchanged with the Met Office.

Our expertise and facilities enable companies with little or no space experience to expand into the space sector, from tenders for ESA contracts to commercial satellite hardware. The general instrument design, test and qualification work of the AOPP sub-department provides a route to space flight component qualification and operational flight heritage. Our instrument for TechDemoSat1, hoped to be the first of several such programmes, illustrates a new path for developments from research to be adopted rapidly by industry. Companies engaging with the future Satellite Applications Catapult Centre, for example, are expected to be able to draw on this insight and expertise and to benefit from our future advances.

Publications

10 25 50

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Addison G (2013) Constraining thermal dust emission in distant galaxies with number counts and angular power spectra in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Ade PA (2015) Joint analysis of BICEP2/keck array and Planck Data. in Physical review letters

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Afrin Badhan Mahmuda (2017) Probing the Physics and Chemistry in Hot Jupiter Exoclimes for Future Missions in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #229

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Afrin Badhan Mahmuda (2016) Deciphering the Hot Giant Atmospheres Orbiting Nearby Extrasolar Systems with JWST in AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #48

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Afrin Badhan Mahmuda (2016) Combining VPL tools with NEMESIS to Probe Hot Jupiter Exoclimes for JWST in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #228

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Aigrain S (2017) Robust, open-source removal of systematics in Kepler data in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

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Aigrain S (2015) Precise time series photometry for the Kepler-2.0 mission in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

 
Description The results have been used in Outreach.
Sector Education
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description Planetary Science at Oxford Physics 2019
Amount £1,261,196 (GBP)
Funding ID ST/S000461/1 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 03/2022
 
Title Mesoscale reanalysis downscaling 
Description A suite of numerical atmospheric models and data assimilation tools that enables a high resolution (5 km) limited-area mesoscale numerical model to be embedded within a global assimilated analysis of the Martian atmospheric circulation. The assimilation combines spacecraft observations of the Martian atmosphere with a global numerical simulation to produce a global analysis of the atmospheric state at moderate resolution (60 km). This time-varying state is then used to provide dynamic boundary conditions to the region being simulated at high resolution by the mesoscale model. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This method is currently being trialed within the current PhD project to obtain analyses of the meteorology in the vicinity of Gale Crater for comparison with observations that have been obtained from NASA's Curiosity Rover. Preliminary results compare well with the Curiosity observations and provide unprecedented detail of the meteorological context of Curiosity measurements. 
 
Title NEMESIS 
Description NEMESIS (Non-linear optimal Estimator for MultivariatE Spectral analysIS) is a general purpose radiative transfer and retrieval tool that has been developed to model the infrared spectra of planets in our solar system and around other stars, and also invert such measured spectra to determine the properties of these atmospheres. The FORTRAN code has been distributed to a number of collaborators in the USA and continental Europe and is widely seen as a benchmark against which other models are tested. The code is updated continually as new approaches are developed and by being completely general in its setup, improvements made to model, say, the spectrum of Neptune can then be used to model the spectra of any other planet. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2008 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact NEMESIS has been at the root of the bulk of my group's research output over the last decade. It also gives us unique access to data from several other groups in the world, who need to collaborate with us to interpret their data. 
URL http://users.ox.ac.uk/~atmp0035/nemesis.html
 
Description Cassini CIRS team 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Goddard Space Flight Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Analysis and interpretation of observations and measurements of the atmospheres of Saturn and jupiter from the Cassini Orbiter. Also model simulations of atmospheric dynamics for comparison with measurements. Previously we provided contributions to the hardware of the instrument (cooler and focal plane assembly). Also, contributions to mission logistics and planning.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of the instrument (mainly by GSFC), engineering logistics and calibration, and data analysis and interpretation (by both French and US teams).
Impact Many publications in the open literature. Also outreach and publicity events.
 
Description Cassini CIRS team 
Organisation Observatory of Paris
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis and interpretation of observations and measurements of the atmospheres of Saturn and jupiter from the Cassini Orbiter. Also model simulations of atmospheric dynamics for comparison with measurements. Previously we provided contributions to the hardware of the instrument (cooler and focal plane assembly). Also, contributions to mission logistics and planning.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of the instrument (mainly by GSFC), engineering logistics and calibration, and data analysis and interpretation (by both French and US teams).
Impact Many publications in the open literature. Also outreach and publicity events.
 
Description Exoplanet Atmospheric Retrievals 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of NEMESIS radiative transfer and retrieval tool. Act as consultant to retrieval analyses. Co-authorship on analysis of observations.
Collaborator Contribution Partners have access to high quality data and deal with their reduction and calibration.
Impact Several papers have already been published (as listed in the publications) and more are in the pipeline.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Exoplanet Atmospheric Retrievals 
Organisation University of Warwick
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of NEMESIS radiative transfer and retrieval tool. Act as consultant to retrieval analyses. Co-authorship on analysis of observations.
Collaborator Contribution Partners have access to high quality data and deal with their reduction and calibration.
Impact Several papers have already been published (as listed in the publications) and more are in the pipeline.
Start Year 2016
 
Description ISSI Exoplanet team 
Organisation International Space Science Institute (ISSI)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a study team to investigate the use of modelling tools to evaluate the habitability conditions on extra-solar planets. My team is contributing simplified global circulation model simulations for comparison with other team members' models.
Collaborator Contribution The MPI team is contributing 1D energy balance model results for comparison with other models. The team also includes around 12 other scientists from across Europe who are all providing model input or expertise for their interpretation.
Impact None yet, though research publications will be prepared in due course.
Start Year 2011
 
Description ISSI Exoplanet team 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a study team to investigate the use of modelling tools to evaluate the habitability conditions on extra-solar planets. My team is contributing simplified global circulation model simulations for comparison with other team members' models.
Collaborator Contribution The MPI team is contributing 1D energy balance model results for comparison with other models. The team also includes around 12 other scientists from across Europe who are all providing model input or expertise for their interpretation.
Impact None yet, though research publications will be prepared in due course.
Start Year 2011
 
Description ISSI team on Zonal jets 
Organisation International Space Science Institute (ISSI)
Country Switzerland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am co-chair of a study team at ISSI, Bern, on the dynamics of zonal jets in planetary atmospheres and magnetized plasmas. This team is tasked to review the subject area and ongoing research, and to prepare a monograph for publication. I am co-editor of this monograph and will also co-author two of the chapters.
Collaborator Contribution ISSI is hosting the team and providing financial support to participants for their accommodation. They also provide logistical support for the production of publications. My co-editor is from USF and is also contributing a chapter to the book. There are then around 20 other scientists from around the world who form the study team and will co-author various parts of the book.
Impact None yet, but the book is in preparation.
Start Year 2011
 
Description ISSI team on Zonal jets 
Organisation University of South Florida
Department College of Marine Science
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am co-chair of a study team at ISSI, Bern, on the dynamics of zonal jets in planetary atmospheres and magnetized plasmas. This team is tasked to review the subject area and ongoing research, and to prepare a monograph for publication. I am co-editor of this monograph and will also co-author two of the chapters.
Collaborator Contribution ISSI is hosting the team and providing financial support to participants for their accommodation. They also provide logistical support for the production of publications. My co-editor is from USF and is also contributing a chapter to the book. There are then around 20 other scientists from around the world who form the study team and will co-author various parts of the book.
Impact None yet, but the book is in preparation.
Start Year 2011
 
Description James Webb Space Telescope - European Space Agency Instrument Science Team for Near Infrared Spectrograph 
Organisation ESA - ESTEC
Country Netherlands 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am one of 7 members of the European Space Agency Instrument Science Team for Near Infrared Spectrograph on the James Webb Space Telescope. We have overseen the design and construction, and have been allocated 900 hours of Guaranteed Time Observations after launch in 2018. We plan a survey to chart galaxy evolution over much of cosmic time.
Collaborator Contribution The other appointed members of the Instrument Science Team are Hans-Walter Rix (MPIA Heidelberg), Roberto Maiolino (Cambridge), Santiago Arribas (Madrid), Stephane Charlot (IAP Paris), Marijn Franx (Leiden) and Pierre Ferruit (ESA-ESTAC and instrument scientist). We are all collaborating on a large survey on high redshift galaxies for the guaranteed time observations.
Impact The guaranteed time observations will commence after launch in 2018.
 
Description MRO/MCS team 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Assimilation of Mars Climate Sounder measurements of the Martian atmosphere. Corresponding model simulations of Martian atmospheric circulation and studies of Martian dust transport. Analysis and interpretation of data. Earlier, the Oxford team provided some hardware input to the instrument and design.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of main instrument. Basic analysis of raw data and initial retrievals of geophysical parameters. Data analysis and interpretation. Also, some parallel efforts on data assimilation.
Impact Mostly papers in the open literature on new science results for Mars. Also, some outreach and publicity based on Mars measurements and modelling.
 
Description Mars Climate Database 
Organisation Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Studies of Martian dust storms and transport, and their representation in the European Mars Global Circulation Model that is used within the collaborative partnership. E.g. see Mulholland DP, Read PL, Lewis SR (2013), Simulating the interannual variability of major dust storms on Mars using variable lifting thresholds, Icarus, 223(1):344-358
Collaborator Contribution Our French colleagues lead the collaboration, which is jointly funded by ESA and the French Space Agency. They develop and maintain the main web interface for the database and model codes. They develop much of the model codes, though with contributions from the other partners, run the main model simulations and compile the climate database, using codes developed sometime ago by the UK teams in Oxford and Open University. The Spanish team provide expertise and codes representing the upper atmosphere of Mars (above 100km altitude).
Impact Production of a web-based database of Martian climate statistics, including data access and visualisation tools, for use by scientists and mission design engineers. The database is also provided on request as a standalone facility (on DVD) for serious professional users. Records indicate that there have been 94 requests for professional copies of the current database since 2008, or whom 46 were from national space agencies or industrial contractors for use in engineering design studies, the remainder being for scientific research.
 
Description Mars Climate Database 
Organisation Open University
Department School of Physical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Studies of Martian dust storms and transport, and their representation in the European Mars Global Circulation Model that is used within the collaborative partnership. E.g. see Mulholland DP, Read PL, Lewis SR (2013), Simulating the interannual variability of major dust storms on Mars using variable lifting thresholds, Icarus, 223(1):344-358
Collaborator Contribution Our French colleagues lead the collaboration, which is jointly funded by ESA and the French Space Agency. They develop and maintain the main web interface for the database and model codes. They develop much of the model codes, though with contributions from the other partners, run the main model simulations and compile the climate database, using codes developed sometime ago by the UK teams in Oxford and Open University. The Spanish team provide expertise and codes representing the upper atmosphere of Mars (above 100km altitude).
Impact Production of a web-based database of Martian climate statistics, including data access and visualisation tools, for use by scientists and mission design engineers. The database is also provided on request as a standalone facility (on DVD) for serious professional users. Records indicate that there have been 94 requests for professional copies of the current database since 2008, or whom 46 were from national space agencies or industrial contractors for use in engineering design studies, the remainder being for scientific research.
 
Description Mars Climate Database 
Organisation Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
Department Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Studies of Martian dust storms and transport, and their representation in the European Mars Global Circulation Model that is used within the collaborative partnership. E.g. see Mulholland DP, Read PL, Lewis SR (2013), Simulating the interannual variability of major dust storms on Mars using variable lifting thresholds, Icarus, 223(1):344-358
Collaborator Contribution Our French colleagues lead the collaboration, which is jointly funded by ESA and the French Space Agency. They develop and maintain the main web interface for the database and model codes. They develop much of the model codes, though with contributions from the other partners, run the main model simulations and compile the climate database, using codes developed sometime ago by the UK teams in Oxford and Open University. The Spanish team provide expertise and codes representing the upper atmosphere of Mars (above 100km altitude).
Impact Production of a web-based database of Martian climate statistics, including data access and visualisation tools, for use by scientists and mission design engineers. The database is also provided on request as a standalone facility (on DVD) for serious professional users. Records indicate that there have been 94 requests for professional copies of the current database since 2008, or whom 46 were from national space agencies or industrial contractors for use in engineering design studies, the remainder being for scientific research.
 
Description NASA Goddard Radiative Transfer 
Organisation National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Department Goddard Space Flight Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have provided the NEMESIS radiative transfer and retrieval tool to several collaborators at NASA Goddard and have co-authored numerous papers on Gas Giant and Titan atmospheric studies using Cassini/CIRS and ground-based observations.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators have provide continued data reduction and calibration services and also telescope data.
Impact Numerous papers. Also building contacts with GSFC to work on future spacecraft missions.
 
Description The WFC3 Spectroscopic Parallel (WISP) Survey 
Organisation University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
Department Physics and Astronomy
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Oxford is responsible for studying the star formation rates of these galaxies from their H-alpha line luminosities, and for constructing the line luminosity function at redshifts around one.
Collaborator Contribution The WISP collaboration, based at UCLA and also the Spitzer Science Center (in Caltech) and with collaborators elsewhere in the USA and Germany, is responsible for reducing the Hubble Space Telescope slitless grism spectroscopy to search for emission line objects at high redshift. Most of this reduction and cataloging occurs in Los Angeles.
Impact One refereed paper on the initial work - Atek et al. (2010) - and several more in preparation. Various presentations by the team at American Astronomical Society meetings.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Thermal Mapper for Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment, ESA 
Organisation CEPSAR Research Centre for Physical and Environmental Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Oxford provided the instrument concept and elements of the science case.
Collaborator Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Partners provided elements of the science case.
Impact Proposal in response to ESA call for experiment ideas.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Thermal Mapper for Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment, ESA 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Department Space Science and Technology Department
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Oxford provided the instrument concept and elements of the science case.
Collaborator Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Partners provided elements of the science case.
Impact Proposal in response to ESA call for experiment ideas.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Thermal Mapper for Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment, ESA 
Organisation University College London
Department Department of Physics & Astronomy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Oxford provided the instrument concept and elements of the science case.
Collaborator Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Partners provided elements of the science case.
Impact Proposal in response to ESA call for experiment ideas.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Thermal Mapper for Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment, ESA 
Organisation University College London
Department Department of Space and Climate Physics (MSSL)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Oxford provided the instrument concept and elements of the science case.
Collaborator Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Partners provided elements of the science case.
Impact Proposal in response to ESA call for experiment ideas.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Thermal Mapper for Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment, ESA 
Organisation University of Hawaii
Department Hawaii Space Flight Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Oxford provided the instrument concept and elements of the science case.
Collaborator Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Partners provided elements of the science case.
Impact Proposal in response to ESA call for experiment ideas.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Thermal Mapper for Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment, ESA 
Organisation University of Kent
Department School of Physical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Oxford provided the instrument concept and elements of the science case.
Collaborator Contribution Submission in response to ESA call for experiment ideas for the AIDA asteroid deflection test experiment. Partners provided elements of the science case.
Impact Proposal in response to ESA call for experiment ideas.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Uranus and Neptune Line by line modelling 
Organisation Observatory of Paris
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration with partners at the Paris Observatory to use new line data to model near-infrared spectra of Uranus and Neptune. Our role was to use our Nemesis tool to model Gemini/NIFS and VLT/CRIRES spectra using new line data supplied by our partners.
Collaborator Contribution Supply of line data, supply of high resolution VLT/CRIRES data and contributory knowledge of ice giants.
Impact One paper on Uranus published in 2012. New paper on Neptune published in 2014.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Atmospheres exhibition MHS 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Workshop Facilitator
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public exhibition opened in November 2012 and continues until April 2013. This is the main topical exhibition hosted by the Museum of the History of Science at present.

VIsited by members of the public - increasing awareness of research in atmospheric and planetary science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description BBC World News Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview on BBC World News on 'Water on Mars' (salt deposits on Recurrent Slope Linae, detected by MRO/CRISM).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Chasing Comets 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a talk, organised by "Science Oxford" on the ESA Rosetta Mission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Herschel Society (Bath) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a talk on Uranus and Neptune to members of the Herschel Society.

Talk was well received and I had lots of questions after.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Northamptionshire Natural History Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact About 30 people from Northamptonshire attend a talk I gave on "The dynamic atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune", which sparked lively questions and discussion afterwards.

The organisers thanked me for a stimulating talk and we talked about future presentations I might make to the society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.nnhs.info/
 
Description Oxford Alumni Weekend 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Gave a talk at Oxford University's Alumni weekend on "Several papers have already been published (as listed in the publications) and more are in the pipeline", talking about planetary and exoplanetary research at Oxford University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Participation in Rosetta exhibit for Royal Society Summer Exhibition 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Part of consortium that displayed the exhibit "A Comet Revealed", which described the ESA Rosetta mission and the UK's contribution to it.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Pythagorus' Trousers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact An interview was recorded on the purpose and results from NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars to study its atmosphere. The edited interview was broadcast and then released online as a podcast on the Cardiff University Pythagorus Trousers website.

Too early to tell as this has only just gone public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://blogs.cardiff.ac.uk/physicsoutreach/2014/11/05/pythagorean-astronomy-maven-to-mars/
 
Description School visit (Cheltenham College) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact At least 50 pupils in year groups from 4th form to lower 6th attended a talk on "Ice ages on Mars". The talk generated a lot of interest and lively questions from the audience, a number of which expressed an interest in pursuing courses in Physics and Mathematics at undergraduate level.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description School visit (Stowe) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Around 20 6th form students attended a talk on climate change on Mars and the Earth.

Lively questions and discussion following the talk. Questionnaire left with teacher to provide feedback from the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Sky at Night appearance (2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview and lab demonstration of fluid dynamical processes relevant to Jupiter's weather and atmosphere, with presenter Dr Helen Czerski. Broadcast on BBC4's The Sky at Night in February 2014.

Clip is now a permanent link on the BBC Sky at Night website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Stratford upon Avon Astronomical Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk on the climate and circulation of Solar System and extra-solar planets. Talk sparked a lot of questions and animated discussion.

An increase in general interest in how the climate system works - including on Earth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk to Astronomical Society (Farnham) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk given to Farnham Astronomical Society, attended by at least 50 people with very diverse backgrounds and interests, on the climate of extra-solar planets. Much lively discussion and questions ensued and several people reported how this had changed their views and understanding of planetary climate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk to astronomical society (Swindon) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk on the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, to inform and engage members of the public about recent research. Around 40 people attended a meeting of the Swindon Stargazers, which sparked many questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk to day centre (Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk given to an elderly persons' day centre in Oxford on an introduction to the Solar System, attended by approximately 15 people plus carers, which sparked some lively discussion and many questions. 2 members of the audience requested further information at the end.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Took part in the 'Space Zone' of I'm an Engineer get me out of here! Online schools interaction project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation Keynote/Invited Speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talked to at least 4 different schools and classes, answered numerous online questions via online forum. Event lasted two weeks.

Only just completed activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://imanengineer.org.uk
 
Description Weymouth Astronomical Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk on modeling the climate and circulation of Solar System and extra-solar planets. Talk stimulated a lot of interest and discussion among a number of the participants.

A number of people were clearly engaged and seemed interested to learn more about atmospheric science and climate - including the Earth's climate system.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014