Selection for antibiotic resistance in complex microbial communities

Lead Research Organisation: University of Exeter
Department Name: University of Exeter Medical School

Abstract

It is becoming increasingly clear that the natural environment plays an important role in the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This studentship will determine the mechanistic basis and significance of gene flow that underlies the abundance of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria inhabiting polluted natural environments such as downstream of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). It is unclear whether increased prevalence of antibiotic resistant organisms associated with WWTPs is due to constant emissions of resistant organisms or whether bacteria such as multi-drug resistant E. coli persist and/or acquire resistance genes by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in aquatic sediments under selection by environmental pollutants including antibiotic residues. This project will study selection for resistance in complex communities utilising mesocosm studies interrogated using culture and culture independent methods. The latter will include real-time PCR for enumeration of key marker genes and next generation sequencing (NGS) to determine the effects of single antibiotics, mixtures of different classes of antibiotic and field samples of polluted effluents on relative abundance of all known resistance genes. This knowledge will be used to support environmental policy development and environmental risk management.

Studentship Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Student Name
BB/N504026/1 01/10/2015 30/09/2019
1641426 Studentship BB/N504026/1 01/10/2015 30/09/2019 Isobel Stanton
 
Description Measureable concentrations of antibiotics are released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Environmental risk assessment investigates the risks these concentrations pose to aquatic life but does not determine whether selection for resistance is occurring. Recent studies suggest environmental concentrations of tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime may be able to select for resistance in complex microbial communities.
The aims of research were to determine whether selection for resistance occurs at environmentally relevant concentrations of macrolide antibiotics; to understand how mixtures of antibiotics affect selective endpoints; to understand the effect of temperature on selective endpoints, and, finally, to compare the methods used with previously published methods.
Selective endpoints of macrolide antibiotics were found to be 750 µg/L for azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromcyin which is significantly higher than current environmental concentrations.
Mixing of antibiotics produces at least an additive, if not a synergistic, effect. The selective endpoints of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim decrease over 11 times and by a half, respectively, when used in combination. The selective endpoint of macrolides is reduced by a third when they are found in combination.
Selective endpoints of individual genes are affected by temperature but, as only preliminary data has been produced, overall effect concentrations have not been determined across the entire experimental resistome. Alternative gene targets associated with taxa favoured at low temperatures may be under selection.
Finally, the phenomenon of increased persistence has been described and the minimal increased persistence concentration has been defined for the first time.
Exploitation Route Data can be used by policy makers in environmental risk assessments, in conjunction with other ecotoxicological endpoints to determine safe release levels of antibiotic residues in wastewater. This will help minimise selection for antibiotic resistance in the environment and, therefore, exposure of humans to resistant bacteria through environmental transmission. Unpublished data (the selective endpoints of the macrolide antibiotics and the mixing effect observed when combining trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) was shared with the European Environment Agency's Joint Research Council for consideration when developing the next Water Framework Directive's priority watch list. This has resulted in two antibiotics that was not previously on the list being put forward for inclusion on the watch list based on data shared.
Sectors Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description Unpublished data was shared with the European Environment Agency's Joint Research Council for consideration when developing the next Water Framework Directive's priority watch list. This has resulted in two antibiotics that was not previously on the list being put forward for inclusion on the watch list based on data shared. Two antibiotics have now been included and three removed. https://circabc.europa.eu/faces/jsp/extension/wai/navigation/container.jsp
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Environment
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description ? Invited to meeting in South America (Argentina or Uruguay in June 2018) to advise the Interagency Coordination Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (IACG) co-chaired by the UN Deputy Secretary-General and the Director General of the World Health Organization.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Co-authored a box in Chief Medical Officers annual report
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/chief-medical-officer-annual-report-2017-health-impacts-o...
 
Description EEA forwarded unpublsihed research (submitted) to JRC. As a result they have shortlisted trimethoprim for inclusion on the hazardous compound watch list.
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact The EU Joint Research Centre is considering adding additional antibiotics to the Water Framework Directive's hazardous compound watch list based on our UKRI funded research
 
Description Informed the European Commission Water Framework Directive's Hazardous substances list
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Stanton 2020, Murray 2020 and Stanton (unpublished) was shared with the European Environment Agency before publication to help inform the next iteration of the watch list. This resulted in the macrolide antibiotics being removed, and trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole being added.
URL https://circabc.europa.eu/faces/jsp/extension/wai/navigation/container.jsp
 
Description Informing decision making around the WFD watch list of antibiotics
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Research has influenced decision making on inclusion of antibiotics on the WFD hazardous compound watch list
 
Description Invited by Lee Slater (Senior Policy Advisor on AMR in the environment at Defra) to sit on a panel of academic experts in a series of workshops between the US, UK, China and India on antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic pollution in the environment. It's being co-ordinated by the UK Science and Innovation Network and the USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Invited to speak to Defra Antimicrobial Resistance Coordination (DARC) Group Autumn 2017 on AMR in the environment.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Talk to Defra and veterinary medicines directorate about antibiotics in the environment
 
Description Invited to speak to Defra Hazardous Substances Advisory committee about AMR in the environment
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Presentation to All Party Parliamentary Group meeting
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Presentation to All Party Parliamentary Group meeting on Antibiotics in the Environment
URL https://appg-on-antibiotics.com/assets/Report-APPGMeeting2020-16122020.pdf
 
Description Report for United Nations Env Programme
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Report was published alongside UNEA commitment to tackle AMR form an environment and human health perspective
 
Description Second consultative meeting in preparation of the report on the environment and health impacts of pesticides and fertilizers (UNEP, WHO, FAO).
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Strategies for Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance - Future challenges for UK policy
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Three papers cited in the Download the JPIAMR Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda on Antimicrobial Resistance 2019
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.jpiamr.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/JPIAMR_SRIA_final.pdf
 
Description UNEP Frontiers 2017 report only one of two cited papers/reports on AMR and the environment in Interagency Coordination Group on AMR Final report presented to the UN Secretary general
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact This is arguably the most important document on AMR produced by the WHO/FAO/OIE and scientific experts in recent years as it will shape the global response to AMR by the UN/WHO.
URL https://www.who.int/antimicrobial-resistance/interagency-coordination-group/en/
 
Description Mapping the evidence for the risks of human exposure and transmission of AMR in the natural environment
Amount £80,590 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/S015965/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 09/2019
 
Description Microbiology Society Annual Conference Grant
Amount £300 (GBP)
Organisation Microbiology Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 04/2017
 
Description Microbiology Society Travel Grant
Amount £254 (GBP)
Organisation Microbiology Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 10/2018
 
Description The environmental dimension of antimicrobial resistance: informing policy, regulation and practice.
Amount £72,525 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/S006257/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2020
 
Description Towards Developing an International Environmental AMR Surveilance Strategy
Amount £44,356 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/S037713/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2019
 
Description Travel Grant
Amount £150 (GBP)
Organisation British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 12/2018
 
Description Water Research Institute, National Research Council (IRSA-CNR) 
Organisation National Research Council
Country Italy 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We hosted one PhD student from the Water Research Institute, National Research Council (IRSA-CNR) on a summer placement project in 2016 and Isobel Stanton trained her in qPCR analysis. She was able to run analyse a number of samples using qPCR to investigate antibiotic resistance gene prevalence during her time here from her current work. After her summer placement project, samples were sent to us from the Water Research Institute, National Research Council (IRSA-CNR) and Isobel Stanton undertook qPCR analysis on these investigating antibiotic resistance gene prevalence. Two publications that resulted from this,
Collaborator Contribution The Water Research Institute, National Research Council (IRSA-CNR) undertook the chemistry and microbiology work for, and wrote the drafts of, the two publications.
Impact Two publications have resulted from this collaboration: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.120769 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2019.103999 This collaboration was multi-disciplinary involving work in chemical analysis, microbiology and molecular biology.
Start Year 2017
 
Description "Behind the paper" blog post - Nature Microbiology Community 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Blog written on request from Nature Microbiology Community by Isobel Stanton, Aimee Murray and William Gaze to summarise key findings of Stanton 2020 Communications Biology: "Do antibiotics excreted by humans and animals drive evolution of resistance in the environment?"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://naturemicrobiologycommunity.nature.com/posts/do-antibiotics-excreted-by-humans-and-animals-d...
 
Description ? Attended a Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance (JPIAMR) workshop in Gothenburg 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Attended a Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance (JPIAMR) workshop in Gothenburg in September 2017 to explore and identify critical research needs that relate to the environmental dimensions of AMR, both in the longer term for providing input to an updated JPIAMR Strategic Research Agenda, but also in the shorter term to provide guidance for specific calls.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.jpiamr.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Report-_JPIAMR-workshop-on-Environmental-dimensions...
 
Description ? Gaze WH. The environmental aspects of antibiotic resistance. Learned Societies AMR meeting. June 25th, 2015 London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Antimicrobial resistance: environments,evolution and transmission Networking workshops for researchers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.responsibleantibioticuse.org/#xl_xr_page_index
 
Description ? Invited by MRC to work with Viadynamics to develop an AMR framework to map out research challenges and ways in which we are addressing those challenges. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Advise RCUK policy on research priorities on AMR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ? Invited to EA meeting on AMR in waste water to plan EA programme of investigation. March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Help inform water industry AMR research programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ? NERC Planet Earth article "Have we opened the floodgates on antimicrobial resistance?" Winter 2016/17. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact ?Article for Planet earth detailing role of flooding and climate change on environmental transmission of Amr
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Al Khaleej Today online article for Murray et al 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Al Khaleej Today online article following University of Exeter press release for Murray et al 2020 (Environmental Health Perspectives)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://alkhaleejtoday.co/international/5154624/Scientists-are-paving-the-way-for-reducing-antibioti...
 
Description BSAC conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Annual workshop for the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Poster presentation. Discussion with other delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BSAC conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Annual workshop for the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Poster presentation. Discussion with other delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Blog for British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy blog post: "Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in our waters - are we up a creek without a paddle?" Written by Aimee Murray, William Gaze, Isobel Stanton and Anne Leonard. Based on Stanton et al 2020, Murray et al 2020 and Leonard et al 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://bsac.org.uk/antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-our-waters-are-we-up-a-creek-without-a-p...
 
Description Daily Mail Online article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Daily Mail Online article written following press release from University of Exeter Medical School
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8696367/Antiobiotics-waterways-puts-millions-danger-increas...
 
Description EDAR conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact International conference for the Environmental Dimension of Antibiotic Resistance. Poster presentation. Discussion with other delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Guest lecturer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Following press release from University of Exeter for Stanton et al 2020 (Communications Biology), Isobel Stanton was asked to give guest lectures at the University of Cambridge's Certificate of Infectious disease course as part of their Institute of Continuing Education.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021
 
Description HCWH webinar with myself and Dame Sally Davies, I hr to journalists and other specialists eg. WHO. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Webinar with myself and Dame Sally Davies answering questions from policy makers and media around AMR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description ISME conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Poster presentation at ISME 17 conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description ISME16 - Montreal 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact International conference for the International Society of Microbial Ecology. Poster presentation. Discussion with other delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for BBC Radio 4 Costing the Earth. Swimming in Superbugs episode. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for BBC Radio 4 Costing the Earth: Swimming in Superbugs episode.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m000mr6r
 
Description Interview on Times Radio as a results of Stanton 2020, Communications Biology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Times Radio interview with Carole Walker - late night headlines (3rd September 2020. 10:20pm). University of Exeter press office version: https://mms.tveyes.com/PlaybackPortal.aspx?SavedEditID=082d859a-1be9-4c9d-88da-878724bebb6c
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited to speak at Bolivian conference on AMR attended by the minister of health. Santa Cruz, June 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact I had previously been invited to travel to Bolivia and speak to the AMR Action plan committee hosted by the British Embassy in La Paz, this was a follow up presentation to a similar group including the Minister of Health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Keynote speaker at the Environmental Dimension of Antibiotic Resistance conference in Hong Kong in June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an international conference attended by academics and representatives from Wellcome, WHO and UNEP. I presented the theoretical framework which underpins this project grant and it was well received with both Wellcome and WHO requesting a copy of my presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Live24 online article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Live24 news article following press release from University of Exeter for Stanton et al 2020 (Communications Biology)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://live24.ru/nauka/34292-uchenye-zajavili-chto-vysokij-uroven-antibiotikov-v-rekah-podvergaet-o...
 
Description MSN online article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact MSN online article following press release from University of Exeter for Stanton et al 2020 (Communications Biology)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.msn.com/en-gb/health/medical/antibiotics-in-rivers-risks-lives-new-study-reveals/ar-BB18...
 
Description Microbiology Society Annual Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Annual conference for the Microbiology Society. Poster presentation. Discussion with other delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description NERC KE Fellowship working with EA, Defra, Water and pharmaceutical industries 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This is in its early stages but it has already resulted in a JPIAMR (MRC) funded network on environmental AMR surveillance which has resulted in engagement with gov stakeholders and national / international partners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Noticiasdelaciencia.com online article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Online article noticiasdelaciencia.com following press release from University of Exeter about Stanton et al 2020 (Communications Biology).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://noticiasdelaciencia.com/art/39458/antibioticos-en-las-cloacas-la-amenaza-oculta-de-la-resist...
 
Description Outreach Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Teaching Antibiotic Resistance in the Context of One Health at schools within Cornwall
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Phys.org online article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Online article as a response to University of Exeter press release for Stanton et al 2020 (Communications Biology)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://phys.org/news/2020-09-safe-thresholds-antibiotics-sewage-combat.html
 
Description Phys.org online article based on Murray 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Phys.org online article following University of Exeter press release for Murray et al 2020 (Environmental Health Perspectives)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://phys.org/news/2020-10-scientists-pave-antibiotic-resistance-build-up.html
 
Description Presentation at the Environmental Dimension of AMR meeting in Hong Kong 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation from EDAR5 (basis for UK:Argentina grant detailing conceptual framework for Environmental AMR) requested by Tim Jinks (Head of Infection at Wellcome) and David Sutherland (WHO Technical Officer One Health Tripartite Coordination Group for Asia and the Pacific). "I'd be very grateful if you could send your presentation. It will be treated in confidence but will help with my briefing to WHO and FAO (duly acknowledged) and modifications to my risk framework".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Press release for Murray et al 2020 (Environmental Health Perspectives) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release from University of Exeter for Murray et al 2020 (Environmental Health Perspectives)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.exeter.ac.uk/research/news/articles/scientistspavewaytoreduci.html
 
Description Press release for Stanton et al 2020 (Communications Biology) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release for Stanton 2020 (Communications Biology) was released by the University of Exeter Medical School. This resulted in media interviews undertaken and news paper articles written about the publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://medicine.exeter.ac.uk/news/articles/safethresholdsforantibiot.html
 
Description Public Outreach Event - Eden Project. BSAC & Public Health England 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Attended Eden Project to engage both children and parents visiting during half term on the issues of antimicrobial resistance and spread of disease. Children were involved in activities to show the importance of hand washing, the spread of germs when sneezing and basic demonstrations of how antibiotic resistance begins and spreads. Parents were spoken to about antimicrobial resistance and sparked discussions about not using them for viral infections/colds/flu etc and the importance of vaccines. Parents were also encouraged to sign up to become Antibiotic Guardians (Public Health England's Scheme).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://antibioticguardian.com/keep-antibiotics-working/
 
Description SETAC conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact International conference for the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Poster presentation. Discussion with other delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SETAC conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact International conference for the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Flash talk and Poster presentation. Discussion with other delegates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description STEAC conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Oral presentation give to between 100-200 delegates at the SETAC Rome conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Speaking at House of Commons UKRI AMR research strategy refresh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Speaking at House of Commons UKRI AMR research strategy refresh focusing on existing UKRI funded work in the area of AMR and the environment
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Times online article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Times print article alongside Radio Interview as a result of the University of Exeter press release for Stanton et al 2020 (Communications Biology)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/medical-waste-in-rivers-raises-threat-of-antibiotic-resistance-f3...
 
Description XENOWAC II Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Oral presentation given at XENOWAC II conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018