Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) - Plasma Studies and Materials Synthesis

Lead Research Organisation: Sheffield Hallam University
Department Name: Faculty of Arts Computing Eng and Sci


To be effective, many modern technologies need component parts with very special surface properties. The parts of an F1 engine must be very resistant to wear, medical implants must not corrode inside the human body, and even everyday objects like the surface finish of glasses-frames and mobile phones must be able to survive the knocks and scratches of day-to-day life. Industry very often gets these desirable properties by taking an everyday material such steel and protecting it with a highly specialised surface coating . Our research aims to improve our understanding of an exciting new technology for producing coatings.The new method is called HIPIMS (which stands for High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering) and is a very recent addition to a family of plasma techniques, in which the coating is produced by bombarding the surface you want to coat with carefully prepared atoms and ions. HIPIMS was first discovered in 1995, and recent work in our group and elsewhere has already shown that it produces an excellent plasma, with a combination of ion properties which should produce hard wearing, corrosion resistant coatings. We have also made some early trials of the coatings themselves, and they do indeed turn out to be very promising.Because it is so new, there are a number of key features of HIPIMS we don't yet understand. HIPIMS works by making a series of short, very high-power pulses. We know that the plasma achieves unusual conditions during the pulse, but the details are not yet worked out. Similarly, the way the plasma changes during the pulse is not yet clear. Answering these questions would be of interest to scientists who study plasmas, and would help technologists to learn how to apply HIPIMS to create new, better coatings.In the research we will measure properties of HIPIMS plasmas to understand how the composition of the plasma changes with time. We will do this by carefully analysing the electrical properties of the plasma and studying the spectrum of the light it emits. We will feed the data into models of how HIPIMS operates and work to develop a theory which explains the pulse behaviour. We will also make coatings using HIPIMS and measure their properties (for example how hard they are) and examine them under electron microscopes to help our understanding of how the properties relate to the microscopic structure produced by the HIPIMS plasma. This understanding should help industrialists to develop HIPIMS processes which can generate new, better coatings. In a few years our car engines, hip-replacements and mobile phones may all be reliant on components developed using HIPIMS!


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Burcalova K (2008) Ion energy distributions and efficiency of sputtering process in HIPIMS system in Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics

Description Developed fundamental understanding of a new process for deposition of coatings called High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering. Understand how plasma is formed in conditions of magnetic confinement and extremely high electrical power. Understand which plasma species are most important for the formation of coatings. Understand how to improve coating performance and microstructure using HIPIMS.
Exploitation Route The findings may be used by companies to develop products with better performance such as longer lifetime for automotive car parts and hip joints, better efficiency of photovoltaic cells, improved performance of semiconductor devices.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Agriculture, Food and Drink,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Energy,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

Description The findings have been used by a number of companies. They have been used to develop new systems for coating deposition, new products for the consumer market and new systems for process control
First Year Of Impact 2008
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport
Impact Types Economic

Description High Efficiency CuInSe2 Photovoltaic Modules Deposited at Low Temperature by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS)
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/J011398/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2012 
End 06/2015
Organisation Hauzer Techno-Coating B.V.
Country Netherlands 
Sector Private 
Start Year 2006
Description IonBond Netherlands BV 
Organisation IonBond Netherlands B.V.
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
Start Year 2006
Description Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 
Organisation Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Country United States 
Sector Public 
Start Year 2006
Description Uni of Illinois at Urbana Champaign 
Organisation University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
Start Year 2006
Title HIPIMS with low magnetic field strength 
Description Technology to enhance deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma discharges. 
IP Reference GB2437730 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Yes
Impact Novel approach to the design of high power impulse magnetron sputtering systems, in particular cathodes, for improved efficiency.
Title Multiple Licence Agreements 
Description The project has helped to sell three new licenses of previous patent. One license exploitation agreement signed. Cooperation Agreement with Doshisha University, Japan Cooperation Agreement with Fraunhofer Institute IST-Braunschweig, Germany. 
IP Reference EP1260603 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Yes
Impact It has influenced the way system manufacturers design high power impulse magnetron sputtering machines. It has helped to produce industrial scale commercial grade production-capable systems and achieve sales in the 10s of units / year.
Title RF-plasma glow discharge sputtering 
Description A novel physical vapour deposition source for ionised deposition of magnetic and non-magnetic metals and ceramics. 
IP Reference GB2469666 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed No
Impact The initiation of a new plasma source for the deposition of magnetic materials. Enabling innovation in other fields such as the manufacturing of photovoltaics.
Title Thin film coating of blades 
Description Technology for coating of sharp blades by high power impulse magnetron sputtering. 
IP Reference US7966909 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2007
Licensed Yes
Impact Innovative technology for coating deposition on blades.
Title Vacuum treatment apparatus with additional voltage supply 
Description A new design for power supply to bias the substrates in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge. 
IP Reference GB2437080 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed Yes
Impact Influenced design of power generators for biasing substrates in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering environment. Enabled business protection for two companies and sales of several units. Enabled commercial exploitation of HIPIMS in the field of hard and functional coatings.