Impedance Control on Uncertain Objects

Lead Research Organisation: King's College London
Department Name: Engineering

Abstract

Robots have been able to serve the original promise to replace human counterparts in laborious, hazardous, and repetitive tasks mainly in the area of position control that includes tasks such as pick and place of components, arc welding, grinding known objects, and even in bipedal walking on fairly smooth and known grounds. However, robots still find it hard to carry out stable force control tasks on uncertain objects or walk on natural soft terrains (grass, sand, mud). Just like the difference between the way we use the left hand and the right hand can not be explained using their biomechanical basis alone, the answer to robotic survival in uncertain environments does not come from an attempt to build robots that resemble human bodies alone. From early 1980s, scientists have begun to believe that the secrets of stable interactions with natural compliant environments will come from an ability of the robot itself to be compliant. The original work of Neville Hogan on impedance control was based on this concept. Since then, a considerable body of literature can be found on how impedance control is applied in various force control applications such as rehabilitation, massaging, bipedal walking, exoskeletal robotics, and several other direct interactions with humans. However, still there is no answer to how impedance control should be adaptively managed to sustain stability when the coupled dynamics between the robot and the environment evolves metastable dynamics. The theory of Metastability states that an uncertain dynamics system can exhibit intermittent instability though it may stay stable most of the time. A human using a screw driver is one example, where the dynamic contact with the screw may stay stable most of the time, but exhibit intermittent slipping due to uncertainty in the friction between the screw and the surrounding medium. Even a human walker can fall down in rare situations due to the same phenomenon. However, an uncertain dynamic system can enhance stability if it can predict where it is likely to fail. A number of recent advances in metastable systems use the concept of mean first passage time (MFPT) as an indicator to assess the current control policy in an uncertain environment. MFPT is the expected time to the next failure situation given the current knowledge of the uncertain dynamics of the coupled dynamics of the robot and the environment.Therefore, this project aims at developing a unifying theory of impedance control for robots that are in dynamic contact with uncertain environments. The generic method that can start to perform stable hybrid position/force control on an uncertain environment with partially known dynamics and recursively build a robust internal model to perform stable position/force control on an environment that changed its stiffness, viscosity, and inertia. Then an algorithm will be developed to use a locally linearised model of the above coupled dynamic system to estimate the MFPT of the robot and the environment. This MFPT will then be used in a novel real-time algorithm to adapt a bank of candidate impedance parameter sets and adaptively choose the best parameter set to suit the environment in order to maximise the MFPT. Rigorous theoretical proofs of stability and experimental validation of methods will be given. The project will use a custom built experimental platform to evaluate and refine the fundamental theories and algorithms that will be developed in this project. The PI will closely collaborate with Shadow Robotics Company, a UK based SME who develops biomimetic robotic hands, and the robotics group led by Professor Darwin Caldwell at the Italian Institute of Technology, where the researchers strive to enable the humanoid robot i-Cub to interact with natural uncertain environments. Therefore, this project will benefit from a wealth of experiences the collaborators have already gathered on real robots interacting with natural environments.

Planned Impact

Industrial Impact: The proposed real-time adaptation of internal impedance to suit the external uncertain environment will have a broad impact on humanoid robotics in general, because stable interaction with uncertain environments is a major bottleneck in this area. The PI will closely collaborate with Shadow Robotics, a UK based SME specializing in Dextrous Hands that offer the possibility of constructing a robot with the same manipulation abilities as a human, which could be operated remotely to perform a task deftly and safely. Their customers include NASA, Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute, Hughes Research, and a range of top university research groups across the Globe. This has led to work with ESA, CERN and CDE. As mentioned in the letter of support, Shadow Robotics group believes that a fundamental breakthrough in adaptive real-time impedance control on an uncertain object will significantly improve their competitiveness. Therefore, the proposed work will be carried out with regular communications with the team at Shadow Robotics in order to serve the most crucial technical and implementation needs in the industry. Academic impact on robotic manipulation and locomotion: The advancements in the area of adaptive impedance control to manage metastable dynamics arising out of dynamic interaction between a robot and an uncertain environment will open up new research opportunities in both manipulation and locomotion. Moreover, it will give useful insights to conduct research in the area of human motor learning. Professor Darwin Caldwell's robotics group at Italian Institute of Technology was chosen as the academic collaborator because his group is playing a pivotal role in a number of European humanoid robotics project like the C-Cub project in addition to several other EU funded research projects. The PI's close interaction with his group in the recent past has lead to a common agreement that a focused effort to develop a unified theory on adaptive tuning of internal impedance of robots will help to make a significant advance in direct robotic interaction with natural environments. Regular skype meetings with his group will be continued in order to exchange academic ideas. We will make a joint effort to maximise impact by organising seminars and workshops in international conferences. Social impact: Through periodic participation of workshops with mixed audiences such as the meetings of the Strategic Promotion of Ageing Research Capacity (SPARC), human adaptive mechatronics (HAM), and those organised by the Welcome Trust, we will establish a dialogue with potential broad beneficiaries of robots that will directly interact with humans. We will learn from them and try to extend our methods for stable robotic interaction with uncertain environments to suit their broad safety needs. Student population: We will develop a separate set of simple experiments for undergraduate students to internalize the fundamentals of robotic interaction with uncertain environments, impedance control, and adaptive learning. The PDRA will be given broad training to develop such experiments and to develop text to support students. This will be a strong addition to his/her CV when it comes to applying for academic positions at the end of the contract. Open access for UK students in general: At the end of the project, we will plan to open the experimental set up for registered UK students (free of charge) to remotely log in and conduct experiments on adaptive impedance control on the promise that the published results will be freely made available on the internet. This effort is to stimulate a wider interest in robotics and to provide a free platform to test initial ideas before applying for grants.
 
Description Findings were presented in the following publications:



Thrishantha Nanayakkara, Katie Byl, Hongbin Liu, Xiaojin Song, & Tim Villabona, "Dominant Sources of Variability in Passive Walking", IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 1003-1010, 2012



1. By conducting numerical modeling and experimental evidence for the first time, this paper presents the possible sources of variability in the dynamics of legged locomotion, even in its most idealized form.

2. Here, we show that the dominant source of steady state variability of passive dynamic walking is due to nonlinear interaction between the distribution of the coefficient of friction and restitution with the collision dynamics, and not simply due to geometric variations more typically modelled in terrain.

3. Our results suggest that stochastic ground collision models should play an important role in the analysis and optimization of dynamic performance and stability in robot walking.



Fabio Bianchi, Giulia Bartoli, Kya Shoar, Maria R. Armas Fernandez, Valerio Pereno, Jelizaveta Zirjakova, Allen Jiang and Thrishantha Nanayakkara, "Adaptive Internal Impedance Control for Stable Walking on Uncertain Visco-elastic Terrains", pp. 2465 - 2470, 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems October 7-12, 2012, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal.



1. Analysis shows that the computational challenges of robust walking on uncertain visco-elastic terrains can be reduced by investigating different combinations of internal and external impedances.

2. Given the impedance of a terrain, memory primitives of steady state variability of states of locomotion (contact force distribution and distribution of angular speed at each foot collision) can be used to choose an internal impedance of the walker in order to passively migrate to a desired steady state variability, without any control.



Allen Jiang, George Xynogalas, Prokar Dasgupta, Kaspar Althoefer, and Thrishantha Nanayakkara, "Design of a variable stiffness flexible manipulator with composite granular jamming and membrane coupling," pp. 2922 - 2927, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2012), Vilamoura, Portugal, 2012.



1. Effect of granule shape for granular jamming: Cubes work better than spheres in terms of hysteresis and variability of stiffening and relaxation cycles.

2. Effect of granule size for granular jamming: Smaller is better in terms of hysteresis and variability of stiffening and relaxation cycles.

3. Effect of granule stiffness for granular jamming: Stiffer granules provide higher rigidity when jammed, but softer granules provide better hysteresis and variability across stiffening and relaxation cycles.

4. Properties can be combined to create composite granules, such as stiff cubes with a soft outer layer. This composite granule improved hysteresis over purely stiff granules and improved rigidity over purely soft granules.

5. Coupling the membrane to the granules can improve hysteresis as well.



Allen Jiang, Joao Bimbo, Simon Goulder, Hongbin Liu, Xiojin Song, and Thrishantha Nanayakkara, "Adaptive grip control on an uncertain object", pp. 1161 - 1166, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2012), Vilamoura, Portugal, 2012.



1. A statistical controller that uses a real-time estimate of probability of grip failure on an uncertain object can maintain stable grip on a randomly pulsating object without prior knowledge of its properties.

2. A safety factor can be implemented into the controller to provide a general bias to close the grip than relaxing the grip.

3. Developed a simulated model for the controller and its interaction with uncertain objects.
Exploitation Route Social contributions:



Dr. Thrishantha Nanayakkara was interviewed on Sky News on 19th March 2013: http://www.thrish.org/2013/thrish-interviewed-by-sky-news-2013-03-19/485



Co-authored a Blog post with Prof. Maria Fox on "the rise of the robosapiens" in the WorkFoundation Blog: http://www.theworkfoundation.com/Media/Press-Release-Detail?oItemId=1209 Findings were presented in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) 2012, and IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2012).



In addition, invited talks were given at the knowledge transfer network seminar of Aerospace, Aviation, and Defence network on bridging the autonomous divide on May 31st 2011 - title: "Legged locomotion on soft terrains"



IEEE Spectrum magazine featured the work under robotics news on Inflatable Limb Robot Runs Around on Wiggly Legs, October issue, 2012
URL http://www.thrish.org/projects/uncertain-environments
 
Description The findings of this project are now being extended to a field robot to be deployed in hillside farmlands in Ecuador. The Ecuadorian Government awarded a scholarship to a PhD student to come to my laboratory to develop a robot with compliant hooves inspired by the goat's ability to climb cliffs.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description Closed door defense seminar organized by the King's College London War Studies Department in collaboration with DSTL
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Workshop on 'public engagement for technologies on humanitarian demining' in partnership with King's College London Policy Institute
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description STIFF-FLOP
Amount £7,600,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 287728 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2012 
End 12/2015
 
Description STIFF-FLOP
Amount £7,600,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 287728 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2012 
End 12/2015
 
Description Collaboration with the Italian Institute of Technology 
Organisation Italian Institute of Technology (Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia IIT)
Country Italy 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution It lead to the development of a robotic legged walker with soft continumm legs. The outcome was published: Godage, Isuru S., Thrishantha Nanayakkara, and Darwin G. Caldwell. "Locomotion with continuum limbs." Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on. IEEE, 2012.
Start Year 2010
 
Description A hands on testing session with General Practitioners 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In this workshop, General Practitioners examined our soft robotic patient that could present illness conditions like liver abnormalities, and they experienced how the new wrist-mounted haptic feedback system can be used to feel the forces experienced by a remote robotic soft probe examining a soft tissue. A unique feature in this remote examination was that the doctors could control the stiffness of the remote robotic probe by turning a handle. They reported that the stiffness control of the remote soft robotic probe makes a difference in the way they feel a nodule in the remote soft tissue. Moreover, they gave valuable feedback to improve the soft robotic patient and the remote haptic feedback system.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://twitter.com/thrishlab/status/966815438838665216
 
Description Askimo TV interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Askimo TV hosted four interviews on four themes on robotics.

The notable impact is free information for a broad audience of students and science enthusiasts to learn some key information about robots in human societies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.askimo.com/VideoIndex/View/3708
 
Description BBC 3 Radio interview on "Free Thinking" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This BBC 3 radio panel discussion was on how humans use their hands, how it has made us different from other living beings, how we perceive the world, and the evolution of our own intelligence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07gnj18
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Bottom Line panel discussion on robots 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Are white collar workers under threat from the new robotic workforce? Manufacturing companies have been replacing production line workers with robots for years, but as the technology becomes more advanced, they are being increasingly used in healthcare, law firms and HR departments. So is the white collar worker under threat? Evan Davis talks to three guests, a roboticist, an Artificial Intelligence consultancy worker and the CEO of a hotel chain who is already using robots in his business.

GUESTS

Thrishantha Nanayakkara - Roboticist, Imperial College

Dr. Michael Chui - Partner, IT and innovation, McKinsey Global Institute

Hubert Viriot - CEO, Yotel.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08v8p14?ns_mchannel=social&
 
Description Chelthenham science festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact More than 100 students visited our stall to interact with our robotic artefacts and to have a dialog with our PhD students.

The notable impact is the ability to encourage school children to do science, and the ability to get them engaged in a discussion on robots and their future role in the society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.kcl.ac.uk/newsevents/news/newsrecords/2013/05-May/Kings-experts-head-to-the-Cheltenham-Sc...
 
Description Children from East London Science School visit our robotics labs 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact About 30 children from East London Science School visited the laboratory to see how PhD students conduct experiments, how we make simple robotic devices to test scientific questions, and to engage in a discussion with us.

We asked two simple questions from the students, and following were the answers:

Did this visit make any change in the way you view science and research? If so, can you write a couple of lines about it?

Olivia: "This trip has changed the way I view science as I saw how with new technology we can build amazing robots out of very small materials".

Maya: "It made me think about how much can be made from very little and how robotics can help people, for example for medical uses".

Genevieve: "Yes, because I thought research was just about chemicals and biology".

Bernice: "Yes it did because science can also be creative as well but I thought it was just about researching and medicine, but the trip showed me it's much more than that".

Do you think it is worth doing robotics research like what we do at King's? If yes/no, can you mention your thoughts?

Shazu: "Yes, I would like to research robotics because we will use it in the future".

Afrina: "Of course, it is definitely worth doing robotics research because you can find out information which you probably didn't know. At King's College we saw a robot which you had to programme and it did what you told it to do".

Bernice: "Yes I think it is worth doing robotics research because we will be using robotics for lots more things in the next generation".

Callum: "Yes, it would be so cool to be able to build robots like those we were shown. I loved the trip and I liked looking at all the robots. 5-stars!"

Anonymous: "We can use robots to do some of the human jobs in the near future".

Maliha: "Yes because that's how we get ideas to invent things and learn new things even about our everyday life, things that we don't already know".

Shabbir: "Yes because at King's College you can replicate body parts for people who have lost parts of their body".

Tyreese: "Yes because it's important to know more about robotics and technology and how they work".

Maya: "Yes because it's amazing to show how much you can do with robots".

Anonymous: "Yes because it's amazing to see what we can do with technology".

Robert: "It might help us with research in computer science".

Genevieve: "I worry that the research is really difficult and very expensive".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://thrish.org/2014/children-from-east-london-science-school-visit-our-robotics-labs/1294
 
Description Creative Quarter 2017 at Imperial College South Kensington campus 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Creative Quarter is a day of free events in South Kensington offering thousands of students between the ages of 13 and 19 the chance to explore work in the creative and STEM industries and careers. At Imperial students could find inspiration through interactive exhibits, demonstration lectures and a series of smaller career insight sessions where they get to meet some of the scientists working at Imperial and hear what it is like to be a science professional.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://thrish.org/2017/thrishlab-at-imperial-creative-quarter-2017/2513
 
Description Financial Times documentary on "My colleague the robot" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This interview done for Financial Times was based on how soft robots could change the workplaces in the next decade. The documentary covered several other interviews with industry and experts. The reach was international.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.ft.com/content/7d7115d8-3f42-3dd6-a734-9c1b953d359d?ft_site=next
 
Description Free robotics workshop series for Newham Collegiate of Sixth Form, East London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The aim of this workshop series done in my laboratory is to give hands on experience to school children to use programming and building robots to learn Physics and Mathematics. As a follow-up, teachers were advised how to use robotic to teach maths and physics by setting up a robotics club in the school. Undergraduate students who take my module - Introduction to Robotics - and PhD students volunteered to teach in these workshops giving them a valuable opportunity to teach while learning. This is an on-going effort.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://thrish.org/2015/robotics-workshop-series-for-newham-sixth-form-collegiate/1814
 
Description Imperial festival 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact What started as a modest pilot project in 2012 to explore how Imperial College London might share its research with more people in new ways has now evolved into the College's flagship public event. In 2017 more than 20,000 public and alumni visitors descended on Imperial's South Kensington campus to enjoy the interactive stands, workshops, tours, talks and performances on offer.

Some lovely reviews from our friends in the media support our belief that the Festival has grown into a great weekend of fun and learning for all the family - with time Timeout London describing it as an "an equation for a good time", the Guardian saying it was "a fascinating event" and the Londonist observing that "whoever programmed this glorious beast must have used hyper-dimensional graph paper".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://thrish.org/2017/our-exhibits-in-the-imperial-robotics-festival-2017/2344
 
Description Interviewed by Sky News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was interviewed by Sky News live at 6.30pm on autonomous robots. This gave us an opportunity to share some thoughts originating from our work at KCL, with a broad international audience.

The most notable impact was stimulating a discussion on autonomy of robots.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://thrish.org/2013/thrish-interviewed-by-sky-news-2013-03-19/485
 
Description Interviewed on Canada Global News TV on the topic - "European politicians debate whether to give robots rights" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This interview was done on the backdrop of a EU parliamentary debate on regulating the robotics industry. The evening news item also interviewed an industrial partner.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://globalnews.ca/video/3178483/european-politicians-debate-whether-to-give-robots-rights
 
Description Invited talk at Sheffield Hallam University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In this invited talk, I could highlight some of the important questions addressed in the MOTION project and some recent findings in the role of morphological computation in stable interactions with the environment.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited talk at State of Flux soft robotics workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this workshop titled "State of Flux" held within the UK Robotics week, I could communicate the importance of the recent findings in my laboratory in the area of soft robotics for soft tissue palpation to a broad audience of students, academics, and robotics enthusiasts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwdlU_IK6is
 
Description Keynote speech in an international conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This keynote speech was based on my current work in the MOTION project and the background research leading upto it. The audience was a diverse group of medical practitioner and engineers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.pdn.ac.lk/ipurse/2016/guest-speeches.php
 
Description Makespace public science meetup in Cambridge organized by the British Science Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This public debate about robotics done with several other panelists helped me to learn about general public concerns and expectations about future robots and the progression of the field of robotics in general and to communicate what plans we have to bring soft robotic companions to empower humans in households, agriculture, medicine, and factories.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.meetup.com/Makespace/events/229126641/
 
Description Plenary Keynote speech at IEEE PIMRC-2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact IEEE PIMRC is said to be the largest IEEE mobile communications conference sponsored by top communications companies. Their purpose of inviting me was to know more about how living beings survive in uncertain environments that require fast responses with a central nervous system (CNS) known to have very slow communication fibres (a signal from fingertip to brain takes about 120msec). Most rapid responses cannot be explained using such slow communication pathways.

My talk using robotic experimental evidence on the role of fast bodily computers (morphological computers) that work in conjunction with the CNS helped to challenge the conventional notion that the slow CNS is entirely responsible for intelligent behavior. This aligned well with the latest trends in 5G communication where field experts argue that some new decentralized solutions are required to go beyond the current bottlenecks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://pimrc2017.ieee-pimrc.org/program/keynotes/
 
Description Public panel discussion in the London Underground Film Club before screening Blade Runner 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was in the panel together with Amon Twyman, the leader of the UK Transhumanist Party, and Nicky Ashwell, the first UK user of one of the most advanced bionic hands, before screening "The blade runner" at the London Underground Film club.

The film hall was full, and Victoria Turk the editor of "Motherboard" interviewed us.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://motherboard.vice.com/read/london-come-watch-blade-runner-with-us-humans-and-replicants-welcom...
 
Description Public talk on "Legged locomotion on soft terrains" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience
Results and Impact This was given on May 31st 2011, in the knowledge transfer network seminar organized by Aerospace, Aviation, and Defence network titled "bridging the autonomous divide".

In this public engagement workshop under the theme "bridging the autonomous divide", I could highlight the importance of new design approaches to field robots that may be used in defense and disaster response operations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Qualified for the 2013 DARPA grand challenge on humanoid robotics in disaster response (track-C) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The KCL team led by me became the only UK based team to qualify for the DARPA grand challenge in track-C and came within the top 25 teams in the World to enter the qualification round.

The notable impact is Global visibility for UK robotics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://thrish.org/2013/kcl-qualifies-for-the-darpa-robotics-challenge/600
 
Description Talk in the Centre for Robotics research seminar series to general public 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This talk was given to a general audience and a recorded talk was uploaded to youtube. The talk mainly focused on recent findings in my lab on the role of the body to simplify certain computational problems to do with manual palpation of soft tissue.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pnl7YyV3GIE
 
Description keynote speech at East London Science School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This keynote speech at East London Science School was an interactive event with school children on robots, the value of science and maths education, and future opportunities in this area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://thrish.org/2016/we-visited-east-london-science-school/1919