Multilingualism and Multiliteracy: Raising learning outcomes in challenging contexts in primary schools across India

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Modern & Medieval Languages

Abstract

This innovative project examines the causes of low educational outcomes in schools in India where many children fail to achieve basic literacy and numeracy levels, while dropout rates, affecting girls more than boys, are very high. A starting point of this research is that bilingualism and multilingualism have revealed cognitive advantages and good learning skills in children raised in western societies. Multilingualism is the norm in India. However, rather than enjoying cognitive and learning advantages, multilingual Indian children show low levels of basic learning skills including critical thinking and problem-solving. This project is innovative in seeking to disentangle the causes of this paradox.
The project builds on Tsimpli's large scale (600K) EU-funded THALES bilingualism project which assessed cognitive and language abilities of 700+ children in five different countries, expanding this project into numeracy, critical thinking and problem solving in multilingual children which are key elements in the Indian context. The PI and co-Is have been preparing this application for the last two years in conjunction with the current project partners and consultants in India with 20k. funding from the British Council and 3k funding from the Centre for Literacy and Multilingualism at the University of Reading. The PI was invited to take part in a Roundtable discussion on Multilingual Education at the British Council in September 2014 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JXMhAzgcdzM).The applicants discussed key questions from charities and schools and obtained advice from a range of educational and linguistics experts in Delhi and Hyderabad and visited different schools in both cities in 2014-15.
The key question this project seeks to address is to explore how the complex dynamics of social, economic and geographical contexts affect the delivery of quality multilingual education in India. The growth of literacy and numeracy in children is constrained by complex interactions between elements of the education system, the context in which they are embedded, and the dynamics operating within that system. By conducting research among children living in urban slums in Delhi and Hyderabad as well as in remote rural areas of Bihar where food deprivation, low sanitation, poverty and migration make school attendance and education hard to maintain, the project focuses on structural and language inequalities affecting educational quality in India. Language inequalities arise because a large number of children in India are deprived of receiving mother-tongue support, being instructed only in the regional language and English, often from teachers with poor teaching qualifications and practices or limited knowledge of the language of instruction too. Teaching practices in India are teacher- and textbook-centred with detrimental effects on the development of critical thinking and problem solving abilities. These skills are fundamental in every learning process including numeracy and the understanding of mathematics. The method of this study is highly innovative in a number of ways. A combination of several tasks and questionnaires will address the role of several factors on learning outcomes. Each child's language, literacy and numeracy skills will be evaluated at two time points with a one year interval between them. This design is known to provide reliable findings on the development of learning rather than only on knowledge itself allowing future interventions to build on these findings to ensure improved outcomes. This study will provide policymakers and practitioners with concrete ideas on how to improve learning outcomes in the multilingual education context of India. It will offer a crucial understanding of how these ideas will translate to their specific contexts and institutions in India across regions and states. At the same time, the project will also inform UK stakeholders about educating bilingual children in the UK.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research and how will they benefit?

Five groups of beneficiaries have been identified in India and the UK .

First of all, policy makers at local, regional and national level will benefit in that they will receive the necessary evidence they need to understand the interaction between challenging circumstances and structural inequalities related to gender, geographical area, gender or socio-economic status, the language of instruction in school, and children's cognitive and metacognitive skills, and how these different factors impact on learning outcomes in literacy and maths. The results of the project will form the basis for formulating and implementing new educational policies based on an in-depth understanding of the contexts in which children in rural and urban slums learn.

Second, NGOs such as Digantar (http://www.digantar.org/), and as well as textbook developers in India such as the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT, http://www.ncert.nic.in/index.html) in India will benefit from the insights provided by the project in that they will be better equipped to develop the teaching materials children in different contexts need in order to obtain higher levels in literacy and maths. The Communication Trust (https://www.thecommunicationtrust.org.uk/) and charities such as Reading Quest (http://www.readingquest.org.uk/), will benefit from the insights obtained in India because there are over a million children with English as an additional language in the UK who study through the medium of English. The current project will provide crucial evidence regarding the best ways to support multilingual children in schools in the UK. The organisation Bilingualism Matters (http://www.bilingualism-matters.org.uk/) will benefit in that it will receive the research evidence regarding the impact of multilingualism and multiliteracy on language learning and children's cognitive and metacognitive skills, which it needs in order to be able to advise bilingual families and policy makers in the UK and abroad.

Third, teachers and teacher trainers will benefit from the research in that the project will provide key information about the role of critical thinking and problem solving skills in raising learning outcomes in literacy and maths to practitioners and those responsible for teacher training and Continued Professional Development of teachers. The British Council India (http://www.britishcouncil.in/) and the Delhi-based Language and Learning Foundation (http://www.languageandlearning.in/) will be very important beneficiaries because improving the quality of teachers and teacher training is a vital aspect of their work.

Fourth, the schools which take part in the study will benefit because they will obtain evidence regarding the effectiveness of their teaching methods for literacy and maths by comparison with those of other schools which have opted for different approaches.

Fifth, bilingual and multilingual families in rural and urban areas in India will benefit in that they will be able to use the results from the project to make informed choices about the most appropriate school type for their children, because the project will deliver evidence about the advantages of different types of education (English-medium or mothertongue-based education) in terms of learning outcomes, taking into account the different contextual factors mentioned above. Bilingual and multilingual families in the UK will benefit from insights obtained in this project because they too need information about the best ways to support language and literacy development of their children at home and in school. Insights from this project will also be crucial to families in the UK to make informed choices.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Following a discussion with the Delhi Minister of Education (Manish Sisodia) and his advisor Atishi Marlena there is active interest from the Delhi government to engage with the project's key findings which can inform multilingual practices in primary schools.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Education
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description GCRF GIAA
Amount £12,531 (GBP)
Funding ID RG99354 
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Title Child Language Questionnaire 
Description This tool has been created to understand primary school children's language usage, development and background in regions where bilingualism and multilingualism is the norm. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This is yet to be employed. 
URL https://universityofcambridgecloud-my.sharepoint.com/
 
Title Headteacher/Principal Questionnaire 
Description The questionnaire focuses on the principals of the participating schools in the States of Bihar, Hyderabad and New Delhi with a particular interest on language education, the three-language formula policy adopted by India and their own discourse towards English medium and mother-tongue education. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This will provide a further perspective in terms of language discourse set up by leaders, their attitude towards language education or tolerance to languages (other than the formal medium of instruction), and attainment outcomes with respect to literacy and numeracy. 
 
Title Teacher Questionnaire 
Description This teacher questionnaire is designed with a particular focus on teachers and their experience of language education and development in challenging contexts. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This will provide the teachers' perspective to language education, strategies and materials for teaching and learning, and the challenges faced in a multilingual/bilingual classroom 
 
Title Teacher/Classroom Observation Tool 
Description This is an observation checklist tool that focuses on the teaching practice, environment and languages used within the classroom. It also examines student response during the lessons. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The application of this tool will provide us an overview of the classroom environment, teaching practice, languages employed and in situ examination of teacher (and student) activity and teaching strategies. This will enhance our understanding of how to raise outcomes in children in challenging contexts. 
 
Description Co-Investigator, India 
Organisation English and Foreign Languages University
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed our expertise on research tasks involving language and cognition, the tools we created for the project and training of RAs which will take place in April 2017 as the first step of capacity building in preparation for data collection. We contributed the ethics information so that EFLU, and guided the direction of their participation and project.
Collaborator Contribution As this moment, the partner has helped organise meetings with the government in Bihar and New Delhi, obtaining approval for ethics and the project by the State government and hiring RAs.
Impact This collaboration is multidisciplinary as the co-investigator is from the Department of Materials Development and Evaluation, and works with English language education. At this stage, outputs include: Obtaining institutional ethical clearance and government approval for the project in Hyderabad, hiring 2 RAs and helping with the design of one task.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Co-Investigator, India 
Organisation Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed our expertise on research tasks involving language and cognition, the tools we created for the project and training of RAs which will take place in April 2017 as the first step of capacity building in preparation for data collection. We contributed the ethics information so that JNU can also apply for approval.
Collaborator Contribution JNU has offered their expertise on school sampling, RAs who will work on data collection and analyses, organisation of the venue and training sessions for the next meeting in April, and expertise on adaptations of tools and tasks into Hindi.
Impact This is a multidisciplinary collaboration as it merges psychology and multilingual education with linguistics. The outcomes from this early collaboration include: ethics and government approval in New Delhi, hiring of RAs, and some help with translation of tasks in Hindi.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Co-Investigator, India 
Organisation National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences
Country India 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution At this stage, we have overseen all project activities, and guided the direction of the project. We have widened their network by building connections. We contributed our expertise on research tasks involving language and cognition, shared the tools we created for the project. Training of RAs which will take place in April 2017 as the first step of capacity building in preparation for data collection. We contributed the ethics information so that NIMHANS can also apply for approval.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators have ascertained the suitability and adaptation of cognitive tasks, government and institutional consents for the project, development of the semantic fluency tasks we will be using and providing guidance with the letters drafted and tasks created.
Impact There are limited outcomes as yet the project is at its early stages. This is a multidisciplinary collaboration linking language to cognition and neuroscience. The collaboration has facilitated ethics approval, semantic fluency tasks and hiring of RAs alongside.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Co-Investigator, UK 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Department of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution At this early stage there is limited contribution towards this collaboration but we have overseen all project activities, shared our knowledge, ethical practice and approvals, and the network.
Collaborator Contribution The partner has shared their Maths Anxiety Scale tool (which will be translated in other indian languages), and input from a maths education and psychology perspective.
Impact This is a multidisciplinary collaboration as it brings psychology, maths education and linguistics togethers. For the moment, the outcomes are limited to sharing the Maths Anxiety Tool and others.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Co-Investigator, UK 
Organisation University of Reading
Department Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our contribution to this collaboration has been multifold. The project has brought the partner University funding, broadened their multilingualism network, guided their projects timeline and direction, and created the space to apply their work beyond what is familiar.
Collaborator Contribution This collaboration has helped in developing the project and experimental tools; securing the relevant partners and co-investigators and shaping the project; impact activities; coordination of ethical approval in the UK.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in wide-ranging outcomes and include, developing the project, securing partners and co-investigators in India and the UK, creating some of the project tasks, establishing the members for the Impact Board, and critical feedback on all procedures, tasks and process of development.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Partner, India 
Organisation Language and Learning Foundation
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have invited them to participate in the Impact Board of the project and as partners.
Collaborator Contribution The director Dr Dhir Jhingran is a consultant with expertise on education, literacy and numeracy issues in schools in India
Impact The project is still in the early stages of development, and data collection is expected to begin in the summer of 2017 but this collaboration has commenced with Impact Board activities.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Partners, India 
Organisation British Council
Department British Council in India
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have contributed to this partnership by providing expertise on mother-tongue education, bilingualism/multilingualism and cognitive abilities. Further contributed by participating in the Roundtable discussion on Multilingual Education organised by the British Council in September 2014.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have contributed with the project groundwork, engaging with government officials, securing meeting with the Ministers and sourcing Research Associates.
Impact This is a multidisciplinary partnership as it entails Multilingualism and English language education with linguistics. The current outcomes that have resulted from this partnership include widening of network; drafting letters for, and securing meetings with Ministers for project approval; locating RA's in Bihar and providing support with on-ground issues.
Start Year 2016
 
Description A Keynote Speech by Professor Theodoros Marinis (Co-investigator at Reading) at the Conference 2018, Australian Research Council on 27th July, Macquarie University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Theodoros Marinis gave a keynote speech at the CCD Conference "Current Issues in Child Bilingual Development", organised by the Australian Research Council at Macquarie University. He presented some preliminary findings and sparked discussion afterwards how more than half of children around the world grow up in bilingual environments, including some English-speaking countries, such as Australia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.ccd.edu.au/events/conferences/2018/bilingualdevelopment/index.php
 
Description A presentation by Dr. Lina Mukhopadhyay (Indian Co-investigator) at the South Asia Panel in the Language and Development Conference on 27-29 November 2017 at Dakar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Over 250 participants including international policy makers, development professionals, members of the NGO and private sectors, arts and creative sector representatives, researchers, and all those with a perspective on the role of language in society attended the conference. The Language and Development Conference was hosted in association with seven strategic partners, including Senegal's Ministry of Higher Education, Research, and Innovation; their Ministry of National Education; CODESRIA; the International Organisation of La Francophonie; SIL International; SOAS University London; and UNESCO. Dr Lina Mukhopadhyay (co-Investigator from EFL-U, Hyderabad, India) introduced the project so as to raise awareness across India as well as internationally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.britishcouncil.com.sn/en/programmes/language-development-conference-2017
 
Description A presentation in the May meeting of the Irish Research Network in Childhood Bilingualism and Multilingualism, 3rd May 2018 at the Trinity Long Room Hub, Trinity College Dublin. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ianthi Tsimpli gave a presentation, "Multilingual children in underprivileged contexts: literacy, numeracy and cognition in primary school children in India" at the May meeting of the Irish Research Network in Childhood Bilingualism and Multilingualism. The Irish Research Network in Childhood Bilingualism and Multilingualism is a network of researchers from a wide range of disciplines, policy makers, teachers, early childhood educators, educational psychologists and speech and language therapists who have an interest in advancing knowledge and improving practices in the area of childhood bilingualism.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://childbilingualismresearch.com/may-2018-meeting/
 
Description An interactive presentation and discussion activity on the role of nutrition in cognitive and linguistic development - Kolkata 5/2/2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Ianthi Tsimpli presented the ESRC-DfID project as an ongoing research activity investigating cognitive and linguistic development in children schooled in challenging contexts. She linked this work with a current collaborative impact activity with NNEdPro, the University of Cambridge and the Remedy Clinic Study Group. She introduced the project and sparked questions and discussion about the impact of nutrition on children's learning.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://mediaindia.eu/social-vibes/teaching-kitchens-to-accelerate-nutrition-education/
 
Description Benefits and challenges of Multilingual Education in India - A panel discussion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This event was part of the research roundtable on multilingual education that was held on 18 and 19 September in Delhi. Chaired by Dr Debanjan Chakrabarti of the British Council in India, the panel featured Dr Dhir Jhingran (Unicef India), Prof Ianthi Tsimpli (University of Cambridge), Dr Rukmini Banerji (Pratham - ASER Centre), Prof Paul Gunashekar (EFL University, Hyderabad). The panellists addressed various aspects of multilingual education in India and elsewhere, with critical contributions from Prof Ajit Mohanty and Dr Mahendra Mishra (ICICI Foundation). British Council is facilitating the formation of a research consortium of interested parties from India and the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JXMhAzgcdzM
 
Description CCLS (Cologne Center of Language Sciences) Lecture Series, University of Cologne, 5 November 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Tsimpli gave a presentation, "Literacy, numeracy and cognition in primary school children from underprivileged contexts in India: the role of multilingualism and medium of instruction: in CCLS lecture sereis. The CCLS especially supports students and junior researchers and assists all linguists in practical matters. The main aim of CCLS is to strengthen the interdisciplinarity within the linguistic field and to make room for the implementation of new methods and ideas, in academic teaching and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description First dissemination event: The languages of education in multilingual India: exploring effects on reading and mathematics, New Delhi, July 12-13 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 12 and 13 July 2018, British Council India, the University of Cambridge and the University of Reading hosted a two-day dissemination event as a key part of the MultiLila project. The two-day dissemination event featured plenary sessions (including a panel discussion) on Day 1, followed by a plenary session on Day 2 and three sets of parallel interactive sessions. A varied audience including policy makers, government officials, academics and teachers were invited to participate. Mr Manish Sisodia (Education Minister/Deputy Chief Minister Delhi) was invited to inaugurate the event. Unfortunately, at the last minute he was required to attend a crisis elsewhere in the city. Mr Sisodia deputed Ms Atishi Marlena, education advisor to the Delhi government, to represent his office. Press were invited to the inaugural event, with a press release distributed to the media by the British Council marketing team. An interaction between the press, Atishi Marlena (representing the Delhi government), Professor Ianthi Tsimpli (the project's Principal Investigator, University of Cambridge) and Alan Gemmell (Director British Council, India) was arranged immediately following the inaugural. A total of six publications attended to cover the event:
• Hindu Business Line
• Times of India
• IANS (newswire)
• Careers 360 magazine
• The Print
• UNI

A piece later appeared in November in The Indian Express, picking up on the themes from the project: https://indianexpress.com/article/education/english-medium-schools-may-not-benefit-indias-poorest-students-study-5463611/.

An opinion piece relating to the themes of the conference was submitted for consideration by news outlets, via the British Council's PR agency - Text 100. This was published on 2 December 2018 - http://www.businessworld.in/article/Language-Matters-In-Science-And-Maths-In-Primary-Schools/02-12-2018-164719/.

11 Facebook posts and 18 Twitter posts about the event were shared prior to and during the event using the British Council's @TeachEngIndia Twitter handle and Teach English in India Facebook page as the primary channels, with the hashtag #MultiLila.

All of the plenary sessions and the panel discussion were filmed and recordings are available via the British Council's YouTube channel (https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUwf3cy5FZziDV2SiwouIAfBO8OMMw4ij) and the MultiLila project page (https://www.mam.mml.cam.ac.uk/).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.mam.mml.cam.ac.uk/Con/Conjuly18/July2018
 
Description Impact Activity - India meeting with Co-Is, Consultants and Partners 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This meeting allowed for the formal structure of the project to be conceived, the areas of investigation, tools of inquiry and disparities were considered alongside building firm relationships.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Language@Leeds, 14/6/2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Ianthi Tsimpli was invited as Distinguished Speaker by Language@Leeds to give a talk on "Multilingualism and multiliteracy in primary school children in India: Linguistic and cognitive effects" at the University of Leeds. She introduced her project that seeks to understand how structural and language inequalities affect educational quality. Language inequalities arise because a large number of children in India are deprived of receiving mother-tongue support, being instructed only in the regional language and English, often from teachers with poor teaching qualifications and practices or limited knowledge of the language of instruction. Teaching practices in India are teacher- and textbook-centred with detrimental effects on the development of critical thinking and problem solving abilities. These skills are fundamental in every learning process including numeracy and the understanding of mathematics. Her talk also reported preliminary findings from 9- to 11-year-old children from unprivileged backgrounds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.latl.leeds.ac.uk/events/languageleeds-distinguished-speaker-2017-18-professor-ianthi-tsi...
 
Description Meeting with the Minister of Education at Patna, Bihar. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The meeting between our research team and the Minister of Education in Bihar, Dr Ashok Choudhary (and a representative from the British Council India, Joydeep Bordoloi) in April 2017 was to introduce our research project. This meeting was helpful to obtain approval so that we can carry out studies in Bihar. Also, during the meeting, we identified a potential project partner which might be helpful in our project at Bihar, the A.N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies http://www.ansiss.in/.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://blogs.reading.ac.uk/ioe-news-and-events/2017/05/25/researchers-from-cambridge-and-reading-vis...
 
Description Oxford Comparative and International Education Seminar Series - Raising Learning Outcomes in the Education Systems of Developing Countries 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The seminar series, organised by the ESRC-DFID Programme Research Lead brings together researchers from across the portfolio of research grants to present their questions, their thinking, and their learning. Seminars are given at 5 pm on Tuesdays in the Syndicate Room, St Antony's College. PI gave a talk on 6th March (Week 8) on the overall project aims and presented some preliminary data from Delhi on numeracy and Raven's. The talk was very well received. A representative from ESRC was also there and she was very complimentary and suggested that at some point (perhaps next year), PI should go talk to them for discussion on future research activity. Also, David Johnson (https://www.socsci.ox.ac.uk/news/raising-learning-outcomes-in-developing-countries) who organised the seminar series, made a proposal for a Special Issue in some Education journal where PI can present her assessment tools. He expressed interest in two thematic articles from us, one on literacy, narratives and cognitive tasks and the other on numeracy and cognitive tasks. We, as all other RLO teams, have been also invited to write a chapter on a book series on RLO in the volume on "challenging contexts".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.oxfordcie.org/seminarseries2018
 
Description Prague Workshop on Bilingualism, 24-25/9/2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Ianthi Tsimpli (Cambridge) gave a presentation "Literacy, numeracy and cognition in multilingual children from underprivileged contexts: a study of primary school children in India" at the Prague workshop held at the Charles University, Faculty of Arts, Jan Palach Square, Prague. The Prague workshop on bilingualism flags the start of a 3 year collaboration between the University of Cambridge and Charles University on the study of bilingualism.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ff.cuni.cz/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/prague-workshop-on-bilingualism.pdf
 
Description Professor Lina Mukhopadhyay (Indian Co-Investigator) gave a presentation in the Connect'M Conference 2018 at the University of Reading Malaysia on 16th-19th July 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Lina Mukhopadhyay gave a talk on "Creating translangauging: classrooms in EFL contexts" at the 2nd Connect`M International Conference, 16 - 19 July 2018. She explained the translanguaging and ESL classroom in India, gave examples from an MLE study in India, showed some example Tasks in Math & English and summed up: Pedagogical & Assessment benefits.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.reading.ac.uk/celm/news-events/16th-19th-july-2nd-international-connect-malaysia-connect...
 
Description SLEG seminar 22/10/2018 at Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Tsimpli presented some preliminary findings of the project in the seminar. She illustrated the norm of multilingualism in India. However, learning outcomes for many school children appear low and hard to improve. Focusing on the comparison between children from urban slums with those from urban non-slum areas also from poor families, she explained the effects of medium of instruction on literacy, numeracy and cognitive skills in primary school children in India. Results from 400 children in Standard IV living in Delhi revealed that children educated in Hindi-medium schools performed better than those in Hindi/English or English-medium schools in some of the tasks. Some unexpected differences in task performance were also found in children from slum areas. Results were discussed in relation to linguistic and social factors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://talks.cam.ac.uk/talk/index/112582
 
Description School Visits- Hyderabad and New Delhi 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The PI and the Co-Is visited schools in Hyderabad and Delhi that were low socio-economic strata government schools, and some private schools. This was helpful not only in getting accustomed to the pedagogical practice and structures in India but also to establish firm networks. This has also resulted in our choice of areas for schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016